Economics, Politics and Sociology Philobiblon

One Thousand Years of Bibliophily from the 11th to the 21st Century

A very rare illustrated Libro da Compagnia

28. Confraternity Rosary, Florence

Compagnia ovvero Confraternita del Psalterio ovvero Rosario della gloriosissima Vergine Maria. Ordinazioni, istitutioni, capitoli, regole, privilegii ed indulgentie. [Florence, Antonio di Bartolomeo Miscomini, after 4 May 1485].

4° (250x136 mm). Collation: a12. [12] leaves. Text in one column, 25 lines. Type: 112R. Title on fol. a2r printed in red. Headings, initial letters and section marks printed in red throughout. On fol. a1v large woodcut within octagonal border, containing a rose garland framing a crown and a rosary with the letters 'rsm', at the bottom the inscription 'Questo e el segno della compagnia del Rosario della Vergine Maria'. On fol. a2r half-page woodcut vignette depicting the Annunciation. Old vellum, over paperboards; inked title on spine. A good copy, slightly washed, foxing in places. Repair to the outer blank margin of the first two leaves; some wormholes restored, some of them affecting the woodcuts on fols. a1v and a2r, and a few letters of text.

First and only edition of this exceedingly rare Florentine illustrated incunable, of which only four copies are recorded among institutional libraries, these being held in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio in Bologna, the Biblioteca degli Intronati in Siena, the Houghton Library at Harvard University, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (incomplete).

This booklet, printed in red and black and supplemented with two fine woodcuts, belongs to the popular genre of so-called Libri da Compagnia, which includes statutes, bulls, privileges, and indulgences regarding the numerous religious confraternities or sodalities established in Italy during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, as a distinctive form of piety and devotion encouraged by mendicant orders. It contains the text, in Italian vernacular, of the statutes of the Florentine Compagnia del Rosario – the Rosary sodality being closely associated with the Dominican cloister of San Marco, where the Compagnia had obtained the privilege of the altar of the Annunciation in 1480/81. The practice of rosary has a Dominican origin, with the tradition claiming that this devotion would have been revealed by the Virgin Mary to St. Dominic, founder of the order.

The present edition – the printing of which was commissioned by the friars of San Marco – was issued entirely anonymously and without any date, although it is generally attributed to the Modena printer Antonio Miscomini, who was active in Florence between 1481-1485 and 1489 1495. Miscomini's production was focused both on 'high' Florentine humanist works – he published several by Marsilio Ficino, including the first edition of the De triplici vita in 1489 (see no. 30) – as well as popular texts in Italian vernacular, including statutes, sacre rappresentazioni, and devotional writings. The volume contains two woodcuts, whose subject is deeply related to the Rosary confraternity. On the verso of the first leaf is a large woodcut within an octagonal border showing the 'segno della compagnia del Rosario della Vergine Maria', a crown bearing a rosary and the inscription 'rsm' surrounded by a rose garland. The half-page vignette on the recto of fol. a2 depicts the Annunciation, recalling the privilege obtained by the Florentine confraternity. Both images contributed to the development of rosary iconography and of the Marian cult more generally. An identical crown symbolizing the Virgin is found in the Dichiaratione della Chiesa di Sancta Maria del Loreto, printed by Francesco di Dino in Florence in about 1483, in the printing press of San Jacopo at Ripoli.

GW M43809; IGI 3112; Goff S-758; Rhodes Firenze, 213; Sander 6574, and pls. 497-498 (the printing attributed to Francesco Bonaccorsi); A. Jacobson Schutte, Printed Italian Vernacular Religious Books (1465-1550. A Finding List, Genève 1983, p. 143; R. Rusconi, “Pratica culturale ed istruzione religiosa nelle confraternite italiane del tardo Medioevo: 'libri da compagnia' e libri di pietà”, Le mouvement confraternal au Moyen Age. France Italie, Suisse, Rome 1987, pp. 133-153; C. Dondi, “Libri da compagnia Printed in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century in Italy”, Quaerendo, 41 (2011), pp. 183-192; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 28.

A bibliographical puzzle

87. Castiglione, Baldassarre (1478-1529)

Il libro del cortegiano del conte Baldesar Gastiglione [sic]. Florence, Benedetto Giunti, 1531 [probably Rome, 1537].

8° (155x96 mm). Collation: A-Z8, AA-BB8. 200 leaves. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page and on the verso of the last leaf. Blank spaces for capitals, with printed guide letters. Contemporary limp vellum with yapp edges. Traces of ties, title inked by a contemporary hand on the tail-edge. Smooth spine, with inked title. A good copy, title-page slightly soiled, foxing in places; a few spots, stains, and fingermarks. Loss to the upper outer corner of the front flyleaf. minor wear to the upper board-edge and joint, a few stains. The price notice '2:10' inked by an early hand on the title-page. Some maniculae, and reading marks. Pencilled bibliographical annotations on the pastedowns and flyleaves.

Provenance: 'Joanne Caligario' (ownership inscription on fol. A2r, possibly Giovanni Andrea Calegari (1527-1613), Bishop of Bertinoro, and secretary to the Nuncio in Poland).

The extremely rare Cortegiano bearing the colophon 'In Firenze per Benedetto Giunti MDXXXI', and the misspelling of Castiglione – printed as 'Gastiglione' – on the title-page: a fascinating case study for bibliographers.

The first edition of the famous treatise by Castiglione was published by the Aldine press in April 1528 (see no. 80). The first Giuntina appeared a few months later, in October. Second and third editions were issued by the printing house run by the heirs of Filippo Giunta – his sons Bernardo, Giovanni, Benedetto, and Francesco – in April 1529 and April 1531, respectively. The Giuntina press subsequently “entered a severe decline [...] following the fall of the Republic, although the firm continued in its bookselling and stationery business” (Pettas, The Giunti of Florence, p. 43). Benedetto Giunti was admitted to the stationer's guild on 15 October 1532, and his activity as an independent printer started officially in 1533, after the return of political stability in Florence. Five books were published in 1533; however, Benedetto's activity ceased until 1536/37, mainly owing to financial difficulties.

The present edition is the only known publication pre-dating 1533 to feature his name as a printer, although it is generally believed that the Cortegiano might have been printed – as Camerini has suggested – in 1537, possibly in Rome. The colophon bears the fictitious imprint 'Florence 1531', suggesting an intent to show the Giunti press was still active in the city, despite the unfavourable political situation. This edition is apparently a reprint of the aforementioned Cortegiano, actually printed in 1531 by the heirs of Filippo Giunta, along with some relevant variants such as the misspelling of Castiglione as 'Gastiglione' on the title-page, and the use of a different printer's device. Further, there are two groups of four leaves in which the setting of type is different, including on the title-page and colophon: fols. A1, A4, A5, A8, 2B2, 2B3, 2B7, and 2B8.

The paper used throughout is watermarked with an anchor inscribed within a circle, a watermark frequently found in paper from Veneto.

In his correspondence with the British Library (which also preserves a copy of the rare Cortegiano bearing the colophon 'In Firenze per Benedetto Giunti MDXXXI'), Conor Fahy suggested this mysterious edition might have been printed in Venice, where Benedetto's brother, Bernardo Giunti had moved in 1533/34. In 1537, an edition of the Cortegiano was 'really' printed in Florence, in which the misprint 'Gastiglione' on the title-page is corrected.

Camerini Annali 236; Pettas 235-236; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 87.

The Great Apollo and Pegasus Myth

118. Plutarchus (ca. 45-120)

La prima [- seconda] parte delle Vite... nuouamente da M. Lodouico Domenichi tradotte. Con due tauole, le quali sono poste nel fine della seconda parte.... Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari and Brothers, 1555.

Two volumes, 4° (256x168 mm). I. Collation: *4, A-Z8, AA-ZZ8, AAA-PPP8. [8], 973, [3] pages. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the recto of fol. PPP8. II. Two parts. Collation: †4, a-z8, aa-kk8, ll4; aaa-fff8, ggg4. [8], 535, [1]; [104] pages. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on both title-pages, and a smaller version at the end of each part. Woodcut animated initials, and headpieces.

