Volume III: From the 17th to the 21st Century Philobiblon

One Thousand Years of Bibliophily from the 11th to the 21st Century

274. Rothschild, Charlotte Baroness de (1825-1899)

Italie. Souvenir d’un voyage de Nice à Génes par la Corniche. Vingt-trois de mes Dessins. Eaux-fortes. 1869.

Oblong folio (435x600 mm overall; 250x430 mm platemark). Title-page printed in red and black. Twenty-three mounted etchings. Contemporary dark brown shagreen, covers double-ruled. Spine with six raised bands, title lettered in gilt. Minor abrasions to covers, spine partially cracked. Generally the etchings are superb impressions.

Provenance: Baroness Charlotte de Rothschild (ex-libris 'Abaye des Vaux de Cernay. Nathaniel de Rothschild' on the front pastedown).

Extremely rare and charming series of etched views of areas between Côte d'Azur and Genoa, designed by the accomplished painter, amateur printmaker, and art collector Baroness Charlotte de Rothschild. A visual record of one of the great Romantic voyages pittoresques, the journey began in Nice and concluded in Genoa, with stops in Menton, San Remo, etc. From the Parisian branch of this immensely wealthy and cultured family, Charlotte studied watercolours under Eugène Lami, with whom she founded the Society of French Watercolour Painters. Her Parisian salon included such luminaries as Corot, Manet, and Chopin. Published in a small number of copies, strictly for distribution as gifts to family and friends, we have only located two institutional copies: at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Cabinet des Estampes, and at the Bibliothèque de Cessole in Nice.

The copy presented here has a very appropriate provenance, bearing her ex-libris on the front pastedown, with the inscription 'Abaye des Vaux de Cernay. Nathaniel de Rothschild'. The Baroness had bought the Abbaye des Vaux de Cernay, located in the Chevreuse valley, in 1873, after the death of her husband, her English cousin Nathaniel Rothschild (1812-1870).

Most of the plates, as the title indicates, show harbours and coastlines from the viewpoint of the shore, although four are townscapes. The outlines of cities appear in some of the harbour plates as well; the emphasis falls on the romantic celebration of nature, with picturesque elements (fishermen, washer women) providing a sense of scale and enlivening the scenes. Unusually, the place names of the locales depicted are etched in the plate. Proximity is indicated by densely etched areas of black in the foreground, distance by a lighter and lighter line. The pitch-black areas are reminiscent of Manet, who most influenced the artist.

The album represents a quite unknown document, and a significant addition to the corpus of engraving by female artists.

Astengo-Fiaschini, nos. 55, 99, 122, 123, 132, 147, and 160; La route de Gènes. La riviera da Nizza a Genova nelle stampe romantiche francesi, nos. 58-59; M. Hall, “The English Rothschilds”, G. Heuberger (ed.), The Rothschilds: Essays on the History of a European Family, Rochester, NY 1994, pp. 265-286; P. Prévost-Marcilhacy, “Charlotte de Rothschild: artiste, collectionneur et mécène”, Histoires d'art, (2008), pp. 252-265; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 274.

The foundation of Criminology. A dedication copy to the Italian Psychiatric Society

275. Lombroso, Cesare (1835-1909)

L’uomo delinquente studiato in rapporto alla antropologia, alla medicina legale ed alle discipline carcerarie. Ulrico Hoepli, 1876.

8° (225x160 mm). [4], 255, [1] pages. With four illustrations in the text, one of which is pasted on page 65 and reproduces the photograph that three murders made of themselves, as a memory, while miming the crime that they had just committed. Contemporary half-cloth with gilt title on spine. Spine repaired at the extremities. A very good copy, gutter of the first quire reinforced.

Provenance: gifted by Cesare Lombroso to the Società Freniatrica Italiana, i.e., the Italian Psychiatric Society (large paper strip on the half-title, bearing Lombroso's autograph dedication 'per i soci della Freniatrica Italiana / tutti voi / C. Lombroso / Pavia 6 Dic 1883'); the medical-legal physician Angiolo Filippi (1836-1905; pencilled ownership inscription on the half-title leaf).

Rare first edition – in a precious association copy – of the work that marks the birth of criminal anthropology. The book went through five editions in Italian and was published in various European languages, including English in 1900.

Born in Verona to a wealthy Jewish family, Lombroso studied literature, linguistics, and archaeology at the universities of Padua, Vienna and Paris, before becoming an army surgeon in 1859. In 1866 he was appointed visiting lecturer at Pavia and in 1871 he took charge of the mental asylum at Pesaro. He became Professor of Forensic Medicine and Hygiene at Turin in 1878. Later he was appointed as Professor of Psychiatry (1896) and Criminal Anthropology (1906) at the same university.

