Volume III: From the 17th to the 21st Century Philobiblon

One Thousand Years of Bibliophily from the 11th to the 21st Century

The first bio-bibliography of Florentine authors, used for writing Ciriaco Strozzi’s biography

Poccianti, Michele (1536-1576)

Catalogus scriptorum Florentinorum omnis generis, quorum, et memoria extat, atque lucubrationes in literas relatae sunt ad nostra usque tempora... Florence, Filippo Giunta, 1589. (bound with:) Monti, Zaccaria (fl. 16th-17th century). Vita Kyriaci Strozae. Auctior. Paris, Adrien Périer for the Officina Plantiniana 1604. . Filippo Giunta, 1589.

Two works in one volume, 4° (231x156 mm). I. Collation: *2, A-L8, M4. [4], 172, [12] pages. Roman and italic type. Giunti's device on the title-page. Woodcut animated and decorated initials. II. Collation: A4. 7, [1] pages. Roman, and Greek type. Plantin's device on the title-page. Contemporary limp vellum, traces of ties. Smooth spine with inked title. A very good, tall copy.

Provenance: Zaccaria Monti (fl. 16th-17th century; annotations in his own hand in the margin of some pages, and on two leaves bound between Poccianti's Catalogus and the Vita Kyriaci Strozae); 'Moreau Mod. Paris' (old ownersphip inscription on the title-page); Theological Institute of Connecticut, East Windsor Hill (now defunct; blind stamps on the first three and the last three leaves).

The miscellany contains the first edition of Poccianti's famous Catalogus and the Vita Kyriaci Strozae by Zaccaria Monti, nephew of Ciriaco Strozzi and the earliest recorded owner of the present volume. Zaccaria wrote in the margin of Poccianti's entry dedicated to his uncle, annotations and emendations in his own hand. Further, the volume contains two leaves bound between the two printed texts: The first leaf bears some observations on Ciriaco Strozzi, “‘Hoc elogium reponendum est pag. 104 in littera K. Kyriacus Strozza Patritius florentinus, Zachariae filius, Graecarum litterarum cultor exactissimus ac omni disciplinarum genere instructissimus, Aristotelicae philosophiae defensor acerrimus”. The note on the second leaf regards Ciriaco's learned sister, the Dominican nun Lorenza Strozzi (d. 1591): “Hoc elogium reponendum est pag. 105 in litterar L. Laurentia Strozia, Kyriaci Strozae, summi peripatetici soror [...] scripsit in singula totius anni solemnia hymnos [...]”. Both quoted passages are taken from Poccianti's Catalogus scriptorum Florentinorum, a circumstance that might explain why Monti let these two editions be bound together for his library.

The Catalogus scriptorum Florentinorum by the Servite Poccianti, professor of philosophy and theology at the Florentine Studio, was published posthumously by one of his pupils, fra' Luca Ferrini, and dedicated by him to the Grand Duke Ferdinando de' Medici. The work is the first bio-bibliography of Florentine authors to appear in print, and is also considered one of the first bibliographies devoted to a single town and its territory. The Catalogus lists and describes the works of about six hundred authors arranged in alphabetical order, followed by a classification of them as theologians (including philosophers), doctors, lawyers, poets, etc.

The second edition bound here is the extremely rare pamphlet issued from the Parisian Officina Plantiniana, of which apparently only four copies are known. This is the first separate edition of the biography of Greek scholar Ciriaco Strozzi (1504-1565), the first having appeared in the Opera by Aristotle printed in Lyon in 1581.

I. Adams P-1677; Camerini Annali,157; Pettas 644; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 164.

Wind Roses and Compasses

179. Padovani, Fabrizio (fl. 16th-17th century)

Tractatus duo, alter De Ventis, alter perbrevis De Terraemotu. Adiecto indice copiosissimo.... Giovanni Battista Bellagamba, 1601.

Folio (312x217 mm). Collation: †4, A4, B4+1 (a singleton signed B3 added after quire B), C-Y4. [8], 1-16, 17*-18*, 17-163 [i.e. 165], [13] pages. Italic, roman, and Greek type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Thirty-nine engravings, including three full-page. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary cardboards. A very fine, wide-margined copy.

The rare first and only edition of this finely illustrated book, including fine engraved maps and plates of wind roses and compasses, among other technologies and technical schemata.

The work is by Fabrizio Padovani, the 'philosophus ac medicus' from Forlì; it addresses the effects of winds and contains a full-page chart of the world, the Carta Marina, which also shows the Americas in a style that recalls the famous Nova Tabula executed by Giacomo Gastaldi for the Italian edition of Ptolemy's Geography in 1548.

As announced on the title-page, the last leaves concern earthquakes, as it was traditionally believed these could be caused by subterranean winds. Padovani based his illustrations primarily on historical sources – above all Pliny – as well as contemporary accounts. He “envisioned an early warning system for earthquakes, and, also, categorized phenomena that were either concurrent with or subsequent to an earthquake, similarly to the typology of things seen before, during, and after an eruption that Vesuvius writers described three decades later. Earthquakes were more frequent than eruptions, and in this respect he was not lacking in a language of observation” (S. Cocco, Watching Vesuvius, p. 31).

The work is especially praised for the handsome illustrative apparatus, and the engravings depicting wind roses are of the highest quality.

Bruni-Evans 4375; Alden 601.78; Honeyman VI, 2387; Riccardi I, pp. 230-231; Shirley 232 (world map); S. Cocco, Watching Vesuvius: A History of Science and Culture in Early Modern Italy, Chicago 2013, pp. 29-32; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 179.

The correct eyebrow length

180. Olmo, Marco Antonio (fl. 16th-17th century)

Physiologia Barbae Humanae. In tres sectiones divisa, hoc est de fine illius philosophico, & medico. Giovanni Battista Bellagamba, 1601.

Folio (286x198 mm). Collation: †4, ††6, A-I4, L-Y4, Z1 (singleton), Aa-Rr4, Ss2. [20], 1-72, 81-317, [1] pages. The book is complete: quire K omitted by the printer. Roman and italic type. Title-page printed in red and black with woodcut coat of arms of Pietro Aldobrandini, the dedicatee of the work. Woodcut on fol. Y1r. Contemporary limp vellum. Smooth spine, title inked vertically. Covers lightly stained, minor wear to the upper board edge of the lower cover. A very good copy, title-page slightly browned, a few stains and spots. Fol. Y1 mounted on onglet.

Provenance: the Count Arthur Dillon (d. 1893; ex-libris on the front pastedown).

Rare first edition of this curious treatise by the Paduan Marco Antonio Olmo, which provides a medical as well as philosophical point of view on the true nature of beards and hair. It is an expanded version of a pamphlet that the author had published on these topics a few years earlier: the Opinio de fine medico barbae humanae, which appeared in Modena in 1599.

The Bolognese edition of 1601 is dedicated to Pietro Aldobrandini and divided into three books. For this work, Olmo relied on sources from Antiquity, such as Crisippus and Diogenes, as well as later authorities, including Augustinus and Lactantius. The volume is illustrated with a woodcut depicting the correct proportions of the face and eyebrows necessary to not obstruct the viewing angle (fol. Y1r). The 1601 publication is recorded in only four Italian institutional libraries.

A second, enlarged edition of the work was printed in 1603 by the same Bolognese printer.

STC 17th century, 926; Bruni-Evans 3713; Krivatsy 8425; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 180.

A wedding account printed on blue paper

182. Rinuccini, Camillo (1564-1649)

Descrizione delle Feste fatte nelle Reali nozze de’ Serenissimo Principi di Toscana D. Cosimo de’ Medici, e Maria Maddalena Archiduchessa d’Austria. Giunta, 1608.

4° (232x158 mm). Printed on blue paper. Collation: [π]2, A-H4, I2, K-L4, M2, N-T4, V2. [4], 149 [i.e. 147, pp. 69-72 omitted], [1] pages. Complete with fol. M2 blank. Roman and italic type. Text partly printed in two columns. Woodcut coat of arms of the Medici and Habsburg families on the title-page. Fine woodcut compass rose on the recto of fol. N4. Woodcut decorated initials, small tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. On both covers, a blind-tooled coat of arms of the Vettori family. Smooth spine with running stitches, title and small decorative motif inked in a contemporary hand, partly faded. Marbled pastedowns. Covers slightly stained, lower corners somewhat bumped. A good copy, printed on strong paper. Some spots, light browning. A few small wormholes, occasionally affecting a few letters.

Provenance: the Florentine Vettori family (armorial binding); James Bindley (1737-1818; the note on the recto of the front flyleaf, 'Jan. 1819 Bindley 2d Sale £ 2.10'; and his sale, Evans, 11 January 1819, A Catalogue of the Curious and Extensive Library of the Late James Bindley, Esq. F.S.A. Part The First, London 1818, p. 37, lot 1043, “on blue paper”); purchased by Richard Heber (1773-1833; small stamp 'BIBLIOTHECA HEBERIANA' on the recto of the front flyleaf; see the sale catalogue Bibliotheca Heberiana. Catalogue of the Library of the Late Richard Heber... Part The Second, Sotheby & Son, London 1836, p. 200, lot 3819, with the note “printed on blue paper,” and sold for the sum of 2 pounds and one shilling); the Italian bibliophile and bookseller Giuseppe Martini (1870-1944; his bibliographical notes on the front flyleaves, including 'Coll. completo G. Martini', and 'Largo margine'); acquired from the English bookseller Percy Mordaunt Barnard in 1916 (see the note on the verso of the flyleaf, 'Barnard, Turnbridge Wells, Inghilt. Agosto 1916').

A marvellous and exceedingly rare copy, printed on blue paper, of one of the most famous festival books of the late Renaissance: the first edition of Camillo Rinuccini's description of the sumptuous ceremonies organised around the wedding of the eighteen-year-old Crown Prince Cosimo II de' Medici to the Archduchess of Austria Maria Magdalena, cousin of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II, celebrated in Florence in 1608. This blue-paper copy was likely offered by the author to a member of the important Florentine Vettori family, whose coat of arms is stamped on the binding.

Florence witnessed an unprecedented series of events in celebration of the union between Cosimo, who would become Grand Duke of Tuscany only a few months after his marriage, and his bride from the powerful Habsburg house: plays, musical intermezzi, giostre, horse ballets, a triumphal procession, banquet, and even a naval battle or naumachia on the Arno river. Camillo Rinuccini narrated all of these magnificent events, and his Descrizione enjoyed wide and immediate success. Especially noteworthy is Lorenzo Franceschi's Ballo et Giostra de' venti (fols. N1r-N4r), a poem in octaves describing a horse ballet illustrated with a fine thirty-two-point compass rose or wind rose (fol. N4r), which was also issued separately from the Giunti press.

At least four other issues from 1608 have been recorded, each with varying numbers of pages and, occasionally, plates. This copy corresponds to the enlarged issue, in which Rinuccini's report is supplemented, in the last quires, with two musical dialogues by Francesco Cini – La notte d'amore (fols. O1r-O4r) and L'Argonauta (fols. P1r-P4r) – as well as I Cavalieri sanesi a valorosi e cortesi professori d'arme (fols. Q1r-V2r).

The number of plates included in the various issues of Rinuccini's Descrizione, depicting different ceremonies or banquets and executed by Matthias Greuter, is uncertain: Watanabe-O' Kelly calls for two plates, but a few copies containing five plates are recorded. The copy on blue paper described here is in its original binding, and apparently never included plates, of which there is no mention in the early nineteenth-century sale catalogues of the exquisite libraries of James Bindley and Richard Heber, respectively, to whom this fine volume later belonged.

“Vinet [...] conjectures that the plates were published separately, each having been dedicated to a separate person [...] in similar cases the author, publisher or the buyer might bring the plates to the printer for inclusion in the bound book” (Pettas, The Giunti of Florence, p. 753). The blue-paper recorded copies do not usually include plates.