Handsome Venetian bindings, executed around 1555 by Anthon Lodewijk. Gilt-tooled red morocco, over pasteboards. Gilt and blind fillet borders. Central medallion with radiating tongues-of-flame within lobed panel, the two volumes slightly differently tooled with solid outline and azure tools. The central medallion of the first volume overstamped with forged Apollo and Pegasus plaquette. Spines with five double raised bands, decorated with one, and outlined with two gilt fillets. Compartments gilt, open circle border at the head and foot of the spines. Edges of the boards decorated with a double vertical line in blind. Edges gilt and gauffered with double dotted-line frame. Missing four ties, probably in red silk. Vol. 1 with minor repairs to the corners, rebacked preserving most of the original backstrip, some gilding renewed. Skilful repairs to the corners and joint of vol. 2, a little worming in flyleaves. In modern cloth solander cases, in brown for vol. 1 (on the spine 'PLUTARCHIS VENEZIA 1555 CANEVARI'), and in green for vol. 2 ('PLUTARCHA [SIC] LA SECONDA PARTE DELLE VITE, VENETIAN BINDING VENICE 1555'). A fine copy, some spotting. Minor ink stain in the first volume, a few leaves uniformly browned. On the recto of the front flyleaf of the first volume, the inked note 'Reliure Canevari Iere moitié du XVime S. Genes'.

Provenance: Pietro Benincasa (ownership inscription on the title-pages 'Pietro Benincasa', partly removed from the first volume); Curtio Bertini, from Colle val d'Elsa (sixteenth-century ownership inscriptions on the title-pages, 'Di Curtio Bertini' and 'Di Curtio Bertini da Colle' partly removed from the first volume). By the early twentieth century the two volumes became separated:

Vol. 1: the bookseller in Florence Tammaro De Marinis (1878-1969), 1911; early twentieth-century ex-libris engraved by Stern on the front pastedown, eradicated; Cartier library (sale Sotheby's Monaco, 28 November 1979, lot 1366); GDV (monogram blindstamp on the title-page); Rossignol (sale Paris, Valleriaux expert, 27 February 2003, lot 557); Michel Wittock (see The Michel Wittock Collection. Part I: Important Renaissance Bookbindings, Christie's London 2004, no. 97).

Vol. 2: Baron de Sant'Anna (sale Brussels 16 May 1925, lot 105); Michel Wittock (ex-libris on the front pastedown; see The Michel Wittock Collection. Part i: Important Renaissance Bookbindings, Christie's London 2004, no. 97).

A remarkable copy, in its original Venetian binding, of the first edition of Domenichi's Italian translation of the Vitae by the Greek historian Plutarch. The two volumes have only recently been reunited after a century's separation; they were bound around 1555 by the famous Flemish craftsman Anthon Lodewijk or Lowies, who was active in Venice between 1553 and 1557.

Anthon Lodewijk “seems to have arrived in Venice not later than 1553. In his mature work he imitated the style of the 'Mendoza Binder' or the 'Fugger Binder', but using his own kit of Italian tools. These are found in presentation copies of books printed by Giolito in 1554, 1556 and 1557, for his distinguished clientele, which included among others Jakob Fugger and Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle. Lodewijk probably left Venice soon afterwards and is next found in Augsburg binding Greek manuscripts and printed books for Johann Jakob Fugger and decorating them with the Italian tools brought from Venice” (Hobson-Culot, Italian and French 16th-Century Bookbindings, p. 43).

These volumes demonstrate his more mature, elaborate Venetian style; in all likelihood the bindings were executed on behalf of the printer Giolito for a notable recipient. For a similar binding see for example the copy of the Giolito edition of Musso's Prediche (1554) presented by the Venetian printer to the Duchess of Urbino, Vittoria Farnese della Rovere (see Hobson, Renaissace Book Collecting, p. 131, pl. 80).

By the early twentieth century the two volumes had become separated, and the first one now offers a striking example of a perfectly genuine Renaissance binding to which a forged medallion had been added. In fact, on its cover a forged Apollo and Pegasus round plaquette was carefully applied, possibly before 1911, when it appeared in a catalogue published by the Libreria De Marinis in Florence. The volume was later seen in Sotheby's sale of the Cartier library in Monaco on 28 November 1979. The Apollo and Pegasus medallion may have been made either in the nineteenth century by the best known Apollo and Pegasus forger, the Milanese binder Vittorio Villa (d. 1892), who often worked for Guglielmo Libri; or later, in the first quarter of the twentieth century by Domenico Conti-Borbone, another bookbinder active in Milan who had inherited Villa's tools after his death. These skilful forgeries were sought by some collectors as specimens of fine Renaissance bindings or desirable curiosities.

STC Italian 528 (vol. 1 only); Bongi Annali, pp. 479-480 (“É difficile trovare uniti i due volumi”); H. Harrisse, “Les falsification bolognaises. Reliures et livres”, Bulletin du Bibliophile, (1902), pp. 428-442, 445-666, 505-523; (1903), pp. 449-452; De Marinis, Legatura artistica in Italia, I, no. 3146, pl. 4 (vol. 1); M. Wittock, “À propos de reliures, vraies ou frelatées, au médallion d'Apollon et Pégase”, Bulletin du Bibliophile, (1998), pp. 330-336 (no. 33, only vol. 1); M. Wittock, “Il medaglione di Apollo e Pegaso”, L'oggetto libro 2000, no. 37 (only vol. 2); A. Hobson, Renaissance Book Collecting, App. 9, nos. 9a-b; Hobson-Culot, Italian and French 16th-Century Bookbindings, no. 15 (only vol. 2); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 118.

The Cesi 'Seven Hills’

125. Plutarchus (ca. 45-120)

La prima [- seconda] parte delle Vite di Plutarco Tradotte da M. Lodovico Domenichi. Con gli suoi Sommarii posti dinanzi a ciascuna Vita.... Gabriele Giolito de’ Ferrari, 1560.

Two volumes, 4° (225x161 mm). I. Collation: *4, A-Z8, AA-ZZ8, AAA-PPP8. [8], 937, [3] pages; II. Two parts, each with separate title-page. Collation: †4, a-z8, aa-kk8, ll4; aaa-eee8, fff10 (fol. fff5 signed 'ggg'). [8], 535; [101] pages. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on title-page of both volumes, on the recto of fol. PPP8, on the title-page of the Tabulae (fols. aaa1r), and on the verso of fol. fff10. Nearly contemporary uniform Roman binding, brown morocco over pasteboards. Covers within blind fillets and narrow gilt roll, at the outer corners the Cesi 'seven hills'. At the centre small floral tools and fleuron in gilt. On the upper cover of the first volume the gilt inscription in a cartouche '.VITE. DI. PLUTARCA. I. PARTE'; on the upper cover of the second one ‘‘.VITE. DI. PLUTARCA. 2. PARTE', likewise in gilt lettering. Spines with seven raised bands, underlined with gilt fillets, rebacked; title and volume numbering in gold. Original, handsome gauffered and painted edges, the fore-edge showing the Cesi coat of arms, a tree above seven hills. Good copies, foxing in places, trace of old stamps, now illegible, on both title-pages.

Provenance: from the library of the Cesi family (armorial binding).

A magnificently bound copy of the Italian edition of Plutarch's Vitae, translated for the Venetian printer Giolito by his collaborator, the polymath Lodovico Domenichi (1515-1564). The two-volume publication is a substantial re-issue – introduced with a newly recomposed title-page bearing the printing date '1560' – of the first edition, which had appeared in 1555 (see no. 118).

As their fine armorial binding stamped with the seven-hills coat of arms attests, the volumes presented here were once preserved in the library assembled by the aristocratic Cesi family which was highly connected in Rome and the Papal States. The most outstanding member of this family was undoubtedly the naturalist, scientist, and Duke of Acquasparta, Federico Cesi (1585-1630), founder of the Accademia dei Lincei (Lincean Academy) in 1603, and one of the most influential patrons of Galileo Galilei. The entry relating to a copy of the Giolitine Plutarch of 1560 is included in the inventory of Federico's books located at Acquasparta, the Cesi palace, listing also volumes owned by other members of the family, which never entered the Lincean Academy. The inventory Libri diuersi dell'Heredita sudetta, held in the Academy Archives (ms Archivio Linceo XXXII) was compiled between February and April 1631, in order to divide the inheritance among Frederico's heirs – his second wife, Isabella Salviati, sister of the mathematician Francesco Salviati, and his brother, Giovanni Federico Cesi. Plutarch's Lives is listed among the volumes put in a case filled with moral and historical books (‘Cassa N, Morali et Historici'): “P.a parte delle vite di Plutarco tradotte da Lod.co Domen[i]chi con li suoi Sommarij con la dichiarat.ne dei paesi [pesi] in Venetia 1660. [i.e. 1560] del Giolito”.