The Criminal Man, immediately welcomed as extremely innovative in the psychiatric and medical world of the time, is also addressed to judges and lawyers. It illustrates Lombroso's theories on the correlation between somatic and mental deformities with reference to specific factors as atavism, degeneration, and epilepsy. Lombroso also deals with the legal implications of his theories, particularly in relation to the issue of 'moral insanity', understood as a serious disturbance of social behavior. Lombroso was convinced of the pathological nature of the 'born criminal', and is considered the founder of criminology.

“Lombroso [...] maintained that criminals are more often found to suffer from physical, nervous and mental abnormalities than non-criminals, and that these abnormalities are either inherited or the result of physical degeneration [...] 'Criminal Man' was a revolutionary work which not only caused a considerable stir when it first came out but had a practical effect which was wholly beneficial. The division which it indicated between the congenital criminal and those who were tempted to crime by circumstances has had a lasting effect on penal theory. Again, by connecting the treatment of crime with the treatment of insanity, Lombroso initiated a branch of psychiatric research which has cast new light on problems, such as criminal responsibility, which lie at the root of human society” (PMM).

This copy bears Lombroso's autograph address to the Società Freniatrica Italiana, dated 'Pavia, 6 Dic 1883'. The Società Freniatrica Italiana – the Italian Psychiatric Society – was established in 1873, and Lombroso was among its founders. Its fourth congress took place in Voghera, near Pavia, on 16-22 September 1883. Later the volume came into possession of Angiolo Filippi, who was the leading medical-legal authority in Italy at that time. Filippi published the first Italian treatises on forensic medicine – the Principii di medicina legale per gli studenti di legge ed i giurisperiti (Firenze 1889) and the Manuale di medicina legale conforme al nuovo codice penale per medici e giuristi (Milano 1889) - in which some sections are devoted to criminal anthropology. Filippi was in correspondence with Lombroso, with respect to whom he often had differing opinions. Some notes in the present volume, written in his own hand, confirm the critical approach he had towards Lombroso's work, offerring striking testimony to the Italian debate on criminology.

CLIO, Catalogo dei libri italiani dell'Ottocento (1801-1900), IV, p. 2667 (MI185); Garrison-Morton 174; Norman 1384; PMM 394; H. Mannheim, Pioneers in Criminology, Chicago 1960, pp. 168-227; M. Gibson, Born to Crime: Cesare Lombroso and the Italian origins of Biological Criminology, Westport 2002; G. Seppilli - L. Bianchi (eds.), Atti del IV Congresso della Società Freniatrica Italiana tenuto in Voghera dal 16 al 22 settembre 1883, Milano 1883; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 275.

In the deluxe original publisher’s green cloth

276. Collodi, Carlo (1826-1890)

Le avventure di Pinocchio. Storia di un burattino. Illustrata da E. Mazzanti. Firenze, Felice Paggi, 1883.

8° (182x120 mm). 236 pages, plus IV pages of advertisements. A portrait of Pinocchio by Enrico Mazzanti serves as the frontispiece. Sixty-one woodcuts in the text, likewise by Mazzanti. Original publisher's green cloth. On the upper cover, title stamped in gilt between two gilt stripes with the name of the author and printer embossed in green; the lower cover decorated with two floral-patterned rolls in black; spine with title lettered in gold. Covers slightly discoloured, lower cover somewhat bumped. In a fine sand morocco folding case, probably by Gozzi (Modena), the figure of Pinocchio outlined in gold at the centre of the upper board, with inlays in green, white, and red morocco. A good copy, marginal browning. Two short tears to the blank margins of pages 18 and 225, repaired, without any loss.

The exceedingly rare first edition in book form – presented in its very desirable original luxury cloth binding – of the masterpiece by the Italian writer and journalist Carlo Lorenzini (better known as Collodi), the enduring children's classic about a marionette whose nose would grow each time he told a lie.

The novel Pinocchio was first serialised in the children's magazine from Rome, Giornale per i bambini, under the direction of Ferdinando Martini: the first instalment appeared on 7 July 1881, and the last one on 25 January 1883. Pinocchio was published as a book in the same year, 1883, probably in a very small print run, and at least twelve reprints appeared during the first year of publication. Enrico Mazzanti (1852-1893) was responsible for the everlasting black-and-white illustrations. The success was enormous, with countless editions and translations into more than 260 languages. Collodi's masterpiece continues to be cherished to this day and has been the subject of numerous adaptations, including popular versions by Walt Disney and Steven Spielberg, who used the story for the film A.I. (2001).

