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[Giordano Bruno]. Lull Ramòn (1232-1316)

Opusculum Raymundinum De auditu Kabbalistico siue ad omnes scientias introductorium... Paris, Gilles Gorbin, 1578. (bound with:) Idem. Ars brevis illuminatis Doctoris Magistri Raymundi Lull. Quae est ad omnes scientias pauco & breui tempore assequendas introductorium & breuis via... Paris, Gilles Gorbin, 1578. (bound with:) Bruno, Giordano (1548-1600). Philoteus Iordanus Brunus Nolanus De compendiosa architectura, & complementi artis Lullij. Ad illustriss. D.D. Ioannem Morum pro serenissima Venetorum R.p. apud Christianissimum Gallorum & Polonorum regem, legatum Paris, Gilles Gorbin, 1582

€ 41.000
Bruno e il 'revival' del Lullismo nel Rinascimento
[Giordano Bruno]. Lull Ramòn (1232-1316). Opusculum Raymundinum De auditu Kabbalistico siue ad omnes scientias introductorium... Paris, Gilles Gorbin, 1578. (bound with:) Idem. Ars brevis illuminatis Doctoris Magistri Raymundi Lull. Quae est ad omnes scientias pauco & breui tempore assequendas introductorium & breuis via... Paris, Gilles Gorbin, 1578. (bound with:) Bruno, Giordano (1548-1600). Philoteus Iordanus Brunus Nolanus De compendiosa architectura, & complementi artis Lullij. Ad illustriss. D.D. Ioannem Morum pro serenissima Venetorum R.p. apud Christianissimum Gallorum & Polonorum regem, legatum. Paris, Gilles Gorbin, 1582

Tre opere in un volume, 16° (mm 113x69). I. Segnatura: A-K8 . 82 [ma 80] carte. Carattere romano e corsivo. Marca tipografica incisa su legno al frontespizio. Sei tavole fuori testo, inclusa una tavola ripiegata (TABVLA GENERALIS), e una con volvella tra le carte B4 e B5. Il margine esterno di una delle tavole rifilato. Diagrammi silografici nel testo. Testatina e iniziali decorate. II. Segnatura: A-F8. [48] carte. Carattere romano e corsivo. Marca tipografica incisa su legno al frontespizio. Due tavole fuori testo, entrambe ripiegate (SECVNDA FIGVRA; TABVLA GENERALIS). Tre silografie a piena pagina, quella al verso della carta B2 con volvelle. Iniziali silografiche decorate. III. Segnatura: A-E8, F4. 43 di 44carte, manca l'ultima carta bianca. Carattere romano e corsivo. Due tavole fuori testo, inclusa la tavola ripiegata contenente due volvelle ancora non ritagliate e destinate ad essere montate alla carta B8v. Carta B3 piegata, con grande silografia al verso. Diagrammi e illustrazioni incisi su legno: Testatine e finalini silografici, iniziali decorate, anch'esse incise su legno. Legatura settecentesca in mezzo vitello, piatti in carta marrone. Dorso liscio, diviso in scomparti da filetti dorati, titoli in oro (ora abrasi) su tassello in marocchino nocciola. Tagli spruzzati in rosso. Esemplare in ottimo stato di conservazione, alcuni aloni e bruniture. Nella terza edizione legata nel volume, il margine superiore leggermente rifilato. Nota a lapis ‘Philosoph. IV' al contropiatto posteriore. Alcune sottolineature di mano antica nella seconda edizione legata. Al frontespizio della terza edizione legata la nota ‘v. Vogt p. 116', in riferimento al Catalogus historico-criticus librorum rariorum di Johann Vogt (Hamburg 1747).

Provenienza: ‘Kellner' (nota di possesso al recto della carta di guardia anteriore); Biblioteca Regia di Berlino (antico timbro in inchiostro rosso al verso del frontespizio della prima edizione legata; esemplare dismesso).

Volume miscellaneo di notevole interesse che comprende tre rare edizioni, tra cui la prima edizione del De compendiosa architectura di Giordano Bruno, preziosa testimonianza della fortuna rinascimentale del Lullismo.

Il volume si apre con il De auditu Kabbalistico, già apparso in forma anonima a Venezia nel 1518 e nel 1538. Tradizionalmente attribuito al filosofo e teologo catalano Ramon Llull, studi più recenti hanno proposto quale autore il medico Pietro Mainardi.