STC Italian 528 (describing a slightly different issue); M. T. Biagetti, La Biblioteca di Federico Cesi, Roma 2008, p. 172, no. 748; Eadem, “Dispersed Collections of Scientific Books. The Case of the Private Library of Federico Cesi (1685-1630)”, F. Bruni - A. Pettegree (eds.), Lost Books. Reconstructing the Print World of Pre-Industrial Europe, Leiden-Boston 2016, pp. 386-399; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 125.

The prince as a civic hero and a condottiero, on blue paper

135. Capelloni, Lorenzo (1510-1590)

Vita del Prencipe Andrea Doria... Con un compendio della medesima Vita.... Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari, 1565.

4° (226x160 mm). Printed on blue paper. Collation: *8, **6, A-M8. [28], 188, [4] pages. Complete with the last blank. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's devices on the title-page and on the verso of fol. M7. Two engraved full-page portraits depicting Andrea Doria on fols *8v and **1r: the first showing the prince as civic hero and father of the homeland, placed within an elaborate medallion bearing the motto 'VT CIVIS PATRIAE PATER ET LIBERTATIS RESTITVTOR', the second depicting him as a condottiero, within a medallion with the motto: 'VT DVX ET PRINCEPS PRELIORVM VICTOR', and enriched by his coat of arms. Woodcut animated and decorated initials, headpieces. Early eighteenth-century French red morocco; covers framed with a double gilt fillet and narrow dotted frieze. Smooth spine with title in gilt lettering and richly decorated with ramages in gold. A very good, wide-margined copy, small repair to the upper margin of the title-page, a few insignificant spots. On the title-page, a manuscript note written in French with brown ink, attesting to the rarity of the work and the peculiarity of its printing on blue paper, “Ce Livre est rare; C'est un des premiers ouvrages qui ait été imprimé sur du papier bleu. Cette vie est bien ecrite; L'italien est très pur; Ce qui me ferais presque croire que l'ouvrage a été imprimé plus tard que ne le comporte la date 1565”. On the recto of the front flyleaf the early shelfmark 'V.2. n° 74'.

Provenance: erased ownership inscription on the title-page ('Antonio' ?), preserving only the date '1738'.

Rare first edition – presented here in a fine, and possibly unique copy printed on blue paper – of this biography of Andrea Doria (1466-1560), written by his secretary Lorenzo Capelloni. It is the first sixteenth-century biography of the celebrated Genoese nobleman, admiral, and patron of arts. The work is dedicated, on 1 April 1562, by the author to the great-nephew and heir of Andrea Doria, Giovanni Andrea (1539-1600), who had commissioned Capelloni to write the biography. The Venetian Senate granted a fifteen-year privilege for the work, giving Giolito exclusive rights to printing it. A second edition appeared in 1569.

Capelloni's Vita del Principe Andrea Doria is also famous for the double illustrations bearing, on facing pages, two engraved profile portraits of Andrea Doria which had an important role in establishing the political iconography of this pivotal Genoese figure. The first portrait shows the prince as a civic hero and father of the homeland and is set within an elaborate medallion with the motto 'VT CIVIS PATRIAE PATER ET LIBERTATIS RESTITVTOR' (fol. *8v); the second portrait depicts him as a condottiero within a medallion bearing the motto ‘VT DVX ET PRINCEPS PRELIORVM VICTOR', enriched with his coat of arms (fol. **1r).

A copy of the work “printed on Carta Grande Azzurra, red morocco” is listed in the Catalogue of Printed Books and Manuscripts sold by London booksellers Payne and Foss in 1837 for the sum of 3 pounds and 3 shillings. Probably this copy.

Adams C-587; Bongi Annali, II, 287 (“rara [...] quasi mai s'incontra nei cataloghi”); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 135.

Finely bound for Jeronímo Ruiz

137. Giambullari, Pier Francesco (1495-1555)

Historia dell’Europa... nella quale ordinatamente si trattano le cose successe in questa parte del mondo dall’anno DCCC fino al 913 Di nostra Salute... Venice, Francesco de’ Franceschi, 1566. (bound with:) Guicciardini, Lodovico (1521-1589).Commentarii... Delle cose più memorabili seguite in Europa: specialmente in questi paesi bassi, dalla pace di Cambrai, del MDXXIX, insino a tutto l’anno M.D.LX. Libri tre... . Domenico Farri, 1566.

Two works in one volume, 4° (208x142 mm). I: Collation: *4, **4, ***4, ****4, A-Z4, Aa-Ss4, Tt2. [16], 166 leaves. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Author's portrait on the verso of the title-page. Woodcut initials and headpieces. II: Collation: a8, b4, A-K8. [24], 156, [4] pages. Complete with fols. b4 and K8 blanks. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page and at the end. Woodcut animated initials. Contemporary Roman binding executed by the so-called 'Ruiz Binder'. Light brown morocco over pasteboards. Covers within a rich border of gilt and tooled fillets, and gilt floral roll. Elaborate gilt cornerpieces. The arms of Ruiz – a lion rampant, stamped in gold, holding a fleur-de-lis, stamped in silver – in a cartouche flanked by the initials 'I R' in the centre of both covers. Traces of ties. Spine with three double bands, decorated with gilt fillets, alternating with four single bands, decorated with short gilt diagonals. The title in the second compartment, a gilt rosette on a pattern of blind horizontal and diagonal lines in each of the other compartments. Edges gilt and gauffered with knotwork. Extremities of the spine worn, lower portion of the lower cover stained and rubbed. A very good copy, some light browning. In the first edition, title-page slightly soiled and stained, old repair to the outer margin of the title-page slightly affecting the border of the portrait on the verso; the lower corner of fol. Aa3 repaired, without any loss. On the front pastedown, a price mark of 'F 30'.

Provenance: Jeronímo Ruiz (sixteenth century; armorial binding); from the library of Cardinal Giuseppe Renato Imperiali (1651-1737; stamp 'Ex. Bibl. Ios. Ren. Card. Imperialis' on the first title-page; see Bibliothecae Josephi Renati Imperialis Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae, Romae 1711, in the Appendix, p. 554); 'De Pigis' (ownership inscription on the first title-page); Count Orazio Samminiatelli (twentieth century, Perignano, near Pisa; see A. Hobson, Apollo and Pegasus, no. 19).

An exceptional volume, bound by the 'Ruiz Binder' and gathering two important histories of Europe, both of which were written by outstanding Florentine scholars: the first edition – in the issue without the woodcut border on the title-page – of the Historia dell'Europa by Giambullari, and the second edition of the Commentarii by Guicciardini.

The volume was finely bound around 1570 for Jeronímo Ruiz, member of a distinguished Valencia family living in Rome and associated with the Curia. His uncle Felipe (1512-1582) was secretary of the Papal Dataria. Hobson records twenty-four volumes bearing Ruiz's arms, all bound by the same Roman binder known as the 'Ruiz Binder', in light of his principal client. “Jeronimo had a taste for history and owned works by Lucius Florus, Dio Cassius, Sallust, Thucydides and Polybius, as well as Bembo's history of Venice, Olaus Magnus's of Scandinavia, Giambullari's of Europe, and both Cieza de Leon's and Zarate's of Peru [...] But he was no scholar. All the books are in Italian except a copy of Francesco Maurolico's Martyrologium, Venice 1568” (Hobson-Culot, Italian and French 16th-Century Bookbindings, p. 49). For the bindings made for Jeronímo Ruiz, the Roman craftman used the same tools already employed by Maestro Luigi, one of three binders active in Rome and working for Giovanni Battista Grimaldi (see no. 90) between 1536 and 1565. Hobson suggests that the 'Ruiz Binder' may be his successor. The Ruiz arms are stamped within the usual cartouche employed by this Roman binder.

The present binding is one of the twenty-four recorded in Hobson's census. The volume later entered the rich library of cardinal Giuseppe Renato Imperiali, sold in Rome in 1711.

I. STC Italian 300. II. Adams G-1534; STC Italian 321; Hobson, Apollo and Pegasus, Amsterdam 1975, no. 19; Hobson-Culot, Italian and French 16th-Century Bookbindings, no. 17; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 137.