The work was first translated into English in 1892 by M. A. Murray, whose version – The Story of a Puppet or The Adventures of Pinocchio – was published in the same year in London as well as in New York, supplemented with thirty seven of Mazzanti's illustrations. In 1904 the first American illustrated edition was published, thanks to the work of Walter S. Cramp and Charles Copeland (Pinocchio: the Adventures of a Marionette, Boston, Ginn & Co.). “Almost nothing else in children's literature equals Pinocchio for wildness of invention” (Carpenter-Prichard, Oxford Companion to Children's Literature, p. 462).

Parenti, Rarità bibliografiche dell'Ottocento, pp. 148-153 (“E' questo uno dei pezzi più rari, se non il più raro senz'altro, dell'Ottocento italiano”); H. Carpenter - M. Prichard (eds.), Oxford Companion to Children's Literature, Oxford 1984, pp. 461-462; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 276.

With the original light green wrappers, housed in an artistic binding by Sandra Varisco

277. Collodi, Carlo (1826-1890)

Le avventure di Pinocchio. Storia di un burattino. Illustrata da E. Mazzanti. Felice Paggi, 1883.

8° (190x122 mm). 236 pages, plus IV pages of advertisements. A portrait of Pinocchio by Enrico Mazzanti serves as the frontispiece. Sixty-one woodcuts in the text, likewise by Mazzanti. In a fine binding signed and dated (2015) by Sandra Varisco, after a maquette by the contemporary artist MP5. Cream box calf with figurative inlays in green inspired by the silhouette of Pinocchio wearing donkey's ears (in Italian, 'donkey' also means 'dunce'). Title lettered in 'dymo' style on spine. The original light green wrappers preserved inside (with old repairs). In a half-leather chemise, with title in 'dymo' style on spine. A fine copy, partly uncut and generally fresh, two unobtrusive children's stamps.

Handsome copy of the first edition of Pinocchio housed in an artistic box calf binding, which captures one of the most famous episodes of Collodi's masterpiece, Pinocchio wearing donkey's ears in the Paese dei Balocchi, i.e, the Land of Toys. The original light green wrappers, illustrated by Enrico Mazzanti, are preserved inside the covers.

The novel Pinocchio was first serialised in the children's magazine from Rome, Giornale per i bambini, under the direction of Ferdinando Martini: the first instalment appeared on 7 July 1881, and the last one on 25 January 1883. Pinocchio was published as a book in the same year, 1883, probably in a very small print run, and at least twelve reprints appeared during the first year of publication. Enrico Mazzanti (1852-1893) was responsible for the everlasting black-and-white illustrations. The success was enormous, with countless editions and translations into more than 260 languages. Collodi's masterpiece continues to be cherished to this day and has been the subject of numerous adaptations, including popular versions by Walt Disney and Steven Spielberg, who used the story for the film A.I. (2001).

The work was first translated into English in 1892 by M. A. Murray, whose version – The Story of a Puppet or The Adventures of Pinocchio – was published in the same year in London as well as in New York, supplemented with thirty seven of Mazzanti's illustrations. In 1904 the first American illustrated edition was published, thanks to the work of Walter S. Cramp and Charles Copeland (Pinocchio: the Adventures of a Marionette, Boston, Ginn & Co.). “Almost nothing else in children's literature equals Pinocchio for wildness of invention” (Carpenter-Prichard, Oxford Companion to Children's Literature, p. 462).

Parenti, Rarità bibliografiche dell'Ottocento, pp. 148-153 (“E' questo uno dei pezzi più rari, se non il più raro senz'altro, dell'Ottocento italiano”); H. Carpenter - M. Prichard (eds.),Oxford Companion to Children's Literature, Oxford 1984, pp. 461-462; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 276.

‘Normal’ versus ‘criminal’ woman, such as ‘the prostitute’

279. Lombroso, Cesare (1835-1909)

La donna delinquente. La prostituta e la donna normale. L. Roux, 1893.

8° (242x154 mm). XI, [1], 640 pages. With the engraved portrait of Messalina on the title-page, eight plates (four folding) and several diagrams, photographs, and statistical tables in the text. Possibly original blue cloth, gilt title on spine. Joints weakened. A good copy, only slightly browned, plate VI loose.

Rare first edition of this very influential work on the criminal woman, considered the first modern criminology text to focus exclusively on the subject.

A first draft of the work, written in collaboration with Salvatore Ottolenghi, had appeared two years earlier in the Giornale della R. Accademia di Medicina (nos. 9-10). The final draft was written in collaboration with the author's son-in-law, the talented law student Guglielmo Ferrero (1871-1942).