Altrettanto ricercata è la seconda edizione legata, l'Ars brevis, fortunato compendio della Ars magna generalis composto da Lullo nel 1308, e per la prima volta dato alle stampe nel 1481.

Entrambe le opere furono avidamente lette da Giordano Bruno durante gli anni di studio a Napoli, e l'influenza sul suo pensiero è evidente. Non è quindi sorprendente che un ignoto possessore abbia legato nel volume che qui si presenta anche un esemplare della terza e rara opera data alle stampe da Bruno, il De compendiosa architectura, & complementi artis Lullij, elaborata sintesi tra Ars Lulliana e l'arte della memoria di tradizione classica.

Le otto silografie incluse nell'edizione furono con ogni probabilità disegnate e incise su legno dallo stesso Giordano Bruno, e quattro di esse sono basate sulle ruote lulliane. L'esemplare del De compendiosa architectura ha una particolarità eccezionale: contiene infatti, tra le carte B7 e B8, una carta con due volvelle ancora non ritagliate.

Gli elementi singoli di questi delicati strumenti erano infatti impressi su fogli di carta di maggiore grammatura, per essere poi ritagliati e montati nel luogo appropriato del volume. In genere tale operazione era svolta nella stessa tipografia o nella bottega del legatore. Nel nostro esemplare le due volvelle sono non solo ancora sullo stesso foglio, ma anche corredate delle istruzioni per il loro montaggio, “Hi duo circulli includentur in eo circulo qui habetur folio 16.”, operazione mai però effettuata.

Per errore o mera distrazione: per noi un fortunato caso che ci consente di gettare un inedito sguardo sulla produzione materiale del libro del Cinquecento.

I. STC French 292; Palau 143.864; Caillet 6846; Duveen, p. 370; Rogent y Duran, no. 121. II. STC French 292; Palau, 14370-14384; Duveen, p. 370, Rogent y Duran, no. 120. III. Adams B-2953; STC French 84; Salvestrini, Bibliografia, no. 40; Sturlese, Bibliografia, no. 3; M. Gabrieli, Giordano Bruno. Corpus Iconographicum, Milano 2001, pp. 125-153; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 154.

[Giordano Bruno]. Llull, Ramon (1232-1316). Opusculum Raymundinum De auditu Kabbalistico siue ad omnes scientias introductorium... Paris, Gilles Gourbin, 1578. (bound with:) Idem. Ars brevis illuminatis Doctoris Magistri Raymundi Lull. Quae est ad omnes scientias pauco & breui tempore assequendas introductorium & breuis via... Paris, Gilles Gourbin, 1578. (bound with:) Bruno, Giordano (1548-1600). Philoteus Iordanus Brunus Nolanus De compendiosa architectura, & complementi artis Lullij. Ad illustriss. D.D. Ioannem Morum pro serenissima Venetorum R.p. apud Christianissimum Gallorum & Polonorum regem, legatum. Paris, Gilles Gourbin, 1582.

Three works in one volume, 16° (113x69 mm).
I. Collation: A-K8. 80 leaves [numbered 82]. Fol. E4 unsigned. Roman and italic type. Gourbin's woodcut printer's device on the title-page depicting Pandora with an open jar, from which winged creatures are escaping, and the motto ‘SPES SOLA REMANSIT INTUS'. Six plates, three of which are printed on shorter leaves: ‘PRIMA FIGURA' (between fols. A3 and A4), ‘SECUNDA FIGURA' (between fols. A6 and A7, trimmed), and ‘TABVLA GENERALIS' (between fols. C6 and C7); the remaining three plates are full-page and printed on regular-sized leaves: ‘FIGURA TOTUM REPRESENTAS CREATUM' (between fols. A1 and A2), ‘TERTIA FIGURA' (between fols. B3 and B4), and ‘QUARTA FIGURA' (between fols. B4 and B5, with one volvelle still present, lacking the second and smaller movable part). Two woodcut diagrams in the text (fols. K1v and K6v). Woodcut headpiece, decorated initials.