STC 17th century, 749; Camerini 318; Pettas 871a; Cicognara 1412; Lipperheide II, Si 14; Sartori, Libretti italiani a stampa, 7648; Vinet 608; Watanabe-O'Kelly & Simon 1241; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 182.

Giordano Bruno’s philosophical lexicon

183. Bruno, Giordano (1548-1600)

Summa terminorum metaphysicorum... Accessit eiusdem praxis Descensus, seu applicatio Entis ex manuscripto, per Raphaelem Eglinum Jconium Tigurinum. Rudolph Hutwelcker, 1609.

8° (155x95 mm). Collation: A-P8, Q4. [16], 229, [3] pages. Roman and italic type. Woodcut ornament on the title-page; woodcut headpieces and decorated initials. Some diagrams in the text. Contemporary limp vellum; smooth spine with running stitches, and traces of inked title, in a contemporary hand. Traces of ties. Binder's waste from a printed seventeenth-century German almanac. Covers slightly stained, text block detached from the spine. A good, unsophisticated copy. A small section from the outer blank margin of the title-page cut and restored, without any loss. Some spots, a few stains, especially on the first leaves, with marginal foxing. On the recto of the front flyleaf, the inked annotation 'Prima Aprilis', and the number '519', pencilled in red by a more recent hand.

Provenance: given by a certain Reiter to Rev. Leib in 1773 (ownership inscription on the verso of the front flyleaf, ‘Ex libris R.d Leib à R.D. Leibn à R D: Reiter dono oblatus anno 1773', and on the title-page, 'Ex Libris Rd Leib').

The rare second and definitive edition of this work by the celebrated philosopher from Nola, Giordano Bruno. After several years wandering between Geneva, Paris, London, Prague, and several cities in German-speaking areas, Bruno returned to Venice in August 1591 but was ultimately deemed a heretic and burned at the stake in Rome at Campo de' Fiori in 1600.

Bruno's Summa terminorum metaphisicorum relays a series of lectures given by him in Zurich; he compiled the text in 1591, while still in the Swiss city. The work aims to provide a lexicon of philosophical terms, which have been divided here into fifty-two concepts according to the model of Aristotelian Metaphysics, among other systems of logic.

The book was edited posthumously by the theologian Raphael Egli (1559-1622), who had become acquainted with Bruno in Geneva, and who later attended his lectures in Zurich. Egli had published a first edition of the Summa terminorum metaphysicorum in Zurich in 1595, while the Nolano was imprisoned at the Sant'Uffizio in Rome. This text was produced on the basis of a manuscript owned by Egli himself which contained only the first part of the work, the De Entis descensus. The enlarged edition of 1609 is introduced by the unchanged dedicatory epistle to Friedrich Salis which had previously been appended to the Summa of 1595, but also includes the significant addition of the Praxis descensus seu applicatio Entis. Bruno's texts are followed by the Tractatus de definitionibus – then erroneously attributed to Athanasius – and the Terminorum quorundam explicationes by Rudolf Goclenius, professor of logic and moral philosophy at the University of Marburg.

Of this Marburg edition two versions of the title-page are known, with and without mention of Egli's affiliation and reference to Goclenius's Terminorum quorundam explicationes. The copy presented here is one of only seven copies known to bear the title-page in the shorter form, and is considered in first issue. There are also variants in the tabula of the errata.

For other works by Bruno in this catalogue see nos. 154 and 161.

I. Salvestrini, Bibliografia, no. 210; Sturlese, Bibliografia, no. 29; E. Canone, “Nota” to G. Bruno, Summa terminorum metaphysicorum. Ristampa anastatica dell'edizione Marburgo 1609, Roma 1989, pp. XI-XXII; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 183.

A journey to the City of Truth

184. Del Bene, Bartolomeo (b. 1514)

Civitas veri sive morum... Aristotelis de moribus doctrinam, carmine et picturis complexa, et illustrata commentariis Theodori Marcilii.... Ambroise and Jérôme Drouart, 1609.

Folio (343x214 mm). Collation: A4, 2A-Z4, Aa-Hh4, Ii6. [8], 258, [2] pages. Complete with fol. A4 blank. Roman, italic, and Greek type. Engraved title-page and thirty-three engraved plates by Thomas de Leu, including a double-page plan of the City of Truth. Woodcut initials, head-and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with title in gilt on lettering-piece. Some wear. A fine and tall copy, slightly browned, pale waterstain at the upper margin. A manuscript note in French on the front flyleaf.

Rare first edition of this remarkable utopian work, a poetic meditation in Latin hexameters, based on the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle. The Civitas veri sive morum was written in 1585 by the diplomat and poet Bartolomeo Del Bene, and posthumously edited in 1609 by his nephew Alfonso, bishop of Albi, who dedicated the publication to Henri IV. The text is accompanied by a commentary by Théodore Marcile (1548-1617).

The poem describes a journey to the City of Truth (Civitas veri) which begins at the Palace of Strength and takes us to the Palaces of Moderation and Excess; we then arrive at the Temples of Glory and Generosity, and finally at the Labyrinth of Vices. The Basilica of Magnanimity and Modesty is a dignified structure, and so too is the House of Courtesy. The contrast is quickly apparent: arrogance, falsity, and injustice are present in the forms of buildings. The edifices of Heroism, Abstinence, and Justice, represent the goal of a virtuous life.

The work is divided into thirty days, starting from the canonical description of the five senses, following by a listing the traditional virtues and vices in hierarchical fashion, and culminating in a discussion of the philosopher's wisdom. The edition is supplemented with a marvellous series of engravings, executed by the publisher and print dealer Thomas de Leu (1560–1620), mostly representing allegories and figures on a pilgrimage to the City of Truth. One double-page plate shows a map of this city.

“Like so many Renaissance allegories, the 'Civitas veri' grows from a medieval root. The commentator Marcile points out its indebtedness to St Augustine's 'City of God', and indeed the plan of the City of Truth recalls illustrations in medieval manuscripts of the City of God. The allegorical dream in the architectural setting has a strong hold on the Renaissance imagination, as exemplified by the 'Hypnerotomachia Poliphili' (see nos. 43 and 103), to which work the 'Civitas veri', though of a different temper, has a certain relationship”. (F. A. Yates, The French Academies of the Sixteen Century, p. 112).”

Duportal, Livres à figures du XVIIe siècle, p. 155; French Emblem Books F.212; Landwehr 255; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 184.

Origins of the Pilgrim Press, three years before the Mayflower Voyage

186. [Pilgrim Press]. Dod, John (ca. 1549-1645) [and Cleaver, Robert (fl. 16th-17th century)]

A plaine and familiar exposition of the tenne commandements. With a methodicall short catechime, containing briefly all the principall grounds of Christian religion. According to the last corrected and inlarged copie by the authour, Mr. Iohn Dod. To which is now prefixed three profitable tables. [Leyden, William Brewster], 1617.

4° (200x150 mm). Collation: A4, a4, B-Z4, Aa-Kk4, Ll2, 2Ll2, Mm2 (Gg1 signed H; Mm2v blank). Complete (with a total of 144 leaves). [xvi], 260 (numerous misnumberings, the pagination as follows: pp. 1-56, 75-97, 100-133, 138-139, 136-137, 142-143, 140-157, 162-163, 160-161, 158-159, 164-228, 231, 234-238, 241, 240-241, 244-284), [12] pages. Roman and italic type. Title with ornamental border and the famous woodcut ornament depicting a bear. Woodcut headpieces, decorated initials and five tailpieces. Recased in old vellum, renewed flyleaves. An excellent copy with good margins. The first leaves slightly browned with minor waterstaining, a few blank margins frayed, old flaw to title-page, without any loss, staining to the final two leaves, upper forecorner of final leaf torn away, just touching a couple of letters, with old repair.

Rare first Pilgrim Press edition of one of the most influential primers on Puritan religious beliefs, printed by William Brewster, who three years later would lead an intrepid band of English religious 'separatists' to America on the Mayflower. Published during Brewster's Dutch exile, the work is not only relevant to the history of the Pilgrims prior to their emigration to America, but as a printed document aptly embodies the cardinal principles of American life: freedom of expression, and freedom to dissent.

The story of William Brewster and the English Separatists and their emigration to Holland constitutes an important chapter in the pre-history of America. Persecuted for their religious beliefs in England, the community took refuge at Leiden, where Brewster began printing books with Thomas Brewer in a workshop in Kosteeg in 1617.

Some of their productions were seditious books that could never have been printed in England, but among their very first production were English and Dutch editions of Dod and Cleaver's Exposition of the tenne commandements, a keystone of Puritan piety, first printed in London in 1603. At the instigation of the English government, the press was disbanded and the type confiscated in 1619, just as the community was preparing to depart for America. Brewster was actually forced into hiding, before joining the first group of Separatists aboard the Mayflower in 1620. As the only university-educated immigrant and by force of character and charisma, Brewster assumed the role of spiritual leader and acted as preacher for the Plymouth colony until his death in 1644. Copies of this edition – as documentary evidence indicates (see below) – were taken to America by the Pilgrims, and the book was therefore among the first ones to arrive in the New World (see no. 91).

Brewster's Leiden press (known later as the 'Pilgrim Press') is known to have printed at least eighteen titles between 1617 and 1619, most now extant in only a handful of copies. Dated 1617, Dod and Cleaver's A plaine and familiar exposition of the tenne commandements was one of the earliest, the third item in the standard bibliography of Rendel Harris and Stephan K. Jones. The press soon attracted the attention of the English authorities when it became clear that some of its polemical books were re-entering the Kingdom. The English version of the work the title is dated but unsigned because of the danger assumed by the individual publishing the book. It was first identified as a product of the Pilgrim Press by Harris & Jones, and this attribution is unanimously accepted. It is “a typical 'Brewster' book, which the 'acorn' border to the title-page, and other 'Brewster' ornaments, initials and types [...] it is found possible to place it, chronologically, with apparent exactness. The compositor is already using the small 'bear' with the break which appears throughout 1618” (Harris & Jones, no. 3). Recently Ronald Breugelmans has argued that the publication might have been issued in partnership with the Leiden printer Govert Basson.

While the text is competently printed, the many confusions in pagination evoke the rushed nature and sloppiness of occasional or stealth printing. Unlike other Pilgrim Press productions, which were identified by contemporaries such as the English Ambassador Sir Dudley Carleton as prohibited, the present title was not in itself a clandestine text. On the contrary, it had already become one of the backbones of Puritan piety especially with the appended Catechism 'containing briefly all the principall grounds of Christian Religion'.

At the behest of the English government, the Pilgrim Press and its types were destroyed by Dutch authorities in 1619; the voyage to America commenced the following year. At least some copies of the present edition came to America with the Pilgrims. William Brewster himself owned three copies (noted in Harris & Jones), and according to Briggs other copies are listed in the inventories of Samuel Fuller (the Pilgrims' physician and Deacon of the Plymouth church), Godbert Godbertson and Governor William Bradford.

A rare artifact of North American history, this edition by the Pilgrim Press provides essential background for the first book published in America, the Bay Psalm Book of 1640.

Census of this edition: ESTC lists copies at the British Library, Birmingham, Glasgow, the National Library of Wales, the Bodleian Library, Lincoln College (Oxford) and American copies at Dartmouth College and Folger. OCLC adds copies at Princeton, Michigan and Toronto (Thomas Fisher Library, defective, wanting all after p. 273). The only other copy of this work found at auction in the past hundred years is of the Dutch translation, sold on 22 March 1921 for the sum of $280.

STC Low Countries 1601-1621, D-66; ESTC 6973; R. Harris - S. K. Jones, The Pilgrim Press: A Bibliographical & Historical Memorial of the Books Printed at Leyden by the Pilgrim Fathers, Cambridge 1922 (reprint ed. by R. Breugelmans, Nieuwkoop 1987), no. 3; R. T. Briggs, “Books of the Pilgrims as Recorded in their Inventories and Preserved in Pilgrim Hall”, Old-Time New England 61 (1970-71), pp. 41-46; R. Breugelmans, “The Pilgrim Press: A Press That Did Not Print (Leiden 1616/17 - 1619)”, Quaerendo 39 (2009), pp. 34-44; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 186.