In Criminal Woman, Lombroso – convinced of the pathological nature of the born criminal – applies to women the same theories expressed in his Uomo delinquente (Criminal Man), published in 1876 (see no. 275), the work that marks the foundation of criminal anthropology. In the text, he outlines a comparative analysis of 'normal women' as opposed to 'criminal women' such as 'the prostitute'.

“These theories, published in L'uomo delinquente and several other works, caused a good deal of controversy, but also exerted a powerful influence that still persists, even though we no longer accept Lombroso's concept of the connection between atavism and criminality” (Norman 1384).

CLIO, Catalogo dei libri italiani dell'Ottocento (1801-1900), IV, p. 2667 (MI185); Garrison-Morton 174; H. Mannheim, Pioneers in Criminology, Chicago 1960, pp. 168-227; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 279.

Manet’s Etching Revival

280. Manet, Édouard (1832-1883)

Manet. Trente eaux-fortes originales. A. Strölin, 1905.

Large folio-size collection (546x360 mm) comprising a four-leaf booklet and complete set of thirty etchings with aquatint set in mats. The title-page includes a heliogravure portrait by Fantin-Latour; introduction and index by Théodore Duret. Edition of 100 copies. In original tan cloth portfolio case. Sheets with full margins, 445x312 mm; plates ranging in size. Printed on paper with the Van Gelder watermark or with crowned lily and monogram 'JGL'. In the lower right margin of each sheet is a small red editorial stamp with numbering of the plates. Good impressions, neatly inked and very fresh, in a perfect condition.

Exceedingly rare complete set of etchings with aquatint by the famous French artist Édouard Manet, the eldest son of an official in the French Ministry of Justice and a visionary Realist with a profound impact on Modern Art. Printed in Paris by the Swiss-born art dealer, publisher, and collector Alfred Strölin, the etchings are accompanied with an introduction and index by the French journalist, author, and art critic Théodore Duret, one of Manet's greatest champions, and a heliogravure portrait of Manet by Henri Fantin-Latour, an extraction from the latter's celebrated canvas, Hommage à Delacroix, which was exhibited at the Salon in 1864.

The early 1860s was a particularly fruitful time in Manet's career specifically and printmaking generally. As Duret explains, this was when the artist was most fascinated with Spanish themes, taking as his subjects the various singing and dancing troops that made their way into Parisian entertainment. In 1861, as a young artist of only twenty-nine years, Manet received honourable mention at the tremendously important Paris Salon with Le Guitarrero ('The Spanish Singer') followed by great notoriety at the 1863 Salon des Refusés with the scandalous Déjeuner sur l'herbe, a reputation perhaps most solidified when his Olympia was shown in 1865. In the same years, the 'Etching Revival' – a period from about 1850 to 1930 when the medium was re-embraced by artists, particularly in France, England, and the United States – was gaining speed thanks to the establishment of the Société des Aquafortistes in 1862. The Society, which aimed to promote etching among artists and the public alike, was established at the urging of the skilled etcher Alphonse Legros. As with other painters, Manet joined the Society new to the graphic arts, and it was Legros who taught him the ropes. Fittingly, among his earliest efforts counts an etching of Le Guitarrero, included here in its final state – a poetic testament to Manet's artistic and technical maturation.

Between 1860 and 1882, Manet produced about 100 prints (etchings and lithographs); although a number of these were included in Society-related projects, many others were published posthumously. Upon the artist's death in 1883, thirty etched plates were counted among his possessions, which then became the property of his wife, Suzanne; in 1890, Suzanne printed about thirty impressions of twenty-three of these (including thirteen which had previously been unpublished) at Gennevilliers, where Manet had summered at his family's house. These twenty-three plates, along with seven more, were then ceded to the dealer and printer Louis Dumont who likewise published thirty impressions of each of the thirty plates. As Dumont's successor, the plates then passed into the hands of Alfred Strölin, who is responsible for the current edition, of which 100 copies were printed. Apart from contemporary impressions known in only a small number of copies, the plates of the Strölin edition are generally considered most desirable, as those of previous editions are often poorly inked. There is, however, an additional measure of finality at play: upon completing the print run, Strölin destroyed all the coppers by punching holes in them, thus ensuring his would be the final prints pulled from Manet's plates.

The beautiful impressions included in Strölin's edition are representative of the vastness and depth of Manet's lauded career, ranging from his early investigations into Spanish themes to such famous masterpieces as Olympia (included here in two versions), and the portraits of Eva Gonzalès, Baudelaire (again in two versions), Berthe Morisot, and Edgar Allan Poe.

