Volume III: From the 17th to the 21st Century Philobiblon

One Thousand Years of Bibliophily from the 11th to the 21st Century

Poetry, fortune, and gambling. The Spello-Game.

220. [Spello?]

Vago e diletteuole giuoco della diuitia di Spello. Illustrated manuscript on paper, in Italian. Spello (?), end of the seventeenth century- beginning of the eighteenth century.

273x205 mm. 34 leaves. Complete. Four quires. Collation: 18 (the first blank leaf used as front pastedown), 2-38, 410. Blanks: 1/1, 1/2r, 4/10. Contemporary inked foliation in the upper outer corner (used here). Written in brown ink in a unique hand, in neat cursive. Twelve vignettes drawn in brown ink; twelve full-page ink drawings within rectangular frames, partly coloured in brown, red, and greenish wash; some details in red- and brown-pencil heightening. Contemporary cardboards, smooth spine. Covers rather abraded and stained, corners and spine worn. In a marbled cardboard box, leather spine with title and the note 'M.S. XVII SEC.' lettered in gilt. An unsophisticated manuscript, some stains and spots, numerous traces of use. On the recto of the first leaf the note 'Perugia', in a different early hand.


The first section of the manuscript contains twelve vignettes, drawn in brown ink in popular style, depicting views and monuments of Spello and supplemented with captions, mainly in Italian vernacular. The subjects are as follows, as indicated by the inked captions:

fol. 3r: 'Colonia Iulia di Spello detta di Giulio Cesare' (below a Latin note 'Vel Hijspellum fuit prima Ciuitas per Ianum, id est Noè, Vmbria aedificata Vel Gornualia Hijspellum vocaretur – cornu Vallis per translationem');

fol. 3v: 'Antica Porta Venere. descritta con tre porte, e due Torri dalle bande, dall'Architetto Sebastiano Serlio Bolognese nel loco 3.° dell'Antichità';

fol. 4r: 'Carcere di Orlando Vicino alla Porta Venere di Spello, come ne scriue il detto Serlio Bolognese nelle sue Antichità';

fol. 4v: 'Misura di Orlando Nipote di Carlo Magno Imperatore, come nelle Mura di Spello nella publica Strada, che ua uerso Assisi';

fol. 5r: 'Antico Campo da Combattere Nel Territorio di Spello uicino la Via Flaminia, della cui antica virtù bellica ne fa anco mentione Silio Italico libro terzo Belli Punici';

fol. 5v: 'Antico Vocabolo Poeta al Colle uicino à Spello detto da Propertio Poeta, doue egli aueua la sua Villa Suburbium Propertij';

fol. 6r: 'Bagno del Fiume Clitunno dato à Spellani da Augusto Imperatore Oggi detto le Vene di Pissiniano';

fol. 6v: 'Nobile Antico Mausoleo uicino Spello circondato de Fenestrelle, doue Erano i lumi perpetui, oggi fatto Tempio alla Virgine Maria';

fol. 7r: 'Cerere Dea Rappresentata in Spello Con due Cornucopij per dimostrare l'abbondanza dell'antico Spello';

fol. 7v: 'Antiche tre Statue Gradi Consolari Poste nella uia Flaminia sopra la Porta principale di Spello';

fol. 8r: 'Antico Anfiteatro di Spello Colonia amplissima de Romani posto in mezzo alla gran Valle Spoletana, doue conueniuano tutti i Popoli dell'Umbria ai Spettacoli';

fol. 8v: 'Portone ò Arco uicino à Spello nella publica strada che ua uerso Assisi, doue con bel gioco uedrai se sei legitimo, ò no'.

The second part of the manuscripts contains twelve full-page drawings, in the same technique and style, depicting poets originating from Spello, with the indication of their names. The subjects are as follows:

fol. 9r: 'Il Poeta Mauro'

fol. 11r: 'Il Poeta Propertio'

fol. 13r: 'Il Poeta Vetruuio'

fol. 15r: 'Il Poeta Olorino'

fol. 21r: 'Il Poeta Dandola'

fol. 23r: 'Il Poeta Angelini'

fol. 25r: 'Il Poeta Gentile'

fol. 27r: 'Il Poeta Barbagnacca'

fol. 29r: 'Il Poeta Cecchi'

fol. 31r: 'Il Poeta Marcorelli'

fol. 17r: ‘Il Poeta Sforza'

fol. 19r: ‘Il Poeta Venantio'

An unrecorded, and extremely interesting variant of fortune-telling book, a genre that enjoyed wide popularity during the Renaissance. Manuscript versions of this game are all of the greatest rarity, owing to the fragility of supports and their extensive use at social occasions.