Foscolo’s 'divine Plutarchus'

148. Plutarchus (ca. 45-120)

Plutarchi Chaeronensis quae extant opera, cum Latina interpretatione. Ex vetustis codicibus plurima nunc primùm emendata sunt, vt ex Henr. Stephani annotationibus intelliges: quibus & suam quorundam libellorum interpretationem adiunxit. Aemylii Probi De vita excellentium imperatorum liber. Henri Estienne, 1572.

Seven volumes, 8° (174x105 mm). I. Collation: *8, a-z8, Aa-Cc8. 16, 778, 2 of [6] pages, lacking the blank Cc7 and Cc8, but complete with the blank Cc6. II. Collation: aa-zz8, AA-PP8. [2], 781-1381, 3 of [5] pages, lacking the blank PP8, but complete with the blank PP7. III. Collation: aaa-zzz8, AAA-YYY8. [2], 1389-2101, 3 of [5] pages, lacking the blank YYY8, but complete with the blank YYY7. IV. Collation: a-z8, A-M8, N10; 579, [1] pages. V. Collation: a6, b8, Cc-Zz8, aA-rR8. [2], 583-1213, [3] pages. VI. Collation: Aa-Zz8, Aaa-Vvv8, Xxx10. [2], 1219-1923, [1] pages. VII. Collation: [A]-[M]8, [N]6, [O]-[Z]8, [AA]-[FF]8, [GG]4. 467, [1] pages. Complete with fol. [N]6 blank. The set comprises only the Greek portion of the edition, and therefore does not include the volumes containing the Latin translation of Plutarch's work. For this reason, volume VII includes – as in most of the recorded copies – the Appendix, but not the final Index rerum et verborum. Greek, roman, and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page of the first volume. Woodcut decorated initials and headpieces. Eighteenth-century uniform binding, vellum over pasteboards. Smooth spine, divided into compartments by gilt fillets; title and volume numbering in gold on double green morocco lettering-piece. A set in good condition, leaves uniformly browned, some foxing. A pale spot to the upper margin of the first leaf of text in each volume due to an ownership inscription that was later erased.

Provenance: the Italian poet Ugo Foscolo (1778-1827; white wax-stamp with the initials 'L.F.' on the front pastedown of the first volume; a loose paper slip is inserted in the same volume, bearing the hand written note 'N. 1552 du Catalogue de la Bibliothèque du Monsignor Foscolo vendu par autorité de justice de la Depositeria urbana pas le Ministere de libre Agazzi. La 1ere vente devais avoir lieu le 4 xmbre 1843 mais enfait la vente n'a eu lieu qu'en 1844 et le N. 1552 n'a été vendu qu'à la vacation en date du 22 mars 1844'). In Foscolo's own hand the emendations on fols. Aa2r and Aa8 of the sixth volume, and some underlining in red pencil.

An exceptional set of the first complete edition of Plutarch's works, edited by Henri Estienne “avec correction et elegance” (Renouard), and once owned by the outstanding Italian poet and patriot Ugo Foscolo. The seven-volume set includes only the Greek part of Estienne's publication, supplemented with his Appendix.

Foscolo's interest in the 'divine Plutarchus' was already evident in his famous epistolary novel Le ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis (see no. 258), in which Plutarch's works are the beloved reading of the main character. Foscolo began to write the Discorsi sopra gli uomini illustri di Plutarco at the beginning of the nineteenth century; of this work, only the Proemio or Preface – dated 1 January 1801 – was completed. On 25 July of the same year he was appointed director of an office in Milan created to put into writing the military code of the Cisalpine Republic, which had been established in 1797; on 3 August he was moved to the fourth section of this office and charged with the writing of disciplinary and penal rules. For this purpose, in a letter addressed on 7 August to the Minister of War, Vincenzo Lancetti, Foscolo requested some books, which he considered necessary for his writing, among others “Plutarco. Vite degli uomini illustri”, i.e., Plutarch's Parallel Lives. The missing publication date forbids certain identification of the Plutarch edition which was later supplied by Lancetti, and the subsequent course of Foscolo's private library is very complex. His collection was bought by his friend Quirina Mocenni Magiotti in 1816, when Foscolo decided to self-exile himself in London, and it later came mostly into the possession of the Biblioteca Marucelliana in Florence: among the books recorded in the Florentine library is the Italian-language edition of Vite di Plutarco volgarizzate da Girolamo Pompei, printed in Verona between 1772 and 1773. The volumes of this Italian Plutarch bear the ownership inscription 'Ugo Foscolo Firenze M.DCCC.I'. It is known that Foscolo sejourned in Florence until 25 March 1801; therefore, the Veronese publication cannot be the edition given to Foscolo in Milan after 7 August 1801, the date of his letter to Vincenzo Lancetti. The copy given by him on that occasion may thus actually be the set of volumes described here.

Renouard Estienne 134.2; Schreiber Estienne, 179; Schweiger I, 259; G. Gambarin, Scritti letterari e politici: dal 1796 al 1808, U. Foscolo, Edizione Nazionale, Firenze 1972, vol. VI, pp. LXIII-LXIV; La biblioteca fiorentina del Foscolo nella Biblioteca Marucelliana. Premessa di L. Caretti; introduzione, catalogo, appendice di G. Nicoletti. Firenze [1978]; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 148.

The Statutes of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, bound by Soresini for the Grand Master

165. Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Gli Statuti della Sacra Religione di S. Gio: Gierosolomitano. Tradotti di Latino in Volgare di Iacomo Bosio Agente della medesima Religione nella Corte di Roma. Aggiuntiui li Priuilegij dell’istessa Religione.... Giacomo Tornieri and Giacomo Ruffinello, 1589.

Two parts in one volume, 4° (247x170 mm). Collation: *6, **4, A-Z4, Aa-Nn4, a-g4, h6; A-P4. [20], 280, [76]; 92 of 96 (lacking the leaves M3 and M4, also not present in the other recorded copies), [24] pages. Complete with fols. Nn4 and h6 blanks. Roman and italic type. Separate title-pages for each part, bearing the woodcut coat of arms of Cardinal Hugues Loubens de Verdalle (1531-1595), Grand Master of the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Fols. *5r-*6v, containing the privilege of the Grand Master (dated 20 November 1588), within a woodcut border. Magnificent contemporary Roman brown morocco over pasteboards, executed by Francesco Soresini's workshop. Covers within frames of blind and gilt fillets, narrow frieze all'antica, and small floral tools. At centre cornerpieces, on the top the monogram 'IHS', all in gilt; on the upper cover painted coat of arms of the Grand Master Hugues Loubens de Verdalle, in gilt medallion surmounted by cardinal hat, below the inscription in gilt 'F. VGO DE LOVBENX VERDALA CAR: GRAN MAESTRO'; on the lower cover painted coat of arms of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem painted within gilt oval frame, below the inscription 'DEL CAVAL. F. FRAN. HIER. BERTIO' in gilt, referring to the Knight Francesco Girolamo Berti. Spine with four raised bands, underlined with gilt fillets, compartments decorated with gilt foliate tools, title in gold on lettering-piece. Edges gilt. Joints weakened but still solid, extremities of the spine and corners slightly worn. A very good copy, with only occasional foxing.

Provenance: Grand Master of the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, Hugues Loubens de Verdalle (1531-1595; armorial binding); given by him as a gift to Francesco Girolamo Berti (gilt inscription on the lower cover); to his brother Fabrizio Berti (ownership inscription on the first title-page 'Di Fra Fabritio Bertio Baglio di Pavia 1595').

The rarest issue of the Italian translation of the Statuta of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, first printed in Latin in 1589, presented here in an exceptional copy magnificently bound for the dedicatee and sponsor of the edition, cardinal Hugues Loubens de Verdalle, Grand Master of the Order between 1581 and 1595.

The Statutes were translated from Latin into Italian by Giacomo Bosio, the representative of the Knights at the Roman Curia. The Italian version was examined and approved by a commission in Malta, and was given the same legal status as the original Latin text. The Grand Master decided therefore that the costs of publication were to be sustained by the Order and copies distributed among its members.