It is extremely rare to find the Strölin set complete with all thirty etchings along with the text.

E. Moreau-Nélaton, Manet, Graveur et Lithographe, Paris 1906; M. Guérin, L'Oeuvre gravé de Manet, Paris 1944; J. C. Harris, Edouard Manet: Graphic works, New York 1970; F. Cachin - C. S. Moffett - J. Wilson Bareau, Manet, 1832-1883: Galeries Nationales Du Grand Palais, Paris, April 22-August 8, 1983, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, September 10-November 27, 1983, New York 1983; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 280.

One of thirty printed on Japon Ancien, bound by Madeleine Gras

281. Bonnard, Pierre (1867-1947) - Mirbeau, Octave (1848-1917)

Dingo. Ambroise Vollard, 1924.

4° (371x274 mm). 193, [11] pages. Fifty-five original etchings, some with drypoint: fourteen hors-texte plates, forty inthe text, one at the end; etched initials, headpieces and vignettes, all by Bonnard. Black and red morocco binding with white and red accents by Madeleine Gras (1891-1958), title lettered in gold in 'dymo' style on spine. Black suede endleaves and flyleaves. Gilt edges. The original wrappers preserved inside. Copy no. 23 of a total 350 copies, one of thirty printed on Japon Ancien. With a separate sheet showing the Indication pour le placement des eaux-fortes hors-texte, and a double suite of the fourteen plates sur papier d'Arches. A beautiful, pristine copy.

A fine copy of the famous French dealer-printer Ambroise Vollard's deluxe printing of one of Octave Mirbeau's final texts, illustrated throughout by the celebrated French painter and printmaker Pierre Bonnard. No. 23 of 350 copies printed – and one of only thirty copies printed on Japon Ancien – it is one of the best examples of early twentieth-century livres d'artiste, counting among Bonnard's masterpieces, and further enriched with a design binding by Madeleine Gras, pupil of the great binder Noulhac.

Dingo is an autobiographical tale of the author's adventures with his semi-feral Austrialian dog – the titular Dingo – in a lowly French country village reminiscent of the town in which Mirbeau grew up. It was published by Eugène Fasquelle in May 1913 although some months earlier, on 23 January, Vollard had written to Mirbeau stating that Imprimerie Nationale had agreed to print it for Éditions Vollard and on 29 December 1916 the dealer paid Bonnard 9,200 francs for illustrations for Dingo as well as another project he was illustrating. In failing health, Mirbeau turned to his long-time friend Léon Werth to help complete the work and passed away less than a month after Vollard's letter, on 16 February 1917. It is still a matter of debate as to why the printing of the text then shifted from Imprimerie Nationale to Émile Féquet, but by 26 November of that same year Vollard wrote to Mirbeau's widow announcing that the printing of Dingo was to commence that same day.

Regarded as the champion among champions of young avant-garde artists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Vollard was endowed with a great eye and an incredibly energetic creative spirit, constantly moving from one novel project to the next. It was likely in 1893 that Vollard met a young Bonnard, now known for his intimate Post-Impressionist style and painterly approach to printmaking, and the former acted as the latter's 'impresario' for over twenty-five years thereafter.

Already an established dealer, in 1895, Vollard entered the world of print publishing and set out to issue annual collections of fine prints commissioned from an array of contemporary artists. This included Bonnard, who was increasingly involved with these efforts; indeed, in 1897, Vollard published his second collection, Album d'estampes originales de la Galerie Vollard, for which Bonnard designed the wrapper, inside covers, and contents page, and also contributed a lithograph to the collection itself. Although Vollard's early efforts in this domain were both critically and commercially unsuccessful, it was to Bonnard that he turned when he decided to begin printing his livres de luxe, Dingo being the second of five such works that Bonnard worked on with the great printer-dealer.

Bonnard, for his part, seems to have begun working on illustrations for Mirbeau's text shortly after it was published, and his 'croquis d'après le Dingo de M. Octave Mirbeau' was published in the June 1913 issue of Les Cahiers d'aujourd'hui. His illustrations mark Bonnard's first use of line etching and drypoint, and his excitement at the new technique – which to Vollard's dismay rendered his a more lengthy task than had been anticipated – can be felt in the animated strokes that enliven his illustrations; they capture at once the nobility, savagery, and freedom of the animal spirit and the powerfully dynamic nature of one's relation to space.