A German emblem book

187. Flittner, Johann (fl. 1st half of the 17th century) - Murner, Thomas (1475-1537)

Nebulo Nebulonum; hoc est, Iocoseria Modernae Nequitiae Censura; qua Hominum Sceleratorum fraudes, Doli ac versutiae aeri aërique exponuntur publice: Carmine Iambico Dimetro adornata a Joanne Flitnero, Franco, Poëta Laureato. Jakob de Zetter, 1620.

8° (156x98 mm). Collation: [π]4, A-K8, L4. [8], 164, [4] pages. Complete with fol. L4 blank. Roman and italic type. Engraved title-page. Thirty-three engravings in the text (91x72 mm). Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary blind-ruled vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with inked title. A very good, unsophisticated copy. Outer margin of the title-page slightly trimmed. Minor browning, wormholes in the inner margin not affecting the text.

Provenance: given as a gift by 'Petr. Mock.' to a certain 'Doctor Frederice' (address on the recto of the front flyleaf); modern, unidentified ex-libris on the front pastedown.

First edition of the free Latin adaptation by the German poet laureate Johann Flittner of the Schelmen Zunft by Thomas Murner, a collection of satirical poems first published in 1512 and strongly influenced by Brant's famous Narrenschiff. Flittner's adaption enjoyed great popularity: subsequent editions of the Nebulo Nebulonum were published in 1634, 1636, 1644, and 1663, while a translation into Dutch appeared in Leeuwarden in 1634 and 1645.

The work is dedicated to the brothers Joannes Jacobus, Dominicus and Joannes Porsch, and contains thirty-three poems, each of which is illustrated by an allegorical engraving and accompanied by two captions, one for the poem and one for the plate, as well as an explanation in prose. Particularly for its age, the Nebulo Nebulonum is a very curious emblem book, which makes fun of the customs of Flittner's time, sparing no social class. If the clergy is the most heavily and frequently attacked, all professions are taken into account, especially those who use words to deceive and seduce other people like jurists, councillors, clerics, and preachers.

The lively illustrations – likely designed by the publisher Jakob de Zetter – show the daily life of the time, depicting costumes, the interiors of homes, and indoor and outdoor activities.

VD17 1:029198C; H. Hayn-A.N. Gotendorf, Bibliotheca Germanorum Erotica, München 1913, v, 248; Landwehr 283; Wellcome 4490; M. Praz, Studies in 17th century imagery, Roma 1975, p. 337; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 187.

A fascinating mirror of Italian society at the beginning of the Seicento

190. [Commedia dell’Arte]

Album with representations of Italian, mainly Venetian, costumes and characters. Illuminated manuscript on parchment. Italy (Venice ?), first quarter of the seventeenth century.

125-127 x 190-195 mm (oblong). [22] single leaves mounted on paper guards, compensation guards added at regular intervals. Foliation in pencil, corresponding neither to the number of leaves nor their respective position within the album. Twenty-two miniatures in full colour with occasional use of gold and silver. One miniature with a paper flap (fol. 7). Headings written in gold, in a regular antiqua capitalis hand. Mid-twentieth-century dark blue morocco, signed by the Italian binder Bernasconi. Title lettered on the spine, inside dentelles. Three paper flyleaves at beginning and end, marbled pastedowns and first flyleaves. In a modern marbled slipcase. Well-preserved manuscript. Most miniatures in fine condition, only minor rubbing, two miniatures (fols. 5 and 13) partly smudged, occasional staining, several repairs around the edges of the leaves.


The album is composed of twenty-two miniatures, painted on the recto of each leaf (versos blank). While the first two miniatures (fols. 1 and 2) are set in frames and have fully articulated backgrounds, the others follow a simpler scheme. A stripe of beige-pink sets the stage for a défilé of figures.

Fol. 1r: 'Come si bace li piedi del papa';

fol. 2r: 'Come le done si petinano nel sol per rossir li suoi capeli';

fol. 3r: 'Gentildona venetiana & Donzela venetiana';

fol. 4r: 'Procurator di Venetia & Magnifico di Venetia';

fol. 5r: 'Duco di Venetia & Duchesa di Venetia';

fol. 6r: 'Cortegiano de la corte del papa & Comendatore in Padoa';

fol. 7r: 'Cortesiana & Vedoa Feraresa';

fol. 8r: 'Caposta di Padoa & Procurator in Padoa';

fol. 9r: 'Cortegiana romana & macarela';

fol. 10r: 'Un evesque de France allent en prossession';

fol. 11r: 'Generale de Larmata di Venetia & Concilio di Venetia';

fol. 12r: 'Medico';

fol. 13r: 'Gondola di Venetia';

fol. 14r: 'Come li batuti vano nela processione';

fol. 15r: 'Arlequin & Isabella & Franquatripa';

fol. 16r: 'Un contadino sacando otirando lato duna capra';

fol.17r: 'Contadina';

fol. 18r: 'Charlatano';

fol. 19r: 'Mascarata';

fol. 20r: 'Come si porta il vino nel tempo di vendemi';

fol. 21r: 'Un pescator il quale va pescando pece sopra il fiumo';

fol. 22r: 'Come duy fachini giocano a la m[ora]'.

A fascinating manuscript containing twenty-two fine, full-colour miniature drawings of Italian costumes for men and women of different social ranks, scenes of local life, ceremonies, and characters from the Commedia dell'Arte. Twelve of these drawings depict Venetian scenes or dress, suggesting the album may have been executed in the Veneto region, particularly in Venice or Padua, leading centres not only for manuscript production and publication, but also for fashion and the trading of textiles.

At that time, the vogue to buy similar drawings or miniatures from print shops or booksellers, or to commission a personalized costume collection from local artists, was widespread among foreign travellers in Venice and other Veneto cities like Padua. In the age of pre-Grand Tour travels, such albums provided a sort of 'book of memories', illustrated with scenes from local life, especially its ceremonies and dress. These albums were thus produced according to a traveller's individual preferences, and the drawings were rarely signed by the artists. Notably, such travel albums, and particularly those produced in the Venetian milieu, often included representations of courtesans in addition to drawings of noble or wealthy women. “Visitors often purchased visual representations of courtesans' dress in the Venetian marketplace, and then placed them, together with colored miniatures of other Venetian fashions of both men and women, in personal albums as memories of their visits” (M. F. Rosenthal, “Cutting a Good Figure,” p. 52).

Another group might be said to form around rather cheeky representations of courtesans. Two such illustrations are of especial note. The first is a drawing of a woman dyeing her hair blond, an allurement closely associated with Venice, as attested by Titian's nudes. The second shows a courtesan – ironically juxtaposed with a widow – with a moveable flap for a skirt. This conceit derives from Bertelli's Diversarum nationum habitus, though the flap is lacking in many copies of the printed book. When the flap is lifted, the woman is seen to be essentially naked, wearing only a pair of stockings with fancy ribbons and some high-heeled shoes.

The remaining miniatures show various figures in a seemingly arbitrary order, including some depicting figures from the Commedia dell'Arte, which are of the greatest interest. Developed in sixteenth-century Italy, the Commedia dell'Arte is a type of theatre characterized by improvised dialogues based around plot outlines and featuring a set of stock characters. Fol. 15 presents three of the most famous among these latter. Harlequin is the darling of the audience: witty, often impertinent, and full of jokes; he and Franquatripa – whose name signifies 'nonsense', and who's a real good-for-nothing – belong to the 'Zanni' or simple folk. Isabella is most often the beautiful girl whose adventurous path to a happy union with her beloved forms a central plotline. Closely related is the miniature entitled 'Charlatano' (fol. 18). Charlatans entertained with fantastic stories, often about illnesses and miraculous cures for which they held in stock a wide selection of 'medicine' on sale for the audience. Like the comedians they performed in city and town piazzas. Another aspect of the fascination with theatre and costume is illustrated by the masquerade (fol. 19), a popular pastime of the wealthy Venetians, which of course reached its annual peak at Carnival.

The miniatures in the second part of the present album, among which the flagellants certainly stand out, present other strata of society: a peasant woman and her male counterpart, a fisherman, two vineyard workers, and two servants at leisure. This last miniature shows the pair engaged in a round of mora, a popular Italian game in which two players simultaneously hold up one or several fingers, each player trying at the same time to predict the number of fingers shown by the other. Taken together, the miniatures, which may originally have belonged to a larger series, offer a cross-section of Venetian society at the beginning of the seventeenth century, as indicated by the fashion style. With its faithful representations of costumes, typical traditions, and social habits, the album is a truly precious historical document.

The focus on dress also relates to contemporary printed costume books, including Bertelli's Diversarum nationum habitus and the De Habiti antichi et moderni by Cesare Vecellio, which first appeared in Venice in 1590 and subsequently went through many editions. Both Bertelli's and Vecellio's works offer a veritable mine of information on clothing, textiles, and luxury goods such as jewellery.

Similar albums are highly sought after by collectors for their rarity and the beauty of their visual representations. Famous examples include the ms Egerton 1191 of the British Library, which was produced in Venice or Padua in the 1570s, and the album known as Mores Italiae, held by the Beinecke Library (ms 457), which was executed in the 1570s for a foreign student matriculated at the University of Padua.

M. A. Katritzky, “Scenery, Setting and Stages in Late Renaissance Commedia Dell'Arte Performances:Some Pictorial Evidence”, Ch. Cairns (ed.), Scenery, Set and Staging in the Italian Renaissance: Studies in the Practice of Theatre, Lewiston, NY 1996, pp. 209-288; U. Ilg, “The Cultural Significance of Costume Books in Sixteenth-Century Europe”, C. Richardson (ed.), Clothing Culture 1350-1650, Aldershot 2004, pp. 29-47; T. Storey, “Clothing Courtesans. Fabrics, Signals, and Experiences”, ibid., pp. 95-108; M. A. Katritzky, The Art of Commedia: A Study in the Commedia dell'Arte 1560-1620 with Special Reference to the Visual Records, Amsterdam 2006; M. F. Rosenthal, “Cutting a Good Figure. The Fashions of Venetian Courtesans in the Illustrated Albums of Early Modern Travelers”, M. Feldman (ed.), The Courtesan's Arts. Cross-Cultural Perspectives, Oxford 2006, pp. 52-74; Eadem, “Fashion, Custom and Culture. Two Early-Modern Illustrated Album,” M. Rippa Bonati - V. Finucci, Mores Italiae. Costumi e scene di vita del Rinascimento: Costume and Life in the Renaissance, Cittadella 2007, pp. 79-107; A. Vitali, La moda a Venezia attraverso i secoli. Lessico ragionato, Venezia 2009; S. Goltz, “A Venetian Sixteenth-Century Costume Book as an Authentic Visual Record”, M. Aldrich - J. Hackforth-Jones (eds.), Art and Authenticity, Farnham 2012, pp. 50-61; P. Jordan, The Venetian Origins of the Commedia dell'Arte, London 2014; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 190.

The ‘lunatiques’ of Aix-en-Provence. A Gift from Peiresc to His Friend Gassendi

191. Bacon, Francis (1561-1626)

De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum, Libri ix. Ad Regem suum. Iuxta Exemplar Londini Impressum. Pierre Mettayer, 1624.

Small 4° (256x170 mm). Collation: *2, **4, ***2, A-Z8, AA-ZZ8, AAa-XXx4, YYy2. [16], 540 pages (with some errors in numbering). Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Engraved portrait of the author on fol. *1r. Woodcut decorated initials and headpieces. Fine French contemporary binding executed by Simon Corberan. Red morocco, over pasteboards. Covers framed within triple gilt fillet, central gilt monogram of Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc. Spine with three raised bands, compartments decorated with small floral tools, title and imprint in gilt lettering. 'VERVLAMIVS DE SCIENTIAR. DIGNIT. 1624'. Edges slightly speckled red. A few minor stains to the lower cover. In a modern red morocco box, at foot of the spine 'EXEMPLAIRE DE PEIRESC DONNÉ EN CADEAU À GASSENDI'. A good copy, light offset turn-ins of the binding on the first and last leaves; restored wormhole in the blank outer margin of some leaves, without any loss. Pencilled modern note about the provenance on the recto of the front flyleaf.