The copy presented here is in a handsome binding executed by the leading workshop of Francesco Soresini, appointed Papal binder at the death of Niccolò Franzese in 1575, and the founder of a celebrated dynasty of binders (Francesco, Prospero, and Baldassarre were his heirs). Soresini counted among his clients popes, cardinals, generals of religious orders, and members of the most distinguished Roman families. The binding was commissioned by the Grand Master Hugues Loubens de Verdalle, as attested by his coat of arms and name on the upper cover, and given by him as a gift to Francesco Girolamo Berti, who had entered the Order on 20 September 1567, and whose name is lettered in gilt on the lower cover. The volume then passed down to his brother Fabrizio Berti, who was appointed knight on 4 July 1575 and subsequently became Balio of Pavia, his hometown.

F. de Hellwald, Bibliographie méthodique de l'Ordre Souverain de St. Jean de Jérusalem, Rome 1885, p. 28; G. Vianini Tolomei, Legatura Romana Barocca 1565-1700, Rome 1991, pl. VII (for the tools used here); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 165.

The first Italian translation, by the author himself

175. Possevino, Antonio (1533-1611)

Coltura de gl’ingegni... Nella quale con molta dottrina, & giuditio si mostrano li doni che ne gl’ingegni dell’huomo ha posto Iddio, la uarietà, & inclinatione loro, e di doue nasce, & come si conosca, li modi, e mezi d’essercitarli per le discipline, li rimedij a gl’impedimenti, li coleggi, & università, l’uso de’ buoni libri, e la corretione de’ cattiui. Giorgio Greco, 1598.

4° (207x147 mm). Collation: a-b4, A-N4, O6. [16], 115, [1] pages. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Traces of ties to the fore-edges. Smooth spine with remains of two paper labels. A good copy, a few leaves uniformly browned; fols. O3 and O4 partly loose. Short tears to the lower outer corners of fols. L2-L4 and M1, not affecting text. Early shelfmark on the front pastedown.

Provenance: Theological Institute of Connecticut, East Windsor Hill (now defunct; blind stamps on the first and last quires, and fol. b1); the well-known Italian librarian and bibliographer from Parma Luigi Balsamo (1926-2012; ex-libris on the front pastedown).

First Italian translation of the first twelve chapters of Possevino's ambitious bibliographical treatise, Bibliotheca selecta, which had appeared in Rome in 1593. The present copy comes from the library of Italian scholar Luigi Balsamo, author of the two-volume work La Biblioteca selecta di Antonio Possevino S.I. ovvero l'enciclopedia cattolica della Controriforma (Firenze 1999).

The translation was made by Possevino himself and is divided into fifty-six chapters, each given an individual title to facilitate reading and the finding of various topics. The Jesuit had passed the manuscript on to Mariano Lauretti, who published the work with a dedicatory epistle to Baron Oswald Trapp.

In his Coltura de gl'ingegni ('Cultivation of the Intellectual Faculties') Possevino offers a detailed curriculum, describing several European universities and brilliantly illustrating the teaching in the Collegio Romano, while also discussing printing, book selling, and censorship.

M. Cristofari, “La tipografia vicentina nel secolo XVI”, Miscellanea di scritti di bibliografia ed erudizione in memoria di Luigi Ferrari, Firenze 1952, no. 233; A. Anichini - P. Giorgi, 100 immagini di libri di scuola. Il fondo antiquario del Museo Nazionale della Scuola di Firenze, secoli XVI-XVIII, Firenze 2013, pp. 58, 183; L. Balsamo, “Venezia e l'attività editoriale di Antonio Possevino (1553-1606)”, La Bibliofilia, 93 (1991), pp. 65-66; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 175.

A journey to the City of Truth

184. Del Bene, Bartolomeo (b. 1514)

Civitas veri sive morum... Aristotelis de moribus doctrinam, carmine et picturis complexa, et illustrata commentariis Theodori Marcilii.... Ambroise and Jérôme Drouart, 1609.

Folio (343x214 mm). Collation: A4, 2A-Z4, Aa-Hh4, Ii6. [8], 258, [2] pages. Complete with fol. A4 blank. Roman, italic, and Greek type. Engraved title-page and thirty-three engraved plates by Thomas de Leu, including a double-page plan of the City of Truth. Woodcut initials, head-and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with title in gilt on lettering-piece. Some wear. A fine and tall copy, slightly browned, pale waterstain at the upper margin. A manuscript note in French on the front flyleaf.

Rare first edition of this remarkable utopian work, a poetic meditation in Latin hexameters, based on the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle. The Civitas veri sive morum was written in 1585 by the diplomat and poet Bartolomeo Del Bene, and posthumously edited in 1609 by his nephew Alfonso, bishop of Albi, who dedicated the publication to Henri IV. The text is accompanied by a commentary by Théodore Marcile (1548-1617).

The poem describes a journey to the City of Truth (Civitas veri) which begins at the Palace of Strength and takes us to the Palaces of Moderation and Excess; we then arrive at the Temples of Glory and Generosity, and finally at the Labyrinth of Vices. The Basilica of Magnanimity and Modesty is a dignified structure, and so too is the House of Courtesy. The contrast is quickly apparent: arrogance, falsity, and injustice are present in the forms of buildings. The edifices of Heroism, Abstinence, and Justice, represent the goal of a virtuous life.

The work is divided into thirty days, starting from the canonical description of the five senses, following by a listing the traditional virtues and vices in hierarchical fashion, and culminating in a discussion of the philosopher's wisdom. The edition is supplemented with a marvellous series of engravings, executed by the publisher and print dealer Thomas de Leu (1560–1620), mostly representing allegories and figures on a pilgrimage to the City of Truth. One double-page plate shows a map of this city.

“Like so many Renaissance allegories, the 'Civitas veri' grows from a medieval root. The commentator Marcile points out its indebtedness to St Augustine's 'City of God', and indeed the plan of the City of Truth recalls illustrations in medieval manuscripts of the City of God. The allegorical dream in the architectural setting has a strong hold on the Renaissance imagination, as exemplified by the 'Hypnerotomachia Poliphili' (see nos. 43 and 103), to which work the 'Civitas veri', though of a different temper, has a certain relationship”. (F. A. Yates, The French Academies of the Sixteen Century, p. 112).”

Duportal, Livres à figures du XVIIe siècle, p. 155; French Emblem Books F.212; Landwehr 255; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 184.

The South Sea Bubble

225. Baston, Thomas (fl. 18th century)

Thoughts on Trade, and a Publick Spirit. Consider’d under the Following Heads, viz. I. Companies in Trade. II. Stock-jobbers. III. Projectors. IV. Corruptions in the Law and Public Offices. V. Of a Public Spirit.... Printed for the Author, 1716.

8° (189x114 mm). [16], 212 pages. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary English mottled calf, over pasteboards. Boards within gilt fillets, spine with five raised bands, underlined by gilt fillets. Title in gold on lettering-piece. Upper joint split at the head, corners lightly damaged. A very good copy, somewhat spotted and browned; waterstaining on the last leaves, a few fingermarks. The lower blank corner of fol. C3 is lacking, without any loss. Two marginal notes on fols. G6v and I1r referring to the Appendix.

The first edition of this essay by the Tory Thomas Baston, dedicated – as the title-page states – 'to all Lovers of their Country'. Thoughts on Trade is one of the most interesting works on political economics in Early Modern Britain: an invective against stock-jobbers, projectors, fraud, financial degeneracy or corruption, and an acute warning about stock market bubbles: the South Sea Bubble occurred in 1720, owing to the financial exploits of John Law (1671-1729) and the failure of his system, causing bankruptcy and ruin especially in France, England, and the Netherlands.

The work was issued entirely anonymously, although it was entered into the Stationers' Register under Baston's name. In 1732 the work was published under the author's name, with the new title Observations on Trade and a Publick.

Baston was active in London as a printmaker. In 1710 he was incarcerated for six years in the Kings Bench prison for debt. Thoughts on Trade contains a large section entitled Case of the poor Debtors, which reflects his first-hand experience.

Goldsmiths 5282; Kress 2981; Hanson, Contemporary Printed Sources for British and Irish Economic History 2217; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 225.

Opere... con la traduzione in Volgar Fiorentino del Signor Bernardo Davanzati Posta rincontro al Testo Latino. Con le Postille del medesimo e la Dichiarazione d’alcune voci meno intese... Novella Edizione, purgata dagl’innumerabili errori di tutte le precedenti...