This manuscript is an adaption of the structure and rules of the game as developed in the Libro della Ventura of Lorenzo Spirito (ca. 1425-1496; see nos. 42 and 202) from Perugia, the first fortune-telling book produced in Italy which served as a source of inspiration for numerous later compilations, in print as well as in manuscript. Here the readers wandered not among celestial spheres, prophets, kings or philosophers, but rather among the history and cultural tradition of Spello in Umbria, the ancient Roman colony known as Hispellum. In fact, the anonymous author who produced – according to the title inscribed on the verso of the second leaf – this Vago, e diletteuole giuoco della diuitia di Spello sought to celebrate the ancient monuments of Spello, as well as the numerous poets born in this small Italian city over the centuries, such as the illustrious Propertius.

The game rules are explained in the preliminary pages. The players were to choose one of the questions listed ('Partiti da Proponersi dal Signore') pertaining to health, wealth, career, business, travel, and happiness in love and marriage. They then threw two dice and proceeded to locate the cast result in the following twelve tables of diagrams, each bearing, at the centre, a drawn vignette showing views or monuments of Spello. The diagrams would guide players to twelve sections of quatrains which provided answers to the chosen questions, each of them introduced by a full-page drawing depicting a poet born in Spello. Remarkably, the Spello-game – which doubles as a gambling game – also involves a stake with pecuniary value (called in the preliminary instructions Tesoro, and managed by a Tesoriere, or banker): in the quatrains the prediction of future events is therefore supplemented, in the final verse, with the notice of an amount to be payed or cashed out.

The last drawings portray poets active in the seventeenth century, a feature that allows us to date the execution of the present manuscript to the end of that century. In particular, the drawing on the recto of fol. 31 depicts the poet and musician Giovanni Francesco Marcorelli, who was an organist in the Collegiata Santa Maria at Spello between 1627-1634, and then active as maestro di cappella in the oratory of the Church of Santa Maria Nova in Rome. He also composed some oratories – in the present manuscript he is even shown writing a musical score – and he died around 1656.

T. De Marinis, “Le illustrazioni per il Libro de le Sorte di Lorenzo Spirito”, Idem, Appunti e ricerche bibliografiche, Milano 1940, pp. 67-83; M. Sensi – L. Sensi, “Fragmenta hispellatis historiae. 1. Istoria della terra di Spello, di Fausto Gentile Donnola”, Bollettino storico della città di Foligno, 8 (1984), pp. 7-136; A. Tini Brunozzi, “Appunti sulla toponomastica spellana”, ibid., 19 (1995), pp. 299-329; L. Nadin, Carte da gioco e letteratura fra Quattro e Ottocento, Lucca 1997; G. Proietti Bocchino, Spello città d'arte, Perugia 2011; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 220.

Rome versus Bologna - A defence of Raphael and Carracci, printed on blue paper

221. Victoria, Vicente (1658-1712)

Osseruazioni sopra il libro della Felsina pittrice per la difesa di Raffaello da Urbino, dei Caracci, e della loro scuola. Publicate, e diuise in sette lettere.... Gaetano Zenobi, 1703.

8° (198x129 mm). Printed on blue paper. 114, [2] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Large engraved vignette with the coat of arms of Pope Clement XI on the title-page, rendered by Victoria. Full-page engraving showing a hand sharpening a quill above a copy of Malvasia's Felsina pittrice, with the inscription in a cartouche 'VT SCRIBAT NON FERIAT', likewise after Victoria. Fine woodcut head- and tailpieces; numerous woodcut decorated initials. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, title in gold on painted lettering-piece. Covers restored. A fine copy, a few minor stains to the title-page. Light foxing in places, some fingermarks.

Provenance: armorial ex-libris on the title-page, including six bees; below the inked letters 'B. D. M.' both referring to the Abbot Baldassare
Martini, or De Martinis (1723-1785).

A handsome copy – printed on blue paper – of this work by the Spanish painter, printmaker, and canon Vicente Victoria y Gastaldo. Born in Valencia, Victoria was primarily active in Rome, and known under the Italianised name of Vittorio Vincente. A protégé of the Albani family, he was appointed, in 1703, as antiquarian to Pope Clement XI, whose coat of arms is engraved on the title-page of this edition, likewise printed in 1703. Victoria amassed a notable library and a large collection of classical antiquities.