II. Collation: A-F8. [48] leaves. Roman and italic type. Gourbin's woodcut printer's device on the title-page, a smaller version of the device found on the title-page of the Opusculum. Two plates, both folding: ‘SECUNDA FIGURA' (between fols. A6 and A7) and ‘TABVLA GENERALIS' (between fols. B7 and B8). Three full-page woodcuts: ‘PRIMA FIGURA' (on fol. A5r), ‘TERTIA FIGURA' (on fol. B1r), and ‘QUARTA FIGURA' on (fol. B2v, complete with the volvelle's two moving parts still present). Woodcut headpiece, decorated initials. Visible on the lower margin of the leaf containing the ‘SECUNDA FIGURA' is a rounded cut, suggesting another volvelle had been printed and cut out from the same leaf.

III. Collation: A-E8, F4. 43 of 44 leaves, lacking fol. F4, blank. Roman and italic type. Two plates: ‘PRIMA FIGURA' (between fols. B1 and B2) and ‘QUARTA FIGURA' (between fols B7 and B8), containing two volvelles, still uncut, to be mounted on fol. B8v. Two full-page illustrations: ‘SECUNDA FIGURA' (on fol. B3v, folding), and ‘TERTIA FIGURA' (on fol. B8r, present only in its typographical part, i.e., without tabulation). Woodcut head- and tailpieces, decorated initials. Five woodcut diagrams (fols. A8r, A8v, B3r, B5v, B8v). Eighteenth-century half-calf, brown-paper covers. Smooth spine divided into compartments by gilt fillets, title in gold on hazel-brown morocco lettering-piece (faded). Edges speckled red. A well-preserved volume, some browning and spotting. In the third edition bound, the upper margin of a few leaves slightly trimmed. Pencilled note ‘Philosoph. iv' on the rear pastedown. Some early underlining in the second edition bound. On the title-page of the third edition the note ‘v. Vogt p. 116', related to Johannis Vogt's Catalogus historico-criticus librorum rariorum (Hamburg 1747).

Provenance: ‘Kellner' (ownership inscription on the recto of the front flyleaf); Royal Library in Berlin (old stamp in red ink on the verso of the title-page of the first edition bound; copy sold).