236. Tacitus, Caius Cornelius (ca. 55 – ca. 120)

Opere... con la traduzione in Volgar Fiorentino del Signor Bernardo Davanzati Posta rincontro al Testo Latino. Con le Postille del medesimo e la Dichiarazione d’alcune voci meno intese... Novella Edizione, purgata dagl’innumerabili errori di tutte le precedenti.... Giuseppe Comino; Giovanni Antonio Volpi and Gaetano Volpi, 30 August 1755.

Two parts in one volume, large 4° (245x174 mm). Printed on blue paper. lxxx, 343; [5], 344- 669, [1] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Text in two columns. Engraved Comino printer's device at the end. Engraved medallion portrait of Davanzati on the title-page, with the inscription 'BERNARDO DAVANZATI GENTILUOMO FIORENTINO.' Decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, with inked title and printing date. Pastedowns and flyleaves in blue paper. Gilt and gauffered edges. A very fine copy. On the front pastedown the inked number '966'; on the recto of the front flyleaf the stamped shelfmark 'D 327'.

Provenance: Giovanni Antonio Gotti from Ceneda, near Treviso (the ownership inscription 'Die 27 February 1777 Joh:is Antonj Gotti Cenetensis, Vicarj Pretorj Paduae cum Px:mo Antonio Gajnerio - Costò £ 26.-' on the front pastedown); Giovanni Giacomo Trivulzio (1774-1831; ex-libris); Biblioteca Trivulziana, Milan (small stamps on the recto of the front flyleaf and on a few leaves of the volume; copy sold as a duplicate).

The Cominiana edition of Tacitus' Annales and Decades, offered here in the only copy known to have been printed on blue paper. This elegant Italian translation by the Florentine Bernardo Davanzati (1529-1606) successfully captures Tacitus' brevity while illuminating his obscurity. It first appeared posthumously in Florence in 1637, where it was printed on behalf of the Accademia della Crusca, which had inherited Davanzati's manuscripts. This translation represents a significant chapter in the history of the great Roman historian's reception in early modern Europe. During his lifetime Davanzati had only published a version of the first book of the Annales which appeared in Venice in 1596.

Tacitus was considered a master of political thought, and a sceptical analyst of political reality; his works could thus offer an interpretation of contemporary political events and the problems of monarchies through discussions of ancient civil wars and the unlimited power of Roman emperors. “The condemnation of Machiavelli's works by the Catholic Church (1559) had left an empty space which Tacitus could easily fill. What could be not be said in the name of Catholic Machiavelli could be said in the name of pagan Tacitus” (A. Momigliano, The Classical Foundations of Modern Historiography, Berkeley 1990, p. 123). This explains the popularity of Davanzati's translation, and more generally the vernacular translation of Tacitus, which was indeed a European phenomenon.

This marvellous copy was once held in the exquisite library collected by Giovanni Giacomo Trivulzio and is mentioned by Gamba with regard to the Paduan Tacitus of 1755. The Milanese bibliophile may have purchased the volume at the sale of the Bibliotheca Pinelliana (see no. 250).

Gamba 940; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 236.

Le meilleur des mondes possibles — PMM

238. Voltaire [François Marie Arouet de] (1694-1778)

Candide, ou l’Optimisme. [Geneva], [Gabriel Cramer], 1759.

12° (161x95 mm). 299, [3] pages. Complete with the penultimate blank leaf, fol. N7 but the final fol. N8 (instructions to the binder) being only a stub. Woodcut ornament to the title-page, and tailpieces. Contemporary Italian mottled sheep-backed boards, gilt spine with title on red morocco lettering-piece. A very good copy. Some light foxing and browning, mostly to the upper margins.

A fine copy of the true first edition, with the following issue points: the title ornament of spray, fruit and flowers is repeated at pp. 193 and 266; p. 103, line 4, has the misprint 'que ce ce fut' (corrected to ‘que ce fut' in later editions); p. 125, line 4, has 'précisément' (corrected to 'précipitamment' in later editions); with Voltaire's revisions on p. 31 eliminating an unnecessary paragraph break, and on p. 41 the rewriting of several short sentences on the Lisbon earthquake. This first edition does not preserve the cancelled paragraph critical of German poets on p. 242 (beginning “Candide était affligé”).

The bibliographical history of this book has been extremely complex and confused, not least because before handing over a final manuscript to the Genevan publisher Gabriel Cramer, Voltaire went behind his back and sent a slightly different version of the manuscript to John Nourse, a printer in London, who may well have dispatched copies to other publishers. The result was that within weeks of the first edition of Candide appearing in Geneva, sixteen other editions appeared in Paris, London, and Amsterdam. The identification of the present issue as the true editio princeps, already supposed by Bengesco and Gagnebin, was recently confirmed by the cumulative analyses of Ira Wade, Giles Barber, and Stephen Weissman: the Genevan printing must be considered earlier than the other three editions containing 299 pages published in 1759, as well as the thirteen other editions of different sizes printed in Europe in the same year. Around 1754 Voltaire “fled [from Berlin] to Geneva where he found and bought the ideal refuge, Ferney, four miles from the city. Here, just on French soil, he could enjoy the political liberty of Geneva with the social liberty of France. Here Candide, the most perfect of the light-weight parables which were his especial and peculiar forte, was written. Typically, it was published anonymously, and many times printed and pirated in its early years” (PMM).

Drawing on the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 for inspiration, this conte philosophique became an almost instant best-seller with about 20,000 copies sold in the first year alone, despite its initial censorship.

Barber 299G; Bengesco 1434; Morize 59a; PMM 204; I. O. Wade, Voltaire and Candide: A Study in the Fusion of History, Art and Philosophy, Princeton, NJ 1959; S. Weismann (ed.), Voltaire: the Martin J. Gross collection in the New York Public Library, New York 2008; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 238.

If a government needs censorship, it comes from the weakness of its constitution — Cesare Beccaria

240. Beccaria, Cesare (1734-1794)

Dei delitti e delle pene.... [Livorno, Marco Coltellini for Giuseppe Aubert], 1764.

4° (197x143 mm). 104, [2] pages. Complete, including the final leaf with the errata, often lacking in recorded copies. Woodcut headpiece on fol. A2r. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, divided into compartments by gilt fillets, and decorated with small floral tools. Title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Pastedowns covered with floral patterned paper. A very fine copy. Leaves somewhat browned, as usual.

Provenance: Walter Ashburner (1864-1936; small and partly erased stamps on fol. N4v and on the verso of the last leaf); gifted to him by the jurist Ferdinando Bosi in 1925 (autograph note on the title-page, 'W. Ashburner Dedit mihi v.cl. Ferd. Bosi IC 1925'); the Italian scholar Luigi Firpo (1915-1989; ex-libris on the front pastedown).

The first edition of one of the most important works of the Italian Enlightenment. A manifesto on legal reform, and one of the best interpretations of the ideas circulating around France in the second half of the eighteenth century.

The young Milanese nobleman Cesare Beccaria Bonesana composed this work between March 1763 and January 1764, while he was an active member of the intellectual circle known as the Accademia dei pugni, founded in Milan in 1762 by the brothers Alessandro and Pietro Verri, and Beccaria himself, among others. The central theme of the work is the reform of criminal justice, in a context in which punishment was still both brutal and arbitrary. Beccaria advocates an egalitarian justice system, and traces a new metric for punishment and laws rooted in the concept of public happiness. “One of the most influential books in the whole history of criminology [...] Beccaria maintained that the gravity of the crime should be measured by its injury to society and that the penalties should be related to this. The prevention of the crime he held to be of greater importance than its punishment [...] his ideas have now become so commonplace that it is difficult to appreciate their revolutionary impact at the time” (PMM).

The work enjoyed wide and immediate success, and its influence was enormous. Voltaire, d'Alembert, Helvétius, Holbach, Hume and Hegel all counted among its enthusiastic readers; Beccaria's ideas also inspired justice reforms introduced by Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, Emperor Joseph II, and Catherine II of Russia, and its influence on constitutionalism broadly, especially the Declarations des droits de l'homme of 1789, is likewise evident.

The Dei delitti e delle pene was published in Livorno (Tuscany) – then one of the most advanced cities in Italy – on 12 April 1764, anonymous and without indication of place, for fear of repercussions owing to its strong egalitarianism. The printer Coltellini had already published, in 1763, the Meditazioni sulla felicità by Pietro Verri, Beccaria's closest friend. The 'innovative' feature of the reform proposed by Beccaria was, however, perceived by the Roman censorship, and in 1766 Dei delitti e delle pene was included in the Index of Forbidden Books. A good sign, as Beccaria admonishes: if a government needs censorship, it comes from the weakness of its constitution.