He published the Osservazioni in defence of Raphael and Annibale Carracci, whose styles had been criticised as 'dry and lifeless' by Count Carlo Cesare Malvasia (1616-1693) in his Felsina Pittrice of 1678, the biographical work on Bolognese painters, and one of the most relevant sources for the history of Italian painting. Victoria had perceived in Malvasia's treatise an anti-Roman bias: as is well known, in a few copies of the Felsina Pittrice Malvasia had referenced Raphael – in a passage related to the Vatican Stanze – as the boccalaio di Urbino, i.e., the 'potter from Urbino', an expression which was later changed to ‘the great Raphael' in the definitive issue.

The 1703 publication is famous for including a full-page engraving, executed after a drawing of Victoria himself, depicting a hand sharpening a quill close to a copy of Malvasia's treatise, and surmounted by the caption VT SCRIBAT NON FERIAT', i.e., 'May it write, not strike'.

This copy of Victoria's Osservazioni is printed on blue paper, indicating that this precious volume was gifted by its author to an as yet unidentified but evidently prominent figure.

E. Páez, Repertorio de Grabados Españoles, Madrid 1981; C. Dempsey, “Malvasia and the Problem of the Early Raphael and Bologna”, Studies in the History of Art, 17 (1986), pp. 57-70; G. Perini,“Carlo Cesare Malvasia's Florentine Letters: Insight into Conflicting Trends in Seventeenth-Century Italian Art Historiography”, , 70 (1988), pp. 273-299; C. Lyons, “Antiquities and Art Theoryin the Collections of Vicente Victoria”, J. Fejer – T. Fischer-Hansen –A. Rathje (eds.), The Rediscovery of Antiquity: The Role of the Artist, Copenhagen 2003, pp. 481-507; A. Emiliani, “II Malvasia antiplatonicoe Raffaello, il “boccalajo” urbinate. L'amore della vita del giovane Correggio”, Correggio, Milano 2008, pp. 245-251.

Festival culture in Baroque Palermo

222. Vio, Ignazio de (1659-1749)

L’Emporio delle glorie palermitane, o vero il compendio di molti pregi della Città di Palermo, consecrato a S. Rosalia Vergine Palermitana, nella solennità di quest’anno 1704.... Domenico Cortese, 1704.

4° (183x129 mm). [4], 138, [2] pages. Four engraved folding plates, signed 'D. Paulus Amato Ingignerius inventor'. Decorated woodcut initials and tailpieces. Modern gilt-tooled morocco. A good copy, some foxing and staining. Upper margin slightly trimmed but not affecting the text. Some marginal repairs, small restored hole on fol. D8, with loss of a few letters.

First edition of this work describing the magnificent religious festival held in Palermo in 1704 in honour of the city's patron saint, St. Rosalia, who, according to local tradition, had saved the city from the plague (see no. 204). The text is attributed in the dedicatory epistle to the Jesuit Ignazio de Vio, teacher of theology, mathematics, and Hebrew. Between 1693 and 1704 he published several works on the festival of Santa Rosalia, which, initiated in 1625, began on 12 July and lasted four days. The cult of the patron saint was strongly supported by the Jesuits, who were directly involved – as this publication testifies – in the organisation of processions and other festivities.

The volume is supplemented with four fine plates, which are signed by the leading architect, engineer, and painter Paolo Amato (1634-1714), the designer and inventor of all the spectacular ephemeral structures or apparati. Amato was in charge of the fabulous decorations for almost all festivities commissioned by the Senate of Palermo between the 1680s and 1714, the year of his death. One of the folding plates is especially impressive: it measures 1098 mm in length, and shows a procession of chariots looking like galleons. The other plates are also of great interest, depicting various ephemeral structures used in the festival, such as an incredible firework machine built as a castle on an island surrounded by boats and elaborate church apparati.

“Con la llegada de la dinastia Borbón al solio español, el festino se enriquecerà con nuovos tipos de decoración; en los palacios públicos y privados, arcos triumfales, etc. Así los vemos en las últimas celebraciones del Palermo español, entre 1701 y 1713 [...] En 1704 el carro de la santa fue sostituido por un simulacro del Bucintoro de Venecia y la máquina de fuegos se presentó come un castillo sobre una isla, rodeado de barcos” (La fiesta barroca, p. 123).

Melzi I, 355; Biblioteca centrale della Regione siciliana “Alberto Bombace”, Sanctae Rosaliae Dicata, Bibliografia cronologica su Santa Rosalia, September 2004, p. 58; S. di Fede, “La festa barocca a Palermo: città, architetture, istituzioni”, Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, series VII, 18-19 (2005-2006), p. 65; M. Cornelles, V. Manuel et al. (eds.), La fiesta barroca. Los reinos de Nápoles y Sicilia (1535-1713), Palermo 2014, pp. 111-123; F. Checa Cremades - L. Férnandez-González, Festival Culture in the World of the Spanish Habsburgs, Farnham 2015, pp. 229-231; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 222.