Provenance: from the library of Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637), who on 26 March 1636 gave the volume to Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655; ownership inscription on the title-page: 'donum optimi d[omi]ni de Peiresc, ideo acceptum, quòd aliud exe[m]plar in folio hab[ea]t. 26 mart. M.DC.XXXVI. Gassendi.').

Extraordinary association copy of the second Latin edition of this famous treatise by the English philosopher and stateman Francis Bacon, his manifesto for the progress of learning. The volume belonged to the renowned savant, naturalist, antiquarian, book collector and great patron and amateur of sciences and art Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637), who offered it as a gift to one of his closest friends, the famous philosopher and astronomer Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), one of the earliest French admirer of Bacon's experimental philosophy. This exceptional provenance is attested by the inscription on the title-page, in the hand of Gassendi himself. United in the present volume are thus three of the principal scientists and advocates of the New Science: Bacon, Gassendi and the savant for whom the volume was handsomely bound, Peiresc.

Although in his will Peiresc left books – along with mathematical and astronomical instruments – to Gassendi, his nephew refused to let the philosopher have them upon his death on 24 June 1637. The library was thereby dispersed, and a manuscript catalogue now survives in the Bibliothèque Inguimbertine at Carpentras. This copy is thus of especial interest as it rescues a volume from Peiresc's library, and offering documentary evidence of Bacon's ideas and work in the French intellectual circles of the 1620s and the following decades.

Indeed, Peiresc himself was directly involved in the publishing of the 1624 edition of the De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum, edited by Bacon's secretary William Rawley, which first appeared in 1623 in London as an enlarged version of the earlier On the Proficience and Advancement of Learning (1605).

In November 1623 Peiresc had received a letter from the Italian scholar and antiquarian Cassiano del Pozzo, containing a notice of the publication in London of the De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum. In the opinion of Peiresc, the circumstances were also favorable for proposing in France an edition of this work juxta exemplar Londini. Unlike the London folio-edition, for the volume printed by the typographus regius Pierre Mettayer a quarto format was chosen, and copies hot off the press were sent by Peiresc to many correspondents. Peiresc thereby played a pivotal role in the diffusion of Bacon across continental Europe.

In March 1636 a copy of this Parisian edition was still preserved in the large library amassed by Peiresc in Aix-en-Provence, elegantly yet plainly bound in red morocco by the binder Simon Corberan, who moved from Paris to Aix-en-Provence in 1625, and stamped with Peiresc's Greek cipher, two sets of his initials, Ν Κ Φ. And precisely at the beginning of March 1636 his great friend and intellectual interlocutor Pierre Gassendi arrived in Peiresc's residence, as his letter to the Genevan Elie Diodati, dated Aix-en-Provence 8 April 1636, attests.

In the De rebus coelestibus commentarij (1658) Gassendi presents a large number of observations recorded over decades, among them those carried out at Aix in March 1636 together with his friend Peiresc, who had studied astronomy at the Jesuit College in Tournon, and met Galileo at Padua in 1599. Peiresc took an active interest in Galileo's telescopic discoveries, so much so that immediately after the publication in 1610 of the Sidereus Nuncius, he had an observatory built in his Hôtel de Callas in Aix; he spent years recording the times of planetary events and calculating terrestrial longitudes, discovered the first nebula in the constellation Orion, and commissioned the first mapping of the moon.

The 'story' of the present copy of Bacon's De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum has another protagonist, albeit less famous than Peiresc and Gassendi: the binder Simon Corberan, who in March 1636 assisted the two 'lunatiques' of Aix-en-Provence in their astronomic observations. Pereisc had in fact trained his servants also to be astronomers. Corberan began to observe the celestial bodies on 7 November 1631, on the occasion of the transit of Mercury, accurately predicted by Johann Kepler. He also sketched a cahier d'observation, and we have records of Gassendi and Corberan observing an eclipse of the sun in 1639. Corberan represents the “exemple le plus magistral de domestique parvenu au statut de curieux [...]: embauché initialement comme relieur, il devint, sous la direction de Peiresc, un fervent curieux d'astronomie et acquit d'incontestables talents d'observateur” (C. Dauvergne, Un moteur de la révolution scientifique, p. 465).

The gift, on 26 March 1636, of this precious copy of Bacon's De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum – from his library and bound by the relieur-astronome Corberan – to his dearest friend seems to encapsulate the revival of Bacon's philosophy, with its dual emphasis on friendship and the advancement of science. A collaborative venture which reflects Bacon's convinction that the true progress of knowledge can be achieved only through a collective enterprise.

R. W. Gibson, Francis Bacon. A Bibliography of His Works and of Baconiana, Oxford 1950, no. 130; P. Tamizey de Larroque, “Une lettre inédite de Peiresc à son relieur Corberan”, Annuaire-bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France, 26 (1890), pp. 121-126; P. Humbert, “Un relieur astronome”, Mélanges de Philosophie, d'Histoire, et de Littérature, 1934, pp. 209-214; I. de Conihout, “Du nouveau sur la bibliothèque de Peiresc”, M. Fumaroli (ed.), Peiresc et l'Italie, Paris 2009, pp. 243-264; C. Zittel, “Die Lunatiker von Aix-en-Provence”, U. Feist - M. Rath (eds.), Et in imagine Ego. Facetten von Bildakt und Verkörperung. Festgabe für Horst Bredekamp, Berlin 2012, pp. 277-299; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 191.

The first publication to use colored illustrations in the service of scientific clarity — Norman

192. Aselli, Gaspare (1581-1625)

De lactibus Siue lacteis venis quarto vasorum mesaraicorum genere Nouo Inuento... dissertatio.... Giovanni Battista Bidelli, 1627.

4° (218x176 mm). Collation: †4, 22, A-K4, 34. [12], 79, [9] pages. Roman and italic type. Additional engraved title-page within an elaborate border, and extra author's portrait, both executed by Cesare Bassano. Four chiaroscuro woodcut folding plates printed in black, dark red and light red, usually attributed to Cesare Bassano and Domenico Falcini. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Ink title on spine. Lower corners and lower edge of the covers slightly worn and rubbed, few wormholes to the spine. A very good copy. Small stain in the upper margin of the title-page, skilfully repaired wormholes on the rear pastedown and flyleaves, one of which also affects the final plate, old reinforcing strips on the verso of some plates along the folds.

Provenance: the physician from Mantua Giuseppe Perego (ownership inscription on the front flyleaf, dated 1651); the renowned physician Luigi Francesco Castellani, born in Sermide, near Mantua (1727-1794; ownership inscription on the front flyleaf, dated 1752).

The first scientific study of the lymphatic system and the first book with anatomical illustrations printed in colour, in a fine copy in its original binding.

A Cremona-born professor of anatomy working in Pavia, Aselli discovered the lymphatic vessels of the small intestine (which absorb digested fats and control their entry into the lymphatic system) while engaged with experimental research, and called them 'lacteas, sive albas venas', owing to the fact that, if incised, these vellels released a fluid similar to milk. “In 1622, while performing vivisection on a dog, Aselli chanced upon the lacteal vessels. His De lactibus is a landmark in the history of anatomical illustration: it may well be the first publication to use colored illustrations in the service of scientific clarity” (Norman 76). The book was published posthumously, thanks to the efforts of the great patron of arts and science Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637; see no. 191), and dedicated to the Senate of Milan by Alessandro Tadini and Ludovico Settala.

The four chiaroscuro woodcut plates included in the publication are of the greatest importance in the history of scientific illustration. These are the first coloured anatomical illustrations ever printed. They use three colours – black, dark red, and light red – along with the natural white of the paper to distinguish the different types of vessels. The plates have been attributed to the outstanding Milanese engraver Cesare Bassano (1584-1648) and to his associate Domenico Falcini (1575-ca. 1632). Preparatory drawings and proofs for the plates are preserved at the College of Physicians in Philadelphia.

The present copy was owned, over the centuries, by two Italian physicians. The earliest, and nearly contemporary owner was Giuseppe Perego, who was active in Mantua in the second half of the seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century, the volume belonged to another well-known Mantuan physician, Luigi Francesco Castellani, who was the first to practice the inoculation of smallpox and wrote about the unhealthiness of rice fields and the non-contagious nature of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Aselli's De lactibus sive lacteis venis is an extremely rare book on the market, with only three copies having been sold at auction over the past fifty years.

STC 17th Century, p. 52; Choulant-Frank, p. 241; Cushing A-279; Garrison-Morton 1094; Heirs of Hippocrates 453; Lilly Library, Notable Medical Books 61; Norman 76; Osler 1846; Waller 502; Wellcome 6837; M. Grimm - C. Kleine-Tebbe - A. Stijnman (eds.), Lichtspiel und Farbenpracht. Entwicklungen des Farbdrucks 1500-1800. Aus den Beständen der Herzog August Bibliothek, no. 23; E. Savage, “Colour Printing in Relief before c. 1700. A Technical History”, A. Stijnman - E. Savage (eds.), Printing Colour 1400-1700: History, Techniques, Functions and Receptions, Leiden 2015, p. 35; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 192.

'Les Incroyables'

193. Lucini, Antonio Francesco (1605/10-1661)

Compendio dell’Armi de’ Caramogi D’Ant. Fran. Lucini. Florence [i.e., Paris?], F. L. D. Chartres excud. [i.e., François L’Anglois, dit Chartres], 1627.

Twenty-three of twenty-five numbered etchings and engravings, including the title image (78-81x117-120 mm), all with large margins (each leaf measuring 198x141 mm). Lacking plates nos. 13 and 24. Unidentified blason watermark. Loose sheets, matted and preserved in a modern half-calf box. Minor fingermarks and other stains in outer blank margins of some leaves; pale waterstain or discolouration at the outer margin of some prints; minor bleeding at outside border of print no. 18, not affecting image; print no. 6 includes very minor staining within image. Most prints have a very slight amount of wash colour – always at the headgear and often barely noticeable – the casual 'doodling' of an early collector. Plate no. 2 includes the inked inscription, in an early hand, 'Les Incroyables', now slightly faded, in margin above image.

Exceedingly rare suite of prints showing armed caramogi, i.e., dwarfs, engaged in duels or carrying a variety of weapons, a satire of the macabre jousts held in seventeenth-century Florence during Carnival, and a 'little known' (Viatte) addition to the corpus of Florentine caricature or grotesques which Baldinucci termed “invenzione bizzarrissima”. Lucini (or Luccini) is said to have been in the circle – perhaps as a disciple – of the outstanding French engraver Jacques Callot, first in Florence (1616), and subsequently in Nancy. He is famous for his engravings after Stefano della Bella, and for all the engravings in the great sea atlas Arcano del Mare, (1646-1647), an immense undertaking of twelve years' duration which very likely contains the most beautifully engraved and calligraphed maps ever executed.

“The Compendio dell'armi de' caramogi (Compendium of caramogi weapons) of 1627 is a rare edition of 25 prints [...] Without a doubt, Luccini was familiar with the Gobbi series and other dwarf imagery by Callot, under whom he had studied [...] Luccini's combination of bizarre costume, ugly physique and grotesque violence produced an amusing parody of dueling. The prints illustrate dwarfs using a variety of weapons (several operate diverse types of cannons). Many of the images feature pairs of doughy-looking dwarfs battling with swords, knives and lances. The dwarfs wrestle ferociously, often stabbing and slicing the limbs off one another. The contrast between the appearance of the lumpish dwarfs and the brutal nature of the fighting created a paradox – small creatures exhibiting excessive carnality – that would have been highly entertaining for the early modern audience” (S. Cheng, “Parodies of Life”, pp. 132-133).