The work was translated into English in 1767, and On Crimes and Punishments “significantly shaped the views of American revolutionaries and lawmakers. The first four U.S. Presidents – George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison – were inspired by Beccaria's treatise and, in some cases, read it in the original Italian. On Crimes and Punishments helped to catalyze the American Revolution, and Beccaria's anti-death penalty views materially shaped American thought on capital punishment, torture and cruelty.” (J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution”, p. 1).

The first edition also appeared with an errata leaf containing twenty-one corrections, likely printed as a separate sheet, and thus now scarcely found. Exceptionally, the present copy contains this errata leaf. Another feature of interest lies in the provenance of the volume, as it was gifted by Ferdinando Bosi, lawyer for the British writer Osbert Sitwell, to the great collector and co-founder of the British Institute in Florence, Walter Ashburner.

Einaudi 3362; PMM 209; B. E. Harcourt, Beccaria's 'On Crimes and Punishments': A Mirror on the History of the Foundations of Modern Criminal Law, Chicago 2013; M. Palumbo – E. Sidoli (eds.), The Books that Made Europe, Bruxelles 2016, pp. 248-249; J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence on American Law”, Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 37.1 (2017; accessed January 2018); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 240.

241. Beccaria, Cesare (1734-1794)

Dei delitti e delle pene.... [Livorno, Marco Coltellini for Giuseppe Aubert], 1764.

4° (204x150 mm). 104 pages. Lacking the final leaf with the errata. Woodcut headpiece on fol. A2r. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. A very good, wide-margined copy. Minor, and sporadic foxing to the first and last leaves.

The first edition of one of the most important works of the Italian Enlightenment. A manifesto on legal reform, and one of the best interpretations of the ideas circulating around France in the second half of the eighteenth century.

The young Milanese nobleman Cesare Beccaria Bonesana composed this work between March 1763 and January 1764, while he was an active member of the intellectual circle known as the Accademia dei pugni, founded in Milan in 1762 by the brothers Alessandro and Pietro Verri, and Beccaria himself, among others. The central theme of the work is the reform of criminal justice, in a context in which punishment was still both brutal and arbitrary. Beccaria advocates an egalitarian justice system, and traces a new metric for punishment and laws rooted in the concept of public happiness. “One of the most influential books in the whole history of criminology [...] Beccaria maintained that the gravity of the crime should be measured by its injury to society and that the penalties should be related to this. The prevention of the crime he held to be of greater importance than its punishment [...] his ideas have now become so commonplace that it is difficult to appreciate their revolutionary impact at the time” (PMM).

The work enjoyed wide and immediate success, and its influence was enormous. Voltaire, d'Alembert, Helvétius, Holbach, Hume and Hegel all counted among its enthusiastic readers; Beccaria's ideas also inspired justice reforms introduced by Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, Emperor Joseph II, and Catherine II of Russia, and its influence on constitutionalism broadly, especially the Declarations des droits de l'homme of 1789, is likewise evident.

The Dei delitti e delle pene was published in Livorno (Tuscany) – then one of the most advanced cities in Italy – on 12 April 1764, anonymous and without indication of place, for fear of repercussions owing to its strong egalitarianism. The printer Coltellini had already published, in 1763, the Meditazioni sulla felicità by Pietro Verri, Beccaria's closest friend. The 'innovative' feature of the reform proposed by Beccaria was, however, perceived by the Roman censorship, and in 1766 Dei delitti e delle pene was included in the Index of Forbidden Books. A good sign, as Beccaria admonishes: if a government needs censorship, it comes from the weakness of its constitution.

The work was translated into English in 1767, and On Crimes and Punishments “significantly shaped the views of American revolutionaries and lawmakers. The first four U.S. Presidents – George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison – were inspired by Beccaria's treatise and, in some cases, read it in the original Italian. On Crimes and Punishments helped to catalyze the American Revolution, and Beccaria's anti-death penalty views materially shaped American thought on capital punishment, torture and cruelty.” (J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution”, p. 1).

The first edition also appeared with an errata leaf containing twenty-one corrections, likely printed as a separate sheet, and thus now scarcely found; as with most copies, the errata leaf is missing in the present copy.

Einaudi 3362; PMM 209; B. E. Harcourt, Beccaria's 'On Crimes and Punishments': A Mirror on the History of the Foundations of Modern Criminal Law, Chicago 2013; M. Palumbo – E. Sidoli (eds.), The Books that Made Europe, Bruxelles 2016, pp. 248-249; J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence on American Law”, Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 37.1 (2017; accessed January 2018); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 241.

Daily life in eighteenth-century Venice

249. Zompini, Gaetano (1698-1778)

Le arti che vanno per via nella città di Venezia. Inventate, ed incise del Gaetano Zompini. Aggiuntavi una memoria di detto autore.... Venice, 1785 [i.e. London, 1787].

Large folio (525x325 mm). Frontispiece, title-page, sixty plates showing Venetian tradesmen, and a final leaf of index, all engraved. Each plate with the English translation on pasted-on slips below the original captions in Venetian dialect. Early twentieth-century half-calf. Spine with five raised bands, gilt-tooled; title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Upper joint partially cracked. A good copy, repairs to the blank margins of the title-page, tear to the frontispiece and plate no. 6, without any loss. A few marginal foxing.

Third edition – the first to be printed outside of Italy – of this highly original work, which suggests, with vivid immediacy, the harsh realities of daily life for the Venetian people. A painter and engraver from Neversa (Treviso), Zompini was encouraged by the printmaker and collector Anton Maria Zanetti to make a series of drawings of Venetian traders and hawkers (the original drawings are now held at the Correr Museum). Zompini later etched these drawings under Zanetti's supervision, and the series was first published in 1753. The copperplates were later acquired by the antiquarian John Strange (1732-1799), a British resident in Venice between 1773 and 1788, through his delegate Gianmaria Sasso. A second edition was then published in Venice in 1785; this edition introduced a new title-page and was supplemented with a life of Zompini – who had meanwhile died in 1778 – written by Sasso.

A few years later the work was also published in London with English translations of the original verse captions written in Venetian dialect by a certain Questini, priest of Santa Maria Mater Domini and a friend of Zompini and Zanetti. The copies printed in London, as with the present example, have the watermark '71 Lepard'. Some copies also include a letter-press leaf containing the life of the author (Memoria); this is not present in the current copy, a feature which can be explained by the fact that this London issue was intended for an English audience, as evinced by the English captions. Zompini was active as an engraver for the press of Antonio Zatta, and was responsible for the majority of plates included in Zatta's celebrated editions of Dante and Petrarch.

Cicogna 1733; Lipperheide 1330; R. Pallucchini, Incisori veneti, Venezia 1941, pp. 55-56; D. Succi, Da Carlevaris ai Tiepolo, Venezia 1983, pp. 451-461; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 249.

Printed on blue paper, and bound for Cardinal Salviati

254. Cecire, Antonio Maria (fl. 2. half of the 18th century)

La dottrina della Chiesa sulle Indulgenze esposta e difesa... per dimostrare il valore delle Indulgenze contenute nella Bolla-Crociata pe’ regno delle due Sicilie. nella Stamperia Simoniana, 1791.

Large 8° (214x135 mm). Printed on blue paper. 360 pages. Woodcut ornament on the title-page. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Fine contemporary honey calf, over pasteboards. Covers within elaborate gilt frame of neoclassical decorative elements, at each inner corner a small amphora-shaped tool. At the centre a large coat of arms of Cardinal Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati. Spine with five small raised bands, richly gilt tooled with larger amphora-shaped tools. Title in gold on brown morocco lettering-piece. Board edges decorated with diagonal gilt fillets. Marbled pastedowns, gilt edges. Flyleaves renewed, lower corners restored. A very fine, wide-margined copy. Insignificant paper flaws to the lower margin of fol. Y1 and outer lower corner of fol. Q3, in both cases not affecting the text.

Provenance: Cardinal Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati, Duke of Giuliano (1727-1794, armorial binding).

A fine copy – printed on 'carta turchina' – of this striking testament to the lively debate that had arisen in the late eighteenth-century Kingdom of the Two Sicilies concerning indulgences and the abuses of their practice.