A very scarce 1710 re-issue of the first edition (1687)

223. Hope, William (1660- 1724)

The Compleat Fencing-Master: in which is fully describ’d all the guards, parades and lessons belonging to the small-sword; as, also the best rules for playing against either Artists or others, with blunts or sharps. Together With Directions how to Behave in Single Combat on Horse-Back: Illustrated with Figures Engraven on Copper-Plates, representing the most necessary Postures... The third edition. W. Taylor, [1687]-1710.

Small 8° (152x90 mm). [22], 197 [i.e. 167], [17] pages. Title-page is a cancel. Twelve engraved folding plates. Nineteenth-century English calf, covers within double blind-ruled frame. Spine with five raised bands, title on morocco lettering-piece. Red edges. A good copy, some light browning throughout, margins somewhat trimmed.

Provenance: John Whitefoord Mackenzie (1794-1884; engraved armorial ex-libris on the front pastedown). He was a member of the Society of Writers to His Majesty's Signet.

The exceedingly rare 1710 re-issue – after the editions which appeared in 1687, 1691 and 1692 – of this treatise by Sir William Hope, indicated on the title-page as 'Lieutenant Governor of the Castle of Edinburgh'. Hope is the author of many works on fencing, but the The Compleat Fencing-Master is undoubtedly his most complete and important treatise, as well as the first book on this topic to be published in Britain. A true manual for fencers, the text clearly epitomises the body of practical knowledge surrounding the discipline and remained the standard textbook until the end of the eighteenth century.

This 1710 publication is basically a re-issue of the first 1687 edition, the only one bearing the title The Scots Fencing-Master. The title-page was recomposed with a new title and imprint, while the rest of the book – as the running title 'The Scots Fencing Master' attests – belonged to the 1687 edition, whose unsold copies were thus offered for sale with a new title after twenty-three years. The first quire is composed of eleven leaves, owing to the fact that in the 1687 edition the title had been printed on two leaves, and are replaced here by only one.

The 1710 re-issue is unknown to most of the specialised bibliography. Over his lifetime, John Whitefoord MacKenzie, the former owner of the present copy, assembled a fine collection of early Scottish books, most of which are distinguishable by his bookplate. His library was sold by Thomas Chapman & Son in two sales in 1886. A good number of his books are now in the National Library of Scotland.

ESTC N27837; Pardoel 1282; C. A. Thimm, A Complete Bibliography of Fencing and Duelling, London 1896, p. 138; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 223.

A fine association copy, gifted by the author to the Italian historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio

224. Vallisneri, Antonio (1661-1730)

Opere diverse... cioe: I. Istoria del Camaleonte Affricano, e di varj Animali d’Italia. II. Lezione Accademica intorno all’Origine delle Fontane. III. Raccolta di varj Trattati accresciuti con Annotazioni, e con Giunte. Giovanni Gabriele Hertz, 1715.

Three parts in one volume, 4° (231x156mm). [12, including frontispiece], 200; [8], 87, [1]; [4], 261, [3] pages; complete with the last blank leaf. Engraved author's portrait as a frontispiece. Thirty engraved folding plates. Contemporary vellum, ink title on the spine. Marbled edges. A very good copy, pale waterstains to the lower outer margin, small wormholes to the gutter of a few leaves, without any loss.

Provenance: Antonio Vallisneri, given as a gift by him to the Italian scholar and historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio (1695-1756; see Vallisneri's dedication on the recto of the first leaf, 'All'Illmo P.R.D. Francesco Xauerio Quadrio della Comp.a di Gesù L'Authore in segno de riuerentiss.ma Stima, e di eterne obbligazioni').

First edition of this collection of Vallisneri's writings on natural history, offered here in a fine copy gifted by him to the renowned Italian historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio, who is especially well-known for his Della storia e della ragione di ogni poesia, a voluminous history of poetry, theatre, and music.

Antonio Vallisneri was born at Trassilico, in Garfagnana, on 3 May 1661. His education initially followed the traditional path of the Jesuit schools – a path reserved for the sons of the 'best' families of the day. In 1682, he started attending Bologna University, where he became one of Malpighi's students. In 1685, he was awarded a degree from the College of Reggio (Emilia), after which he extended his practical knowledge and experience in Venice, Padua and Parma. He subsequently returned to his homeland, where he practised his profession and simultaneously initiated an extremely intense period of natural history studies. Vallisneri's works and observations evince an original interpretation of the themes and perspectives of the Galileian medical tradition followed by Malpighi and Redi and were positioned along the most advanced front of the debates between natural history and life science that were then under way in Europe. Vallisneri was inclined to set his scientific hypotheses within a general theoretical framework although maintained a Baconian respect for empirical data, and he committed himself to overcoming the limits of Cartesian dualism and mechanism, first with reference to Malebranchian thought and then to that of Leibniz. His teachings were based on his meticulous observations of natural science, particularly in the fields of entomology and comparative anatomy; he was convinced that scientific knowledge is best acquired through experience and reasoning, and this principle was followed in his anatomical dissections and carefully drawn descriptions of insects.