Vollard also had a lengthy relationship with Mirbeau himself. The French journalist, art critic, travel writer, pamphleteer, novelist, and playwright – who travelled breezily around popular and avant-garde domains alike – wrote a catalogue preface for a Manzana-Pissarro exhibition at Vollard's gallery in April 1907 and purchased a number of works from him around 1904; by 1907 the author had still not paid what he had owed, and it has been suggested by former Metropolitan Museum curator of Modern art Rebecca A. Rabinow that, 'given the nature of their relationship, it is possible that Mirbeau offered Vollard the opportunity to publish his latest work to defray his debt' (Rabinow, Cézanne to Picasso, 333).

N. Rauch, Les Peintres et le livre, 1867-1957, Genève 1957, 26; U. Johnson, Ambroise Vollard, Editeur, New York 1977, no. 169; F. Bouvet, Bonnard the Complete Graphic Work, London 1981, no. 90; C. Ives - H. E. Giambruni - S. M. Newman, Pierre Bonnard: The Graphic Art, New York 1989, no. 103; R. Jentsch, Ambroise Vollard, Éditeur, Stuttgart 1994, no. 17; R. A. Rabinow - D. W. Druick - M. A. di Panzillo, Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-garde, New York 2006, no. 20; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 281.

For Christ’s sake don’t give anyone that jacket you’re saving for me. I’ve written it into the book — Francis Scott Fitzgerald to Max Perkins

282. Fitzgerald, Francis Scott Key (1896-1940)

The Great Gatsby. Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1925.

8° (200x136 mm). [6], 218 pages. Original green cloth, blind stamped title on upper cover, spine lettered in gilt. Dust jacket in first issue, with lowercase 'j' in 'jay Gatsby' on the back hand-corrected in ink. Repairs to the spine of the dust jacket, including 1-inch piece at the foot, affecting the publisher's imprint. Preserved in custom drop-back box. A very good copy, spine ends and corners slightly bumped.

First edition, first printing, and first state of the text, as well as the first issue of the iconic and exceedingly rare dust jacket of this masterpiece of American literature. The Great Gatsby “remains a prose poem of delight and sadness which has by now introduced two generations to the romance of America, as Huckleberry Finn and Leaves of Grass introduced those before it” (Connolly).

The dust jacket for The Great Gatsby was designed by the Spanish artist Francis Cugat (1893-1981), who symbolically echoed the events narrated in Fitzgerald's novel, depicting two enigmatic female eyes staring, in the blue of a night sky and above bright red lips, over Coney Island scene below. It is probably the most famous and intriguing cover executed in the history of American literature.

“Francis Cugat's painting for F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby is the most celebrated and widely disseminated jacket art in twentieth-century American literature, and perhaps of all time. After appearing on the first printing in 1925, it was revived more than a half-century later for the 'Scribner Library' paperback edition in 1979; more than two decades (and several million copies) later it may be seen in classrooms of virtually every high school and college throughout the country. Like the novel it embellishes, this Art Deco tour-de-force has firmly established itself as a classic. At the same time, it represents a most unusual, in my view, unique form of 'collaboration' between author and jacket artist” (Charles Scribner III).

The present copy respects all the issue points of the correct first printing: “chatter” on p. 60, line 16; “northern” on p. 119, line 22; “it's” on p. 165, line 16; “away” on p. 165, line 29; “sick in tired” on p. 205, lines 9-10, and “Union Street station” on p. 211, lines 7-8.

Buccoli A11.I.a; Connoly 48; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 282.

Picasso’s true meditation on Art

283. Picasso, Pablo (1881-1973) - Balzac, Honoré de (1799-1850)

Le Chef-D'oeuvre Inconnu. Ambroise Vollard, 1931.

4° (335x260 mm). XIV, [3], [16 pages lettered A to P], [3], 92, [14] pages. With thirteen original etchings by Picasso, pulled by Louis Fort; sixty-seven wood engravings cut by George Aubert after Picasso's drawings; and 16 pages reproducing lineblock dot and line drawings. Handsomely bound in a custom binding by René Kieffer, with his signature on the lower turn-ins of the upper cover and his stamp pasted on the verso of the second flyleaf. Linen pastedowns, linen and marble-paper flyleaves. In marbled slipcase. Small stain on plate no. V of the table of etchings and on facing page (a blank), otherwise in pristine condition.

Beautiful centennial edition of Balzac's short story, Le Chef-d'oeuvre inconnu – originally published in the newspaper L'Artiste in August 1831 with the title 'Maître Frenhofer' – commissioned by Picasso's dealer, Ambroise Vollard, and illustrated with thirteen original etchings by the Spanish master, sixty-seven wood engravings cut by George Aubert after his drawings, and sixteen pages reproducing lineblock dot and line drawings. This edition was printed in 305 copies, of which 240 – including the present one, no. 230 – were printed on Rives wove paper.