A remarkable miscellany with three rare editions that offer striking evidence of the revival of Lullism in the Renaissance, including the rare first edition of De compendiosa architectura, & complementi artis Lullij by the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno.
The Compendiosa architectura is Bruno's third printed work, after the De umbris idearum and the Cantus Circaeus, which had been issued a few months earlier. Dedicated to the Venetian ambassador in Paris, Giovanni Moro, the Compendiosa architectura, is a vivid testament of the revival of Lullism and of its notable influence on Giordano Bruno in particular. Bruno had read the works of the Catalan philosopher and theologian Ramon Llull (1232-1316) during his youthful studies in Naples, under the guidance of his master Teofilo da Varano. The work represents therefore an essential chapter in the history of Renaissance Lullism, as well as in Bruno's own interpretation and renewal of Lullism, convincingly presenting an original synthesis between the combinatoric method of the Ars Lulliana and the classical art of memory, a synthesis particularly well demonstrated through his use of mnemonic wheels.
The ‘Lullian' significance of the miscellany presented here is furthered by the two other editions bound inside: two works attributed to Lull himself and printed in 1578, once again by Gourbin. The first bound work is the famous De auditu Kabbalistico, an apocryphal treatise first printed in Venice in 1518 which greatly impacted Lull's reception over the centuries. Also known as the Opusculum Raymundinum, this work, intended to provide a combination of Lullism and Christian Kabbalah, was long attributed to Lull; its real author has, however, been identified by Paola Zambelli as the physician from Verona Pietro Mainardi (1456-1529), who taught surgery at the University of Padua. Mainardi's name is included as editor of the work in the colophon of the 1518 editio princeps, suggesting his desire for the work's authorship to remain anonymous. “Circulating widely, this treatise reinforced the association of cabala with Lullism. Together with Pico, it gave a significant impulse to the evolution of Lullism and consequently to the introduction of cabalistic elements into it” (M. Mertens, On Bruno's De compendiosa architectura, p. 515).
The second bound edition is the equally rare Ars brevis, the popular compendium of his Ars magna generalis which was composed by Lull in 1308 and published for the first time in 1481. The treatise crowned Lull as one of the greatest philosophers of mediaeval Europe, while the combinatory tables of the symbolic letters ‘BCDEFGHJKT' shown in the plate titled ‘TERTIA FIGURA' (in the edition presented here, on fol. B1r) are considered forerunners of modern symbolic logic. For printing the Compendiosa architectura, & complementi artis Lullij, Bruno turned to Gilles Gourbin. Gourbin had previously been responsible for the printing of Bruno's De umbris idearum, so a certain level of familiarity may have existed between the printer and the philosopher. There is, however, another more nuanced reason for Giordano Bruno's interest in Gourbin, which concerns the illustrative apparatus supplementing the edition.
The new work to be printed was to include woodcuts of mnemonic wheels, some designed by Bruno himself, others derived from Lull's own works. Gourbin had not only already printed several editions of the Doctor illuminatus, but by that point he was also considered the ‘Lullian printer' par excellence. As they were already in Gourbin's workshop, Bruno could count on the printer's access to the woodcuts previously used for the Lull editions, as well as the possibility of their being employed either directly or as templates in his Compendiosa architectura, so as to make his new interpretation visually clear. A comparison of the woodcuts illustrating Bruno's Compendiosa architectura and those included in both Lull editions of 1578 has indeed yielded interesting findings. From the two 1578 Gourbin editions, Bruno's work inherited the plates titled ‘PRIMA FIGURA', ‘SECUNDA FIGURA', ‘TERTIA FIGURA' and ‘QUARTA FIGURA'.
The ‘SECUNDA FIGURA' is a re-use of the woodcut employed in the Opusculum Raymundinum, which was clearly still extant in 1582 when the Compendiosa architectura was printed; the ‘SECUNDA FIGURA' in Lull's Ars Brevis, meanwhile, was made with a different and larger woodcut, which was probably subsequently broken. The suggested primacy of the Ars Brevis printing – still unrecorded – might be confirmed by the architectural decorations present in the ‘TABVLA GENERALIS' of the Ars brevis, which are omitted from the same plate in the Opusculum Raymundinum.
The ‘TERTIA FIGURA' also differs in Bruno's work, with a longer combination of letters and without the tabulation.
The presentation of the ‘QUARTA FIGURA' represents a peculiarity of the present copy, in that it preserves the two moving parts of the volvelle, still uncut and to be mounted. This is an exceptional feature of the copy. In fact, books containing volvelle diagrams were meant to be assembled and used by their readers, and copies with uncut volvelles printed on separate leaves – usually on thick paper – have thus generally not survived. The present copy of the Compendiosa architectura includes, between fols. B7 and B8, an additional folding sheet, printed only on one side, containing two circular volvelles to be cut and mounted onto the alphabetical dial on the verso of fol. B8. What's more, this leaf is in an uncut state and includes instructions to the printer or binder: “Hi duo circulli includentur in eo circulo qui habetur folio 16.”. Evidently these instructions were not heeded, as the printer or binder failed to cut and mount the pieces on the appropriate diagram. Perhaps a simple oversight, but one which allows us precious insight into the world of Renaissance printing.
One more feature deserves particular attention, as well as further research. Perusing the census of Bruno editions, we have discovered that recorded copies of the Compendiosa architectura are mainly bound in volumes that – just as with the miscellany presented here – also contain editions of the Opusculum Raymundinum and the Ars brevis issued by Gourbin in 1578. This is perhaps not a coincidence, simply the result of similar though independent choices made by the volumes' respective owners. Rather, the miscellaneous nature of the volume may reveal a precise commercial strategy on behalf of the Parisian printer, i.e., a plan for proposing an ‘entirely Lullian book' to a particularly receptive market, one which would simultaneously allow him to repurpose unsold copies of his previous editions, now made all the more attractive alongside the novelty represented by the Compendiosa architectura.

I. STC French 292; Palau 143.864; Caillet 6846; Duveen, p. 370; Rogent y Duran, no. 121. II. STC French 292; Palau, 14370-14384; Duveen, p. 370, Rogent y Duran, no. 120; J. E. Rubio, “Llull's ‘Great Universal Art'”, A Companion to Ramon Llull and Llullism, 82 (2018), pp. 81-116. III. Adams B-2953; STC French 84; Salvestrini Bibliografia, no. 40; Sturlese Bibliografia, no. 3; M. Gabrieli, Giordano Bruno. Corpus Iconographicum, Milano 2001, pp. 125-153; P. Zambelli. “Il ‘De auditu kabbalistico' e la tradizione lulliana nel Rinascimento”, Atti dell'Accademia Toscana di Scienza e Lettere ‘La Colombaria', 30 (1965), pp. 115-149; M. Mertens, “On Bruno's De compendiosa architectura”, Bruniana & Campanelliana, 15 (2009) pp. 513-525.

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