The suite was published by the Parisian printer and occasional engraver Francois L'Anglois (or Langlois; 1588-1647), dit Chartres. His signature – 'F. L. D. Chartres excud.' - appears only the title, as none of the other plates are signed. Accordingly, it may be an error to consider 'in Firenze An. MDCXXVII' the place of publication, which would more likely be Paris, while the Tuscan city would have been the place where Lucini invented his Caramogi.

In this set, an early French hand has written, in the upper margin of plate no. 2, 'Les Incroyables', a feature which could suggest – alongside the mention of François L'Anglois on the title-page at least a French circulation, if not its Paris publication. We have located only three copies of this series: one complete copy is in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, in the Marolles album devoted to caricature and ornament (BnF, Cabinet des Estampes, Res. Tf-1-Fold, Marolles N° 222; reproduced in its entirety by Viatte); a second one, lacking one plate, is at the Biblioteca Civica Bertoliana, in Vicenza; and a third set containing only twelve plates in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. If it was ever more widespread, the survival rate of such engraved suites is tenuous indeed, whether because they were so antithetical to the main currents of Florentine art, or because of their hypothetically 'popular' character – notwithstanding some of the towering names associated with it. One could well imagine that the pleasure they offered was ephemeral, and that only they began to be collected from the seventeenth century onwards. In fact, one of the greatest print collectors of all time, Michel de Marolles (1600-1681), included Lucini's Compendio dell'Armi de' Caramogi in the same album as his series of Songes Drolatiques Allemands (see no. 173) as outstanding examples of pieces facétièuses et bouffonnes; it is with great pride that we are able to offer both such outstanding examples in the present catalogue.

F. Viatte, “Allegorical and Burlesque Subjects by Stefano della Bella”, Master Drawings, 15 (1977). pp. 347-365; S. Cheng, “Parodies of Life: Baccio del Bianco's comic drawings of dwarfs”, D. R. Smith (ed.), Parody and Festivity in Early Modern Art. Essays on Comedy as Social Vision, Farnham 2012, pp. 127-142; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 193.

The Colbert-Heber-Beckford copy

195. Maccio, Paolo (1576-1638)

Emblemata. Clemente Ferroni, April 1628.

4° (203x140 mm). Collation: A-Z4, AA-TT4. 331, [5] pages. Roman and italic type. Engraved title-page within typographical border; dedicatory plate showing the Madonna and Child in a landscape; eighty-one emblematic engravings. Eighteenth-century calf, over pasteboards. Covers within a triple gilt fillet. Spine with five raised bands, title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Marbled flyleaves, gilt edges. Joints and top of spine partially restored. A very good copy, small repair to the lower margin of fol. Q1r, without any loss.

Provenance: from the library of French politician Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683; ownership inscription on the title-page 'Bibliothecae Colbertinae'); by descent to Jean-Baptiste Colbert de Torcy (1665-1746), Jacques Nicolas Colbert, Archbishop of Rouen (1655-1707), and Charles Eléonor Colbert, Comte de Seignelay (d. 1747; see the sale catalogue Bibliotheca Colbertina, seu Catalogus librorum bibliothecae quae fuit primum Ill. V.D. J. B. Colbert, Regni ministri, deinde Ill. D. J. B. Colbert. March. de Seignelay; postea Rev. et ill. D. J. Nic. Colbert, Rothomagensis Archiepiscopi, ac demum D. Caroli-Leonorii Colbert, Comitis de Seignelay, Paris 1728, Pars Secunda, Continens Libros in 4.); the English book collector Richard Heber (1773-1833; his stamp on the front flyleaf); the English writer and patron of the arts William Beckford (1760-1844); his younger daughter, the Duchess of Hamilton (pencil note on the front flyleaf, dated 20 December 1882; see the sale at Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, The Hamilton Palace Libraries. Catalogue of the Second Portion of the Beckford Library, Removed from Hamilton Palace, London 11-23 December 1882).

First edition of this lively and richly illustrated emblem book by the Modenese Paolo Maccio (Macchi, or Mazzi), which presents an interesting iconography of contemporary life in Bologna.

The engravings were executed by various artists who were active in Bologna. Oliviero Gatti (1598-1646), a disciple of Giovanni Luigi Valesio, drew and engraved the dedication plate and fifty-two emblematic plates. Giovanni Battista Coriolano (1590-1649) was responsible for engraving twenty-six emblematic plates, while the remaining three engravings are the work of Agostino Parisini (fl. 1625-1636) after drawings by Florio Maccio, a disciple of Lodovico Carracci.

A further point of interest in this copy lies in its provenance, as it once belonged to the great book collector Jean-Baptiste Colbert, chief minister to the King of France Louis XIV from 1661 to 1683 (for another book from the Colbertina see no. 150). The notable library assembled by Colbert passed by descent to other members of this French family, and was largely sold in Paris on 24 May 1728. Later the book came into the possession of one of the most refined English bibliophiles, Richard Heber, founder of the Roxburghe Club of bibliophiles, whose collection of 105,000 volumes was sold by auction in London in 1835. On this occasion, the copy from the Colbertina was purchased by another outstanding English book collector, William Beckford, and until 1882 was preserved in his family's great library at Hamilton Palace.

Cicognara 1913; Frati 7447; Landwehr 496; A. Sorbelli, Storia della stampa in Bologna, Bologna 1929, p. 140; L. Bolzoni - B. Allegranti, Con parola brieve e con figura: libri antichi di imprese e emblemi, Lucca 2004, p. 48; D. Bloch, “La bibliothèque de Colbert”, Histoire des bibliothèques françaises, II, pp. 157-179; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 195.

The last seventeenth-century Commedia

196. Alighieri, Dante (1265-1321)

La Diuina Comedia di Dante, Con gli Argomenti, & Allegorie per ogni Canto. E due Indici, uno di tutti i vocaboli più importanti usati dal Poeta... E l’altro delle cose più notabili. Niccolò Misserini, 1629.

24° (95x50 mm). Collation: A-X12, Y6, *12. [6], 510, [24] pages; numerous leaves misbound, but complete. Roman and italic type. Title-page framed within a woodcut border containing Dante's portrait in the upper panel and the printer's device in the lower one. Fine contemporary binding à la Du Seuil, red morocco tooled in gold over pasteboards. Covers framed by two concentric borders delimited by fillets à l'ancienne, the internal border decorated at its corners with floral tools. Spine with four raised bands, tooled in gilt; title lettered in gold in the second compartment. Gilt edges. A good copy, repairs at joints and foot of spine.

Third and last edition of the Commedia published in the seventeenth century. The volume is printed in the innovative and compact 'long 24mo' format invented by Alessandro Paganini (see nos. 60 and 62).

From a textual point of view the edition follows the Commedia of 1613, which had been published by the Vicenza printer Francesco Leni under the title of La Visione (see no. 185). Dante's poem is therefore presented without any commentary or encomiastic texts or woodcuts, apart from the arguments and allegories by Lodovico Dolce and the Tavola de vocaboli più oscuri usati da Dante, taken from the Commedia published in 1554-1555 by Gabriel Giolito de' Ferrari (see nos. 116 and 117).

However, rather than use the 1613 title of La Visione – which Donato Pasquardi adopted for the second seventeenth-century edition, published in Padua, likewise in 1629 – Misserini adheres to the traditional title of Divina Commedia.

Batines I, p. 102; Mambelli 55; U. Limentani, “La fortuna di Dante nel Seicento”, Studi secenteschi, 5 (1964), pp. 3-49; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 196.

A fine association copy of the earliest work to contain a bibliographical entry devoted to Galileo

198. Allacci, Leone (ca. 1586-1669)

Apes Urbanae sive de viris illustribus, qui ab anno MDCXXX per totum MDCXXXII Romae abfuerunt, ac typis aliquid euulgarunt. Grignani Lodovico [Lodovico Grignani], 1633.

8° (176x115 mm). Collation: A-R8, [χ]2. 276 pages. Roman and italic type. Large engraved vignette with the Barberini coat of arms on the title-page. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, with inked title on spine, and the number '31'. A good copy, slightly browned and waterstained (more prominant at the beginning), the last leaf of the index has a tear in the lower blank margin, without any loss. Later notes on the rear flyleaf and pastedown.

Provenance: gifted by the author himself to Giacomo Filippo Tomasini (1595-1655; address in Allacci's own hand on the title-page 'Jacobo Philippo Tomasino Roma misit Autor').

An exceptional presentation copy – given as a gift by the author to Giacomo Filippo Tomasini – of the first edition of the Apes Urbanae, the famous 'who's who' of men of letters, philosophers, and scientists living in Rome during the pontificate of Urban VIII, and perhaps the first such register of contemporary intellectuals ever published.

The leading Greek scholar Leone Allacci – a teacher at the Greek College in Rome who later became librarian for Cardinal Francesco Barberini and then custodian of the Vatican Library in 1661 – dedicated his work to the Pope's nephew Cardinal Antonio Barberini. The Apes Urbanae – literally 'Pope Urban VIII's bees' – represents a celebration of the Barberini family's multi-faceted cultural and artistic patronage and contains several hundred entries, arranged in alphabetical order by first name, as was customary for the time. The entries give short biographical information about the authors and provide a list of their writings. This is the earliest work to contain a bibliographical entry devoted to Galileo Galilei. The entry includes a list of his works, along with other figures who were influenced by him, such as Giulio Cesare Lagalla. As the preface is signed 13 February 1633, the entry could well have included the Dialogo (1632), although it does not. A manuscript of the Vatican Library (Vat. Lat. 7075) containing an earlier version of Allacci's work allows us to trace the significant changes that the entry on Galileo underwent before publication. These changes clearly reflect the ambiguous attitude of Maffeo Barberini towards Galileo, on whose celestial discoveries he had written a eulogy before distancing himself from the scientist and his heliocentrism. Allaccis's report turns from an initial exaltation of Galileo in the manuscript to an ambiguous and mutilated version in which the final eulogy was cut and the list of works left incomplete.

The volume was gifted by Allacci to Giacomo Filippo Tomasini (1595-1655), Bishop of Città Nuova, near Padua, and author in 1635 of the well-known Petrarch biography, the Petrarcha redivivus. Tomasini was a refined collector of portraits with a great interest in the long-established tradition of illustrated biographies, and in Padua in 1630 he had published the first volume of his Illustrium virorum elogia iconibus exornata (the second and a third volumes appeared in 1644 and 1647, respectively).

The personal and intellectual relationship between Allacci and Tomasini is evinced by their correspondence and collaboration for the publication of Cardano's Opera, edited by Gabriel Naudé (1661).

STC 17th Century, 21; Carli-Favaro, 134; T. Cerbu – M.-P. Lerner, “La disgrâce de Galilée dans les Apes Urbanae. Sur la fabrique du texte de Leone Allacci”, Nuncius, 15 (2000), pp. 589-610; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 198.

A fortune-telling book, for learned readers

199. Sturm, Johannes (1559-1650)

De accurata circuli dimensione et quadratura, cum sylvula epigrammatum aenigmatum... Leuven, François Simon, 1633. (bound with:) Idem. Ludus fortunae, ad recreandam societatem Latinis versibus omnibus in contrario sensu Retrogradis exhibitus, & in tres Libros distributus.... François Simon, 1635 [but 1633].

Two works in one volume, 4° (197x154 mm). I. Collation: ):(4, ):( ):(4, ):( ):( ):(4, A-I4. [24], 72 pages. Roman and Italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page, with the motto 'REBUS IN HUMANIS FORTUNA VOLUBILIS ERRAT' in cartouche. Six-line decorated woodcut initials. II. Collation: A-Z4, Aa4. 192 pages. Roman and Italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page, with 'FORTUNA VOLUBILIS ERRAT', in cartouche. Six-line decorated woodcut initials. Text within pyramid-shaped diagrams on fols. E3v-H1v. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards, with yapp edges. Running stitches, traces of ties. Smooth spine. A good copy, slightly spotted and browned in places, last quire of the first bound edition is loose.

Provenance: 'I.C.S.I.' (contemporary ownership inscription on the title-page); José Bayolo Pacheco de Amorim (1918-2013; stamp on the title-page, with the printed shelfmark '14009').