Cecire's treatise aims to offer a sort of 'guide' for preachers, parish priests, and catechists on the issue of indulgences, a topic which has consistently sparked much extensive and heated controversy throughout ecclesiastical history. Here the Franciscan author deals especially with the so-called 'Bolle della Crociata', or Crusade-Bulls, issued in the 1790s by Pope Pius VI for Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, which foresaw special indulgences for punishment due to sins. The Bolla della Crociata had first been promulgated in 1509 by Julius II in favour of the Spanish monarchy, granting indulgences to those who would take part in the crusades against infidels. Obviously, at the end of the eighteenth century the Bull had lost its original function; instead, it was periodically issued for financing the construction or repair of churches and monasteries among other pious initiatives, but the money was also often used for other purposes, thus provoking criticism and polemics.

This copy, housed in a fine armorial binding and printed on blue paper, was indeed commissioned by the author for a distinguished recipient or patron: Cardinal Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati.

V. Pinchera, Lusso e decoro. Vita quotidiana e spese dei Salviati di Firenze nel Sei e Settecento, Pisa 1999; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 254.

On Sailors’ education

259. Scotti, Marcello Eusebio (1742-1800)

Catechismo Nautico o vero de’ particolari doveri della gente marittima. Tratti principalmente dalla S. Bibbia, e dalle massime fondamentali della Religione... Parte prima. Doveri in generale di tutti gli abitatori delle Città marittime. Di Simone, 1788.

8° (182x110 mm). XLIV, 281, [3] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, title and imprint on double morocco lettering-piece. Covers and spine somewhat worn and rubbed. A good, genuine copy; some staining and foxing due to the quality of the paper.

Extremely rare first edition of this catechism written – as signalled by its title, Nautical Catechism – for the education of seamen. The work was originally conceived in three parts, but only the first part, containing the Doveri in generale di tutti gli abitatori delle Città marittime, was published. The second and the third parts were lost – as were all Scotti's papers – during the raid of his house in Procida.

Scotti was born in Naples, into a family originally from the island of Procida. He received his early education at the Chinese College. The abilities he demonstrated in his studies, even at a very early age, were quickly recognized by his teachers who deemed him worthy of becoming their colleague. He chose a religious path to more easily devote himself to his studies. In 1779 he was called to the Academy of Science and Letters in Naples and was later sent to preach in Ischia, Aversa, and Procida. His fame as a preacher grew rapidly, but he was soon accused of spreading 'dangerous' principles of faith. No longer allowed to preach from the pulpit, Scotti undertook the writing of his Nautical Catechism.

The text focuses on the duties of seamen, insisting on the importance of being educated in navigation and commerce, practicing the duties of hospitality, assisting with shipwrecks, and taking care of the education of their wives and daughters, who were so exposed to the dangers of seduction during the long absences of their husbands and fathers. Of particular interest, for the surprisingly liberal views of the author, are the chapters on women's rights and duties.

Originally intended only for the education of sailors on the island of Procida, the work had a broader diffusion and ended up reaching the fishermen of Santa Lucia and the coral divers of Torre del Greco as well.

R. Salvemini, “Introduzione” to M. E. Scotti, Catechismo nautico, Procida 2001; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 259.

Mauritius and the Cape

261. Milbert, Jacques-Gérard (1766-1840)

Voyage pittoresque à l’Île-de-France, au Cap de Bonne-Espérance et à l’Île de Ténériffe. Avec un Atlas composé de trois cartes géographiques, et de quarante-cinq vues pittoresques dessinées sur les lieux, et gravées en partie par l’Auteur. Jean Baptiste Étienne Élie Lenormand for A. Nepveau, 1812.

Set comprising two volumes of text, 8° (202x130 mm), and one-volume atlas, small folio (295x200 mm). Text: I. XIV, 392, [4, Table and Errata] pages. II. [4], 390, [2, Table] pages. Three folding tables. Contemporary half-calf. Spine gilt tooled, titles in gold on morocco lettering-pieces.

Atlas: [4] pages, and forty-five engraved plates, six of which are folding. Slightly later half-shagreen, title in gilt lettering on the spine.

Some marginal foxing, some quires slightly browned, but a very good set. The plates are uncut with deckle edges.

Rare first edition of this travel account illustrated with forty-five plates after Jacques-Gérard Milbert, a painter who accompanied the French expedition sent by Napoleon to explore the 'Mers du Sud' in 1800.

Milbert, a pupil of the great landscape painter Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes, taught drawing at the École nationale supérieure des mines in Paris. In 1800 he embarked on the corvette 'Le Géographe' captained by the explorer Nicolas Baudin.

During the voyage, however, Milbert and several other artists had a conflict with the captain and decided to stop at Mauritius – then called Île-de-France – where he remained for two years. Upon his return, Milbert travelled through the Cape and Tenerife. Back in France, he published the account of his travels in 1812 along with a series of views he had taken in Mauritius, the Cape, and Tenerife.

In 1815, Milbert travelled to the United States, where he would remain for eight years, based in New York, teaching and travelling in the northeastern region.

Galibert Nivoelisoa, Chronobibliographie de la littérature de voyage sur l'océan Indien, Paris 2000, no. 108; M. Ly-Tio-Fane, “Biographie de Jacques-Gérard Milbert (1766-1840)”, J. Bonnemains - M. Ly-Tio-Fane (eds.), Le Géographe et le Naturaliste à l'Île-de-France, 1801, 1803, ultime escale du capitaine Baudin”, Port-Louis 2003, pp. XXXVII-XLI; J. Ryckebusch, Inventaire des ouvrages concernant l'île Bourbon, l'île de la Réunion, ceux imprimés sur place et les ouvrages généraux sur les voyages aux Indes orientales, la traite de l'esclavage, des origines à 1930, Paris 2005, II, 5713, p. 200; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 261.

The Little Red Book, in the rare paper wrappers

287. Mao Zedong (1893-1976)

Mao Zhu Xi Yu Lu [Quotations of Chairman Mao. In Chinese]. Shenyang, Political Department, Air Force Division of Shenyang Military Region, December 1963.

12° (126x91 mm). [6], 351, [1] pages. Text organized into five divisions, sixteen chapters, and sixty-four sections. Publisher's cream-colour wrappers, red-lettered upper wrapper and spine. A good copy, cover stained, some text underlined in red ink.

Provenance: on the upper wrapper, an inscription referring to a degree of military hierarchy corresponding to that of 'official'.

Extremely important Maoist edition representing the prototype of the official Little Red Book of May 1964, in its printed paper wrappers: prior to the formal publication of Mao's Quotations – widely distributed within the People's Liberation Army – the Air Force, under the leadership of Lin Biao, assembled a somewhat larger collection of abstracts from the Chairman's speeches and writings; these were printed in such a small quantity that military officers were requested to return the book so others could borrow it. This edition has the same title as the later version (consisting of 250 pages divided in thirty chapters) and includes Lin's endorsement that “Everyone should study the Chairman's writings, follow his teachings, act according to his instructions and be Chairman Mao's good soldier”, taken from Lin's Resolution of the Expanded Meeting of the Military Committee on Strengthening Political And Ideological Education in the Army, here type-set in red and printed in its entirety (as opposed to the abridged version in calligraphy). The edition does not include Mao's portrait. Lin's endorsement is followed by seven pages of indexed content proceeded by 150 quotations (127 extracts from Mao and twenty-three by Lin Biao and the Central Military Commission, selected from newspaper transcripts).

This larger anthology is barely known and not mentioned in any of the standard Mao bibliographies, nor is its relationship to the eventual publication five months later explained in the one citation located, Guo Dongpeng's Outline for Cataloguing Mao Zedong's Works (p. 71). Guo refers to two copies in different bindings, each with 351 pages of text: an undated edition without imprint that he ascribes to 1963, and this version (which is dated and detailed); the most recent selection from Mao's texts is dated 29 August 1963. As General Lin was Minister of National Defense for the PRC (1959-1971), it is assumed this may have been a trial specimen created by the Air Force and possibly used as the model and source for editing down Mao's better-known version of the following year.

Guo Dongpeng, Outline for Cataloguing Mao Zedong's Works, Harbin 2006, p. 71; O. Lein Han, “Sources and Early Printing History of Chairman Mao's Quotations”, The Bibliographic Society of America (accessed January 2018); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 287.