Admired by such artists as Paul Cézanne and Henri Matisse, Balzac's story tells the tale of an ageing seventeenth-century artist named Frenhofer who obsessively works on a canvas he keeps hidden for years. When two young painters and admirers of Frenhofer's work finally manage to see the canvas, they are shocked by what they discover to be an indistinguishable mass of tangled brushstrokes and layers of paint. Deciding that the older artist must have gone insane, the two young artists deride Frenhofer who subsequently destroys all his works and commits suicide.

The story of this dramatically misunderstood yet visionary hero was well suited for the avant-garde artists pursuing careers in Balzac's wake; indeed, in 1904 Cézanne exclaimed outright 'Frenhofer, c'est moi' (J. Medina, Cézanne and Modernism: The Poetics of Painting, 1995). Arguably the most innovative and ground-breaking artist of the Modern period, Picasso was no exception and identified heavily with Balzac's tragic protagonist, so much so that he later moved his studio to the very seventeenth-century townhouse believed to have been the setting for the opening scene of Frenhofer's tale. It is perhaps hardly a coincidence that the dealer of both Cézanne and Picasso was the great avant-garde champion and mentor Ambroise Vollard, who, in addition to dealing art, was also an avid collector, biographer, and publisher.

In 1927, twenty-six years after mounting Picasso's first Paris exhibition in 1901, Vollard asked the Spanish artist to illustrate a centennial edition of Balzac's text. Although Picasso – widely recognized as one of the greatest printmakers of all time – counts among the most prolific book illustrators of the twentieth century, the etchings he produced for this edition in fact bear little relation to Balzac's text; rather, the artist seems to have used the opportunity to reflect more generally on one of his favourite subjects: the artist-model relationship and the act of creation itself. It is perhaps for this reason that the final product – a true meditation on Art – is itself a work of art, ranking among one of the most beautiful artist's books of the twentieth century.

Cramer, Picasso. Catalogue raisonné des livres illustrés, no. 20; Bonet, Carnets, no. 690, pl. 175; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 283.

The Leonardo of our time — Pablo Picasso

284. Munari, Bruno (1907-1998)

Le macchine. Einaudi, 1942.

4° (283x210 mm). [32] pages. Fifteen full-page coloured plates showing 'useless machines'. Editor's illustrated cardboard, spine covered in black cloth, black-and-white author's portrait on the front pastedown. A very good copy.

Provenance: given by the author to the Italian architect Carlo Paccagnini (see Munari's autograph dedication to on the front pastedown: “Caro Paccagnini, ti regalo l'apparecchio per sostenere la testa del cane stanco, puoi fartene pure uno di ferro (da Crespi) e tenerlo in casa tua. Ciao. Munari” ('Dear Paccagnini, I give you as a present a device to sustain the head of the tired dog, you can also have it made in iron (by Crespi) and keep it at home. Bye. Munari').

First edition of Munari's most important artist book, a brilliant re-use of those 'useless machines' invented by the American cartoonist Rube Goldberg (1883-1970). The definition 'useless machines' indicates machines, made up of various movable parts, which are unable to produce expendable goods and do not increase resources. Munari, inspired by Goldberg's comics, began to draw these humorous machines during his student period to make his friends laugh. Some of these 'useless machines' are: a Machine to tame alarm clocks, a Mechanism to smell artificial flowers, an automatic Gauge of cooking time of boiled eggs, a Device to foresee the aurora, and an Apparatus to make hiccup music.

Bruno Munari is one of the most successful and prolific twentieth century Italian artists and designers. With his fundamental contributions to the visual arts in painting, sculpture, film, and industrial and graphic design (in modernism, futurism, and concrete art), as well as to non-visual arts with his ground-breaking research into games, didactic methods, tactile and kinaesthetic learning, and creativity, Munari became known worldwide as a true design legend. Called by Picasso 'the Leonardo of our time', Munari considered the book the best medium to communicate his visual ideas, showcase his art, and convey his creative spirit: he produced over sixty publications, ranging from design manuals and manifestos to visionary tactile children's books.

Munari's Le macchine appeared in the Einaudis' series “Libri per l'infanzia e la gioventù”, the press run for which is unknown. This copy was given as a gift by the author to the architect and friend Carlo Paccagnini, who was one of the participants to the Movimento per l'Arte Concreta (Concrete Art Movement) or MAC, the artistic movement formed in Milan in 1948 by, among others, Munari and the critic Gillo Dorfles.