The rare first edition of De accurata circuli dimensione et quadratura, an influential contribution by Belgian mathematician Sturm to the controversial topic of squaring the circle, a futile effort which, toward the end of the sixteenth century, had captured the imagination of numerous mathematicians, including Scaliger, Viète, Clavius, and Adrianus van Roomen, Sturmius' predecessor to the chair of mathematics at the University of Louvain.

The second bound work is the first edition of the Ludus fortunae printed in 1633, and presented here in an apparently unrecorded variant of the title-page, with the final number '3' in the date of printing erased, and overprinted with '5'. Whilst this work fits into the tradition of fortune-telling books – whose highest achievement in print is represented in Italy by Lorenzo Spirito (see nos. 42 and 202), and in France by Jean de Meung – the Ludus fortunae distances itself from the legacy of pagan books drawing on biblical figures. The author indeed charges his predecessors with having abused their readers' naivety by combining pagan oracles and characters from Christianity. For this reason Sturmius plays out the Seven Sages of Greece – like Solon of Athens, Cleobulus of Lindos and Chilon of Sparta –, at the end of an itinerary marked by kings and queens from antiquity – including Nestor, Priam, Dido and Cleopatra –, the most renowned European cities – like Antwerp, Leuven and Brussels – and their rivers. Responses were obtained through the roll of two dice, whose twenty-one possible combinations were deemed sufficient, or by the throw of five small bones.

Poggendorf II, 1018 (only the first edition); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 199.

The Genoese nobility

200. Fransone, Agostino (1573-1658)

Nobiltà di Genoua di Agostino Fransone del fu Tomaso nobile Genouese all’Ill.mo & Ecc.mo signor prencipe Doria. Pietro Giovanni Calenzano and Giovanni Maria Farroni, 1636.

Folio (476x357 mm). Six unnumbered engraved leaves, including author's portrait, the frontispiece bearing the coat of arms of the dedicatee, the dedication to the Prince Doria, the title-page, the coat-of-arms of the city of Genoa, St. George (patron saint of the city) killing the dragon; thirty engraved plates, numbered I-XXIX (two plates are numbered I); [4] printed pages, with the list of family names. All thirty-six plates engraved by Jérôme David (three after Luciano Borzone). Contemporary marbled boards, recently rebacked in vellum. A very good copy, some marginal foxing.

The first and only edition of this splendid work dedicated to the Genoese nobility, illustrated with fine engravings executed by the French artist Jérôme David (1605-1670), and dedicated to Prince Doria, whose coat of arms is engraved on the frontispiece. The plates also include Fransone's portrait at the age of sixty-three, while the title-page is illustrated with a handsome engraved bird's-eye view of Genoa. The engravings primarily show the coats of arms of the most noble families of Genoa, particularly the twenty-eight which, in 1528, had been selected for the government of the city (Armi delle casate nobili della citta di Genoua annesse al Governo della Rep.: ripartite nelli 28 alberghi instituiti l'anno 1528). The last four pages list the noble families aggregated to the previous ruling houses.

The colophon and the first three plates are dated 1636; the remaining plates were probably printed in 1634, the date of the engraved title.

Cicognara 2032; Colaneri 724; Manno VI, 25222; Spreti 1579; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 200.

The first publication of the Inquisitorial sentence against Galileo

201. Polacco, Giorgio (1570-ca. 1650)

Anticopernicus catholicus, seu De terrae statione, et de solis motu, contra systema Copernicanum, Catholicae Assertiones.... Guerigli Press, 1644.

4° (230x166 mm). Collation: *4, A-M4, N6 (quire L signed K). [8], 107, [1] pages. Roman and italic type. Engraved diagram of the solar system on the title-page. Two engraved illustrations on fols. C1v and C2r, showing the moon and sun spots. Woodcut decorated initials and headpieces. Later bound 'alla rustica' (possibly a remboîtage). A good copy, uncut. Title-page slightly spotted, a few paper flaws. Small paper repairs to the inner margin of the title-page and to the last leaf, without any loss. Some pencilled and inked marginal notes written in an early hand.

Rare first edition of the 195 assertiones or theses by the Venetian priest Giorgio Polacco relating astronomy to the Bible and the teachings of the Catholic Church.

In this work, Polacco praises the condemnation of Copernicanism by the Church in 1616 and Galileo's forced recantation of 1633, while demonstrating the scope of his readings and deep erudition.

Further, and more importantly, the Anticopernicus catholicus contains the first publication of the full text – in its original Italian version – of the sentence issued by the Roman Inquisition against Galileo in June 1633, along with the subsequent abjuration of the Florentine scientist kneeled before the “most Eminent and Reverend Lord Cardinals, Inquisitors-General throughout the Christian Republic against heretical depravity”, the text of which is quoted by Polacco in its entirety (fols. I2v-K2v). Both texts were until then known only through printed flyers that had escaped Inquisitorial control or in circulated abridgements or summaries in Latin and French, such as the French translation included by Marin Mersenne in his Questions theologiques of 1634.

STC 17th Century, 693; Bruni-Evans 4171; Carli-Favaro 202; Cinti 113; Riccardi II, 290; A. Poppi, “Astronomia e Bibbia nell' 'Anticopernicus catholicus' di Giorgio Polacco 1644”, Idem, Ricerche sulla teologia e la scienza nella Scuola padovana del Cinque e Seicento, Catanzaro 2001, pp. 231-244; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 201.

The Renaissance fortune-telling book goes baroque

202. [Stefano della Bella, after]. Spirito, Lorenzo (ca. 1425-1496)

Libro della Ventura. Manuscript drawn and calligraphed in brown ink, in Italian. Italy (possibly Florence?) ca. 1650.

295x284 mm. I + 48 + I leaves. Complete. Six quires. Collation: 110, 26-1, 36, 44, 510, 616-3. Beautiful allegorical title leaf, surrounded by a cornucopia in the form of a garland, with richly festooned garlands draped over the upper portion of the frame. On the verso of the title leaf, introductory text held by three putti and a bust labelled 'Lorenzo In', an homage to the inventor of the game (the bust reappears at a slightly different angle bearing the full 'Lorenzo Inventi' on fol. 22r). The following leaves are finely illustrated with full-page and double-page ink drawings within elaborate frames, depicting – according the widespread iconography of fortune-telling books – kings, wheels of fortune, and prophets (see below). Calligraphic text in a single hand, drawings most likely in two. Each leaf has been 'tabbed' and labelled in the outer right margin to facilitate game playing. Seventeenth-century calf, over pasteboards. Covers within gilt frieze, spine divided into seven compartments by gilt fillets. Later endleaves, the original flyleaves preserved, bearing some essays with a compass. Manuscript in good condition, three leaves (including the title leaf) extended to fit the size of the volume, several others with repairs to the lower and outer margin, occasionally affecting the drawings and/or labels.


The manuscript contains:

-ten full-page drawings of busts of kings placed upon pedestals and within decorative rectangular frames; twenty full-page tables of dice bearing at the centre a small drawing showing each figure of the game (real or imaginary animals, zodiac signs, emblems, etc.);

-twenty full-page drawings of wheels of fortune, again with each figure placed at the centre, set before largely pastoral landscapes. Under each wheel is a vignette with scenes of travellers, putti, castles, etc.; twenty double-page spreads dedicated to the prophets, featuring the prophet's portrait on the first page set within a garland, extensive calligraphic text in terzine that carries through both pages, and a highly inventive 'carpet' drawing at the bottom of the second page.

All drawings included here are within elaborate ornamental frames, surmounted by banderoles that identify the passage or figure depicted below.

Provenance: ownership inscription inked out, and almost illegible, on the front flyleaf, 'Venne alla [...] di detto libro in Venezia dal Signor G[...] D[...] go'.

A very refined seventeenth-century manuscript containing the Libro della Ventura by Lorenzo Spirito, first printed in Bologna in 1482 – one of the most popular printed fortune-telling books of the Renaissance and here profusely embellished with high-quality ink drawings that beautifully exemplify the organic ornamentality of the Baroque.

The manuscript text is copied from the printed edition nearly verbatim, as are the major figures and motifs (kings and fortune wheels, for example) thus allowing for standard game play. However, the illustrations themselves are far more embellished and in the manner of the prominent Italian draughtsman and printmaker Stefano della Bella (1610-1664). A prolific artist, della Bella was particularly well known for the vastness of his subject matter which ranged from wittily inventive ornamental plates, frontispieces, and illustrations for theatre productions, to present-day and historically bent scenes of the military arts and the royal court, to metaphoric representations of skeletons during the plague and a plethora of capricci. Indeed, so varied was della Bella's work that he was even commissioned to produce four sets of educational playing cards for the young Louis XIV covering history, mythology, and geography.

The breadth of figures, motifs, scenes, and ornament that permeate the pages of the manuscript presented here is equally impressive, particularly given the overall coherency and unity of form established throughout. This careful balance also points up an important feature of della Bella's style: in his youth, the Florentine artist had been an ardent follower of the technically exquisite Jacques Callot (ca. 1592–1635), but his stay in Paris between 1639 and 1650 witnessed the development of his own unique style suffuse with supple, lyrical lines and almost mannerist figuration. The artist was also keen to work en plein air as much as possible, imbuing his rhythmical forms with a marked sense of spontaneity that is certainly to the fore in the present illustrations. In more particular details, too, the master's style is everywhere evident; thematically, for example, in the small, elaborately costumed figures in fancy headdresses that recall his interest in Rembrandt, or in the array of animals that enliven the page as they scamper across imaginative landscapes (in fact, della Bella was undertaking a series of etched animal portraits right around the date we propose our manuscript was produced, and certain animals, such as the deer and eagles, demonstrate remarkable similarity to those included in his series). Formally, too, the remarkable sense of luminosity and texture evident in the hair, feathers, grass, leaves, and sky – achieved through sure, painterly yet delicate strokes economically and efficiently employed to let the white ground come through – is practically signature della Bella. A further point to the level of creativity demonstrated in this manuscript: the 'carpet' drawings mentioned above bear no evident relation to the illustrations in any printed edition of the book.

The visual coherency of this manuscript is strengthened still by the unity of 'disegno' between the drawings and the three columns of calligraphic text, such that one may infer that artist(s) and calligrapher worked in close collaboration. This is nowhere more evident than in the magnificent title leaf or the drawing on the following verso. The opening leaf gives the title in Roman capitals, beneath which are some introductory verses, not present in the received text. The text proper begins on the verso of the same leaf ('Qui comincia il libro'), and is neatly disposed on a curtain, a common feature of Baroque, held at the top by three putti.

While there were at least twelve Italian editions of Spirito's text – all now exceptionally rare (see no. 42) – the source for the present manuscript remains unknown. Comparison with the printed editions nonetheless suggests the basic trajectory: schematic woodcut figures (with frequent re-uses of the same block) are replaced by the individuation of figures, often with orientalizing, 'a l'antica', or historicizing detail, and by fine modeling and minute cross-hatching. Artistically, the 'carpet' drawings, which occupy a quarter to half of the lower margin, are among the most inventive in the album. Subjects include capricci, pastoral scenes of animals, seascapes, landscapes, fortified cities, and putti at play. A few are emblematic: one in which three putti seem to be playing a game involving a certain number of coins hidden under a hat (fol. 29r), with one of the three (the loser?) in tears; or another in which a small putto appears to be suckling an antlered deer (fol. 32r).

We suggest the motive for the present manuscript was the production of a luxury object, probably for presentation, rather than simply a 'copy' of an increasingly rare printed text. The carefully cut tabs in the right margins make it clear that it was to be played as a game, and minor defects suggest other signs of use. The drawings were clearly made on individual sheets and then bound; although the paper stock is uniform, the sizes of the individual leaves are not, hence some irregularity in the fore-edges, a few of which are gauffered.

The manuscript ends with what, in retrospect, seems a joke: in a later hand is written a colophon imitating that of a printed book and stating that the text was written and personally copied by Lorenzo Spirito and illustrated by his countryman Paolo Veronese (1528-1588), followed by a date which is sheer nonsense.