G. Maffei, Munari: i libri, Mantova 2007, p. 56; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 284.

No, not your poem. Weird... weird... how I felt while you were saying it — The Postman

286. Neruda, Pablo (1904-1973)

Los versos del capitan. Arte Tipografica, 8 July 1952.

4° (246x165 mm). 181, [3] pages, including the Elenco de los subscriptores and Index. Original publisher's wrappers. Excellent copy, minor wear to the foot of the spine. Front wrapper slightly foxed. Copy no. 35, printed for the 'subscriptor' Bruno Molajoli.

Provenance: the Italian art historian Bruno Molajoli (1905-1985), one of the subscribers of this publication.

The first edition of one of the rarest twentieth-century books, issued anonymously – or, as the colophon states, “de autor desconocido” – in only forty four copies printed for friends and subscribers.

Los versos del capitan is considered one of the masterpieces of the celebrated Chilean poet and 1971 Nobel Prize winner Pablo Neruda, whose real name was Neftalí Ricardo Reyes Basoalto.

Owing to his protests against President González Videla's authoritarian policy, Neruda was forced to flee Chile for Europe. The poetic collection Los versos del capitan was written in 1952 during his exile on the island of Capri and published in Naples on 8 July 1952 by Arte Tipografica, the press led by his friend Angelo Rossi.

The collection contains Neruda's passionate love songs addressed to his muse, Matilde Urrutia (1912-1985), who became his third wife in 1963, and ultimately his widow. The first edition was published without mention of Neruda's name as their love affair was still a secret at the time.

Neruda's stay in Italy was fictionalized in Antonio Skarmeta's 1985 novel Ardiente Paciencia, which inspired the popular film Il Postino (The Postman, 1994), directed by Massimo Troisi.

The work only appeared in Chile in 1963, in a publication bearing the name of Neruda as the author.

J. Wilson, A Companion to Pablo Neruda: Evaluating Neruda's Poetry, Woodbridge 2008, pp. 194-196; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 286.

The Little Red Book, in the rare paper wrappers

287. Mao Zedong (1893-1976)

Mao Zhu Xi Yu Lu [Quotations of Chairman Mao. In Chinese]. Shenyang, Political Department, Air Force Division of Shenyang Military Region, December 1963.

12° (126x91 mm). [6], 351, [1] pages. Text organized into five divisions, sixteen chapters, and sixty-four sections. Publisher's cream-colour wrappers, red-lettered upper wrapper and spine. A good copy, cover stained, some text underlined in red ink.

Provenance: on the upper wrapper, an inscription referring to a degree of military hierarchy corresponding to that of 'official'.

Extremely important Maoist edition representing the prototype of the official Little Red Book of May 1964, in its printed paper wrappers: prior to the formal publication of Mao's Quotations – widely distributed within the People's Liberation Army – the Air Force, under the leadership of Lin Biao, assembled a somewhat larger collection of abstracts from the Chairman's speeches and writings; these were printed in such a small quantity that military officers were requested to return the book so others could borrow it. This edition has the same title as the later version (consisting of 250 pages divided in thirty chapters) and includes Lin's endorsement that “Everyone should study the Chairman's writings, follow his teachings, act according to his instructions and be Chairman Mao's good soldier”, taken from Lin's Resolution of the Expanded Meeting of the Military Committee on Strengthening Political And Ideological Education in the Army, here type-set in red and printed in its entirety (as opposed to the abridged version in calligraphy). The edition does not include Mao's portrait. Lin's endorsement is followed by seven pages of indexed content proceeded by 150 quotations (127 extracts from Mao and twenty-three by Lin Biao and the Central Military Commission, selected from newspaper transcripts).

This larger anthology is barely known and not mentioned in any of the standard Mao bibliographies, nor is its relationship to the eventual publication five months later explained in the one citation located, Guo Dongpeng's Outline for Cataloguing Mao Zedong's Works (p. 71). Guo refers to two copies in different bindings, each with 351 pages of text: an undated edition without imprint that he ascribes to 1963, and this version (which is dated and detailed); the most recent selection from Mao's texts is dated 29 August 1963. As General Lin was Minister of National Defense for the PRC (1959-1971), it is assumed this may have been a trial specimen created by the Air Force and possibly used as the model and source for editing down Mao's better-known version of the following year.

Guo Dongpeng, Outline for Cataloguing Mao Zedong's Works, Harbin 2006, p. 71; O. Lein Han, “Sources and Early Printing History of Chairman Mao's Quotations”, The Bibliographic Society of America (accessed January 2018); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 287.

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