A. de Vesme - P. D. Massar, Stefano della Bella. Catalogue raisonné, Milano 1906 (New York 1971); T. De Marinis, “Le illustrazioni per il Libro de le Sorte di Lorenzo Spirito”, Idem, Appunti e ricerche bibliografiche, Milano 1940, pp. 67-83; A. Blunt, The Drawings of G.B. Castiglione and Stefano della Bella in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen at Windsor Castle, London 1954; P. D. Massar, Presenting Stefano della Bella, Seventeenth-Century Printmaker, Greenwich, CT 1971; L. Hartmann, “Capriccio”. Bild und Begriff, Nürnberg 1973; C. Limentani Virdis, Disegni di Stefano della Bella, Sassari 1975; M. Catelli Isola (ed.), Disegni di Stefano della Bella 1610-1664. Dalle collezioni del Gabinetto Nazionale delle Stampe, Roma, Villa della Farnesina alla Lungara, 4 febbraio – 30 aprile 1976 (exhibition catalogue), Roma 1976; Le carte da gioco di Stefano della Bella (1610-1664), Firenze 1977; T. Ortolani (ed.), Stefano della Bella. Aggiornamento al “Catalogue raisonné” di A. de Vesme e Ph. D. Massar, 1996; L. Nadin, Carte da gioco e letteratura fra Quattro e Ottocento, Lucca 1997; D. Klemm, Stefano della Bella (1610-1664). Zeichnungen aus dem Kupferstichkabinett der Hamburger Kunsthalle, Köln-Weimar-Wien 2009; D. Klemm (ed.), Von der Schönheit der Linie. Stefano della Bella als Zeichner. Hamburger Kunsthalle 25. Oktober 2013 bis 26. Januar 2014, Petersberg 2013; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 202.

The first original work on obstetrics published in England by an Englishman — Hagelin

203. Harvey, William (1578-1657)

Exercitationes de generatione animalium. Quibus accedunt quaedam de partu: de membranis ac humoribus uteri: & de conceptione. William Dugard for Octavian Pulleyn the Elder [Elzevier], 1651.

4° (225x159 mm). Collation: [π]4, a4, B-Z4, Aa-Ss4. [32], 301, [3] pages. Complete with the blank leaves [π]1, C4, and Ss4. Roman and italic type. Engraved frontispiece on fol. [π]2v, showing Jove seated on a pedestal, opening an egg to release all of creation, with the inscription 'Gulielmus Harveus de Generatione Animalium'. Woodcut ornament on the title-page, decorated initials, and headpieces. Contemporary calf, unidentified gilt coat of arms at the centre of the covers, with the motto, only partly legible, 'TOTA SS MF ED PAS'. Spine with five raised bands, inked title on paper label and the letters 'pb' in gilt at the foot. Joints cracked. A good copy. Browned throughout owing to the paper quality, upper margins of the last quires slightly spotted.

Provenance: old library stamp on the recto of the frontispiece leaf (faded); Giorgio Borio (ex-libris on the front pastedown).

The very rare first edition of Harvey's most important work on conception, embryology, and birth, the text of the chapter De partu being the first original English work on obstetrics. A book which has an important place in the history of science.

“After the publication of De motu cordis, Harvey turned his attention to the study of generation. Even if Harvey had not discovered the circulation of the blood, his remarkable work on embryology would have placed him in the front ranks of biological scientists. Without benefit of the compound microscope, his work was necessarily limited; nevertheless, nothing comparable had been done since Aristotle. He disbelieved the previously held doctrine of 'preformation' of the fetus, maintaining instead that it proceeds from the ovum by gradual building up of its parts. Always slow to publicize his findings, Harvey was only after some years persuaded by his friend, Sir Georg Ent, to put them into print” (Heirs of Hippocrates, 271).

The work is divided into seventy-two exercitationes or chapters (in this first edition misnumbered seventy-one, the fifth chapter being numbered as the fourth), and collects notes and observations on generation which Harvey had assembled between 1628 and 1642. Three subsequent editions, in smaller format, followed in the same year in Holland, issued by Daniel Elzevier. The first translation into English appeared in London in 1653.

Although the original intention was to include Harvey's portrait, the engraved allegorical frontispiece shows Jove seated on a pedestal, opening an egg and releasing a variety of animal forms; in the background is a landscape with buildings, and on the egg is the famous inscription 'EX OVO OMNIA', i.e., 'all things from an egg'. This engraving is often lacking in the known copies. Keynes suggests the name of Richard Gaywood as the possible author of this frontispiece.

Wing H-1091; G. Keynes, Bibliography of the Writings of W. Harvey, 34; Garrison-Morton 467; Norman 1011; Waller 4118; Wellcome II, p. 219; G. Keynes, The Life of William Harvey, Oxford 1978, pp. 329-360; W. Harvey, Disputations Touching the Generation of Animals. ed. by G. Whitteridge, Oxford-London 1981; B.P.M. Dongelmans - P.G. Hoftijzer, Boekverkopers van Europe. Het 17de-eeuwse Nederlandse uitgevershuis Elzevier, Zutphen 2000, pp. 197, 200; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 203.

The festival of Saint Rosalia, the ‘little Saint’ of Palermo

204. Paruta, Filippo (1552-1629)

Relatione delle feste fatte in Palermo nel 1625 per lo trionfo delle gloriose reliquie. Di S. Rosalia vergine palermitana. Scritta dal dottor don Onofrio Paruta, canonico della chiesa metropolitana di Palermo, figlio di Filippo. E poi perfettionata da don Simplicio Paruta monaco cassinese.... Pietro Coppola, 1651.

4° (200x145 mm). Collation: [π]2, †4, A-T4, V2, X4, Y2, Z4, [χ]2. [12], 176, [4] pages. Roman, and italic type. Fols. [π]1 and [π]2 with half-title and engraved frontispiece, respectively. Four folding plates engraved by Francesco Nigro and Francesco La Barbera, after Gerardo Astorino and Vincenzo La Barbera. Modern morocco, richly gilt tooled. Original edges speckled. A good copy, minor repairs to the outer margin of the first leaves and small worm-track to the gutter of a few leaves, in both cases without any loss. Tears repaired along the fold of one plate.

Extremely rare edition of this festival account attributed to Filippo Paruta, but edited by his son Simplicio – who is also responsible for signing the dedication to the Senate of Palermo – and published posthumously under the name of his other son, Onofrio.

In the note to the reader Onofrio provides a detailed list of the works (orations, occasional writings, inscriptions for ephemeral architecture, etc.) of his father, Filippo, who was secretary of the Palermo Senate and chiefly responsible for the iconographic program realized on the occasion of the 1625 festivities.

At the beginning of the 1620s the viceroy Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy rebuilt the Accademia dei Riaccesi, which gathered in the Royal Palace, and entrusted the scholar and mathematician Carlo Maria Ventimiglia with the direction of the academy. Around his figure gravitated many of the artists and scholars who designed the program and the solemn procession of the relics of St. Rosalia, held in June of 1625 as a sign of gratitude for deliverance from the plague. Among them were the painters and architects Gerardo Astorino and Vincenzo La Barbera; the engraver Francesco Negro; the scholar Martino La Farina, who conceived the allegorical arch of the Genoese nation; and, above all, Filippo Paruta, who was also linked to Ventimiglia through a common passion for numismatics and antiquities. Paruta was involved in all literary activities related to celebratory events since the end of the sixteenth century. In 1625 he inspired the triumphal arch that the Senate erected in Piazza Villena and was responsible for the account of the festivities, which in the end was only published after his death in 1651.

The constitution of such a large and complex team to be entrusted with the creation of the apparatuses testifies to the importance of this event which officially marked the beginning of the cult of St. Rosalia. The solemnity of 1625 had no immediate follow-up and it was only in 1649 that the feast of St. Rosalia was formalized with all those peculiarities that would characterize the following decades (see no. 222). In 1625, in addition to the impressive processions and solemn ceremonies in which all local communities, religious and civil, took part, two magnificent horse rides were organized; one, in particular, took place at the conclusion of the festivities, after the solemn mass in the cathedral. It was followed by fireworks, organized by the German nation, along with tournaments and jousts. At the very end the nobility walked in gala dress along the Via Colonna.

Michel VI, p. 80; Biblioteca centrale della Regione siciliana “Alberto Bombace”, Sanctae Rosaliae Dicata, Bibliografia cronologica su Santa Rosalia, September 2004, pp. 12-13 (accessed January 2018); V. Petrarca, Genesi di una tradizione urbana. Il culto di S. Rosalia a Palermo in età spagnola, Palermo, 1986, p. 82; M. Sofia di Fede, La festa barocca a Palermo: città, architetture, istituzioni, “Espacio, Tiempo y Forma”, series VII, 18-19 (2005-2006), pp. 49-75; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 204.

Galileian astronomy in the library of an English astronomer. The Jesse Ramsden copy

205. Gassendi, Pierre (1592-1655)

Institutio Astronomica: Juxta Hypotheseis tam Veterum quàm Recentiorum. Cui accesserunt Galilei Galilei Nuntius Sidereus; et Johannis Kepleri Dioptrice..s. Jacob Flesher, 1653.

Two parts in one volume, 8° (180x114 mm). Collation: A-N8, O4; 2A-L8. [16], 199, [1]; 173, [1] pages. Complete with fol. 2L8 blank. Roman and italic type. The first title-page printed in red and black. Four full-page woodcuts printed as plates and uncounted in the collation, bound between fols. 2B8 and 2C1, and depicting the Pleiades, Orion's belt, the Praesepe cluster, and the Orion Nebula. Astronomical woodcuts, including images of the moon, showing its uneven, mountainous surface. Contemporary English blind-tooled calf. Covers within two concentric blind frames, floral tools at each corner. Spine with four raised bands. A very good copy, faint stains on the title-page.

Provenance: the renowned English mathematician and instrument maker Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800).

An exceptional copy – once belonging to Jesse Ramsden, one of most skilled mathematical instrument makers of the second half of the eighteenth century – of the first edition of this famous scientific collection.

The volume contains the second edition overall of Gassendi's Institutio Astronomica, which first appeared in Paris in 1647, and the first edition to be printed in England of two landmarks in the history of telescopic astronomy: the Sidereus Nuncius by Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), the celebrated work – first printed in Venice in 1610 – in which the Florentine scientist announces his discovery of Jupiter's moons, and the Dioptrice by German astronomer Johann Kepler (1571-1630), whose first edition had been published in Augsburg in 1611.

“Galileo's 'Starry Messenger' contains some of the most important discoveries in scientific literature. Learning in the summer of 1609 that a device for making distant objects seem close and magnified had been brought to Venice from Holland, Galileo soon constructed a spy-glass of his own [...] Within a few months he had a good telescope, magnifying to 30 diameters, and was in full flood of astronomical observation. Through his telescope Galileo saw the moon as a spherical, solid, mountainous body very like the earth – quite different from the crystalline sphere of conventional philosophy. He saw numberless stars hidden from the naked eye in the constellations and the Milky Way. Above all, he discovered four new 'planets', the satellites of Jupiter that he called (in honor of his patrons at Florence) the Medicean stars. Thus Galileo initiated modern observational astronomy and announced himself as a Copernican” (PMM).

The volume comes from the library of the pre-eminent English mathematician, astronomical and scientific instrument maker Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800), known for the design of the telescope and microscope eyepiece (ocular) that bears his name, which is still commonly used today. Ramsden was elected to the Royal Society in 1786, and for his formidable inventions and instruments he was awarded the Copley Medal in 1795. A crater on the moon is also named in his honor. “The whole of those hours which he could spare from the duties of his profession were devoted either to meditation on further improvements of philosophical instruments, or to the perusal of books of science, particularly those mathematical works of the most sublime writers which had any connection with the subjects of his own pursuits” (A. Mc. Connell, Jesse Ramsden, Appendix 1, p. 303).

This copy belongs to the variant bearing a comma in line 3 of the title-page, after the word 'Astronomica'.

Wing G-291A (with the comma in line 3 of the title-page); Carli-Favaro 52; Cinti 301; Riccardi I, 508; A. McConnell, Jesse Ramsden (1735–1800): London's Leading Scientific Instrument Maker, Aldershot 2007; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 205.

Navigating Venetian painting

207. Boschini, Marco (1613-1678)

La carta del nauegar pitoresco dialogo tra un Senator venetian deletante, e un professor de Pitura, soto nome d’Ecelenza, e de Compare. Compartì in oto venti Con i quali la Naue venetiana vien conduta in l’alto Mar dela Pitura, come assoluta dominante de quelo a confusion de chi non intende el bossolo dela calamita.... Francesco Baba, 1660.

4° (203x150 mm). Collation: [π]4, a-b4, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Zzz4, Aaaa-Qqqq4, Rrrr6. [24], 680 [i.e. 682; pages 638-639 repeated in numbering], [10] pages. Roman and italic type. Allegorical frontispiece, and author's portrait, after a drawing by Pietro Bellotto; twenty-five full-page illustrations, all engraved by Boschini. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Covers within outer border of double fillet in gold, gilt cornerpieces; at the centre fleuron. Smooth spine decorated in gold, title gilt-lettered and repeated in ink. Traces of ties, edges gilt and gauffered. A beautiful copy. Small hole in the last three leaves, slightly affecting the text, some insignificant stains on a few leaves.

Rare first edition, in its magnificent contemporary binding, of this poem in Venetian dialect, divided into the eight parts of a wind compass (called Venti i.e, winds), and leading the reader through the sea of the Venetian painting.

The Venetian Boschini was a contemporary of Palma il Giovane and Odoardo Fialetti. He primarily painted works copied from major artists and produced a vast number of drawings and engravings, especially in order to illustrate his own printed books. He was the artistic consultant of many major collectors of the time, and also acted as an artistic guide for important visitors and foreign artists.

The work is dedicated to the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, and is written in the form of a dialogue between a Venetian senator – probably Giovanni Nani – and an expert painter, i.e., the author himself. The two interlocutors walk through the Venetian calli, and the 'Professor de Pitura' explains to the senator, with great competence, the style of each artwork they see on their way, all the while demonstrating the superiority of Venetian painting over its Florentine counterpart, while also comparing painting to the art of music and poetry. The 'Professor' even recalls olfactory and food suggestions in a style that is Baroque and redundant, yet simultaneously brilliant and witty. The first chapter includes a general introduction to the main painters of the seventeenth century, including, among others, Velázquez and Rubens. In the subsequent chapters Boschini guides his companion and the reader through Venetian art, starting with the San Rocco School painted by Tintoretto. Of particular interest is the detailed information concerning the private collections of the time, including that amassed by Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici, who was one of Boschini's primary 'customers'. The final chapter contains a modern gallery of painters; rather than a traditional portrait, each artist is represented here by a significant painting which has been reproduced. The text is supplemented with notes by the 'Academico Delfico', i.e., Dario Varotari.

Michel I, p. 197; Cicogna 4672; Cicognara 976; Gamba, Serie degli scritti impressi in dialetto veneziano, p. 137; Libreria Vinciana 3066; J. Schlosser Magnino, La letteratura artistica, Firenze 1967, pp. 547-548, 561; M. F. Merling, Marco Boschini's “La carta del navegar pitoresco”. Art Theory and Virtuoso Culture in Seventeenth-Century Venice, Ph.D. Diss., Brown University, 1992; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 207.

Eustachio Divini’s copy

208. Manzini, Carlo Antonio (1599-1677)

L’Occhiale all’Occhio. Dioptrica practica... Doue si tratta della Luce; della Reffratione dei Raggi; dell’Occhio; della Vista; e degli aiuti, che dare si possono à gli Occhi per vedere quasi l’impossibile.... Vittorio Benacci's Heirs, 1660.

4° (207x148 mm). Collation: ☩6 (fol. ☩3 signed ☩2), A-Z4, A-Ll4. [12], 268, [4] pages, lacking the engraved portrait of Eustachio Divini. Roman and italic type. Woodcut vignette on the title-page showing a telescope, with the inscription 'REFERT INGENTI FOENORE' in a cartouche. Numerous woodcut illustrations and diagrams in the text, one full-page woodcut on fol. P4v depicting a 'Moletta Forfice'. Woodcut decorated initials and tailpieces. Eighteenth-century cardboard 'alla rustica', recased. Nineteenth-century paper label on the spine, bearing an early shelfmark. A few small stains on the covers. A very fine copy, slightly spotted, more heavily to the blank outer margin of the first quires.

Provenance: from the library of the celebrated telescope maker Eustachio Divini (1610-1685; his ownership inscription on the title-page 'Eustachio Diuini'); monogram combining the letters O and K at the bottom of the title-page; Giorgio Tabarroni (1921-2001; ex-libris on the front pastedown).

An exceptional copy – owned by the well-known optical instrument manufacturer Eustachio Divini – of the first edition of the first comprehensive work on telescope and lens making.

Manzini's magnum opus, the Occhiale all'Occhio, deals with all aspects of optics, from ocular anatomy to the characteristics of light and its refraction, focusing especially on techniques for manufacturing all kinds of telescopes and microscopes. The author, a Bolognese nobleman, was the pupil of the renowned astronomer Giovanni Antonio Magini, and was acquainted with numerous scientists of the day, such as Bonaventura Cavalieri, Ovidio Montalbani, and Giovanni Battista Riccioli. Among his technological accomplishments counts “a further improvement on a lathe for polishing and grinding lenses”, and the treatise of 1660 has been deemed “one of the most important early works on the subject of practical optics and lens making” (S. A. Bedini, “The Aerial Telescope”, p. 397).

In the Proemio al Lettore, Manzini celebrates Eustachio Divini as the first experimenter to have perfected the art of telescope making. Born in San Severino delle Marche (Ancona), Divini was active in Rome as of 1646 as a maker of clocks, lenses, microscopes and long-focus telescopes. Indeed, Manzini even defines the science of dioptrica as a 'divine art', a play on Divini's own name (fols. ☩5r-v).

His close relationship with Divini is demonstrated by two of the latter's works, which take the form of letters addressed to Manzini: the Lettera all'Ill.mo Conte Carl'Antonio Manzini. Si ragguaglia di un nuovo lavoro, e componimento di lenti, che servono à Occhialoni (Rome 1633), and the Lettera intorno alle macchie novamente scoperte nel mese di Luglio 1665 nel pianeta di Giove con suoi cannocchiali all'Illustriss. Sig. Conte Carlo Antonio Manzini (Rome 1666). There Divini describes the construction of his new 'occhialone' of fifty-two spans and the astronomical discoveries made possible by his telescopes, also recalling Manzini's Dioptrica of 1660.

The copy presented here may have been sent to Divini by Manzini shortly before its effective publication; this would explain why Divini's portrait is missing, as it was printed on different paper and bound after the printing in the standard copies. This copy contains textual corrections, emending misprints or inserting words omitted by the compositor (see fols. B1v, E4v, M1r, S1v, Y2v, Ff1v, Hh2v and Hh4v). These emendations are certainly authorial and added in the printing house.

STC 17th Century, 530; NLM/Krivatsy 7389; Riccardi II, p. 96; Wellcome II, p. 48; S. A. Bedini, “The Aerial Telescope”, Technology and Culture, 8 (1967), p. 367; M. L. Righini Bonelli - A. Van Helden, Divini and Campani: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of the Accademia del Cimento, Firenze 1981; V. Ilardi, Reinassance Vision from Spectacles to Telescope, Philadelphia 2007, p. 229; R. Bellé, “L'occhiale all'occhio. Un testo del XVII secolo sulla costruzione dei telescopi”, Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi, 64 (2009), pp. 453-480; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 208.

A tribute to the new experimental sciences

209. Bérigard, Claude Guillermet de (ca. 1590-1663)

Circulus Pisanus... De veteri et peripatetica philosophia in Aristotelis libros octo Physicorum. Quatuor de coelo. Duos de ortu & interitu. Quatuor de meteoris, & tres de anima... Opus in hac secunda editione auctius & retractatius. Paolo Frambotto, 1660 - 1661.

Six parts in one volume, 4° (220x160 mm). Collation: ✢6, ✢✢4, A-H4; a4; I-Z4, Aa4, Bb6; ²a4, Cc-Xx4; ³a4, Yy-Zz4, Aaa-Xxx4; 4a2, Yyy-Zzz4, Aaaa-Bbbb4, Cccc6; 5a4, Dddd-Zzzz4, Aaaaa4, Bbbbb1 (singleton). [20], 64; 6 of [8], 65-203, [1]; [8], 205-353, [3]; 6 of [8], 357-538, [2]; [4], 541-583, [1]; 6 of [8], 585-729, [25] pages. Complete with the blanks a1, 2a1, Xx4, and Xxx4; lacking blanks 3a4 and 5a4. At the beginning of the volume are twelve unsigned leaves of index which do not belong to this edition. Roman and italic type. Each part opens with a separate title-page bearing the printer's device. The second, third, and fourth parts are dated 1660, while the first, fifth, and sixth ones are dated 1661. Author's portrait on fol. ✢4v, engraved by Giovanni Giorgi; numerous diagrams in the text. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Early nineteenth-century half calf, richly gilt-tooled spine, title in gilt on red morocco lettering-piece. A very good copy. A few quires browned, some marginal foxing, slightly spotted in places.

Provenance: 'Hic liber est Ippoliti de [?]' (partly erased contemporary ownership inscription on the verso of the second front flyleaf).

Second revised, and significantly expanded edition of this remarkably interesting treatise containing an encomium for the new Copernican and Galileian science as well as its discoveries.

The Circulus Pisanus first appeared in Udine in 1642-1643. Its author, Bérigard (or Berigardo), was born in Moulin (France) and moved to Tuscany in 1625, possibly summoned there by Christine de Lorraine. He taught in Pisa from 1627 to 1638 and then at the University of Padua from 1639 until the end of his life in 1663.

The Circulus Pisanus is based on the 'disputationes circulares' held at the University of Pisa, which played such an important role in his teaching there. The work is cast in the form of a dialogue between Charilaus, a follower of Aristotelian philosophy, and Aristaeus, who upholds pre-Socratic philosophy, especially the atomism of such Ionian philosophers as Anaximander, Empedocles and Anaxagoras. Because atomism, like the new astronomical discoveries, had been condemned, Bérigard was very cautious about how he recovered ancient doctrines and dealt with the new philosophy. Even though he officially remained safely within the limits of traditional thought, he was also clearly familiar with the particulate (probably Cartesian) and experimental (Galileian) forms of the new philosophy. He describes many experiments in his book, including those pertaining to vacuums and the fall of bodies.

Many contemporary scientists – including, among others, Kenelm Digby, William Harvey, Evangelista Torricelli, Vincenzo Viviani, and Giovanni Alfonso Borelli – are mentioned with admiration in the work. The Circulus Pisanus also includes an encomium of Galileo (fol. Aaaa4, with the shoulder note Galilaei encomium). Bérigard, who must have known Galileo personally, always praised Galileo, although he remained firmly convinced of the earth's immobility.

Though Bérigard seems reluctant to fully cross the borders of the old philosophy, the Circulus Pisanus is undeniably a tribute to the new experimental sciences: beside the aforementioned encomium on Galileo, the Copernican hypothesis is mentioned and somewhat 'accepted'; the experiments of Torricelli are used to deny the vacuum only on the basis that God is everywhere and therefore a void cannot exist; and his praise for the telescope and the commentary on De Luna became an exposition of Copernicus' and Galileo's doctrines.

STC 17th Century, 97-98; Bruni-Evans 644; Carli-Favaro, 277; Hirsch I, p. 348; A. Favaro, “Oppositori di Galileo, iv. Claudio Berigardo”, Atti Istituto Veneto Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 79 (1919-1920), II, pp. 39-92; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 209.

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