Vallisneri's research into reproduction demonstrated the non-existence of spontaneous generation and anticipated evolutionist theory.

In the collection presented here the Lezione Accademica intorno all'Origine delle Fontane is especially noteworthy. The lucidity of Vallisneri's experimental approach makes it a perfect example of the Galileian method.

Garrison-Morton, 302; Pritzel 9675; M. Sabia, Le opere di Antonio Vallisneri medico e naturalista reggiano (1661-1730). Bibliografia ragionata, Rimini 1996, pp. 106-120; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 224.

The South Sea Bubble

225. Baston, Thomas (fl. 18th century)

Thoughts on Trade, and a Publick Spirit. Consider’d under the Following Heads, viz. I. Companies in Trade. II. Stock-jobbers. III. Projectors. IV. Corruptions in the Law and Public Offices. V. Of a Public Spirit.... Printed for the Author, 1716.

8° (189x114 mm). [16], 212 pages. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary English mottled calf, over pasteboards. Boards within gilt fillets, spine with five raised bands, underlined by gilt fillets. Title in gold on lettering-piece. Upper joint split at the head, corners lightly damaged. A very good copy, somewhat spotted and browned; waterstaining on the last leaves, a few fingermarks. The lower blank corner of fol. C3 is lacking, without any loss. Two marginal notes on fols. G6v and I1r referring to the Appendix.

The first edition of this essay by the Tory Thomas Baston, dedicated – as the title-page states – 'to all Lovers of their Country'. Thoughts on Trade is one of the most interesting works on political economics in Early Modern Britain: an invective against stock-jobbers, projectors, fraud, financial degeneracy or corruption, and an acute warning about stock market bubbles: the South Sea Bubble occurred in 1720, owing to the financial exploits of John Law (1671-1729) and the failure of his system, causing bankruptcy and ruin especially in France, England, and the Netherlands.

The work was issued entirely anonymously, although it was entered into the Stationers' Register under Baston's name. In 1732 the work was published under the author's name, with the new title Observations on Trade and a Publick.

Baston was active in London as a printmaker. In 1710 he was incarcerated for six years in the Kings Bench prison for debt. Thoughts on Trade contains a large section entitled Case of the poor Debtors, which reflects his first-hand experience.

Goldsmiths 5282; Kress 2981; Hanson, Contemporary Printed Sources for British and Irish Economic History 2217; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 225.

Musical instruments in the Museum Kircherianum

226. Bonanni, Filippo (1638-1725)

Gabinetto Armonico pieno d’Istromenti sonori indicati, e spiegati dal padre Filippo Bonanni della Compagnia di Giesù offerto al santo re David. Giorgio Placho, 1722.

4° (240x175 mm). [16], 177, [1, with the errata] pages. Frontispiece engraved by Giovanni Battista Sintes after Stefano Spargioni containing an excerpt from Psalm 150. A portrait of King David with a harp engraved by Arnold Van Westerhout after Spargioni, and 151 full-page engraved plates depicting musical instruments. The plates are numbered I-CXLVIII; two plates are numbered XII-XIII and XIII-XIV; numbers XXIX and LXXVIII are repeated; two plates are not numbered (pp. 94 and 138); pl. CIII is misplaced before p. 131. Plate no. XXXIII (p. 80) is folding and depicts the magnificent organ at Palazzo Verospi in Roma. The unsigned plates are attributed to Van Westerhout and Spargioni. Woodcut title vignette, elaborate woodcut initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary mottled calf, covers within triple gilt fillet. Spine with five raised bands, gilt-tooled; title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Marbled flyleaves, red edges. Spine damaged, joints heavily restored. A good, genuine copy. Very light browning throughout, some plates more heavily browned.

First edition of the earliest attempt to describe and depict every known musical instrument from ancient times up to the period in which the author lived, and one of the most important eighteenth-century sources for the history of musical instruments. The edition is presented in the issue supplemented with the final Aggiunta containing seven additional pages of text and twelve more plates; the errata on the recto of the final leaf, which replaces the errata leaf that was bound in the first issue after fol. X5v, is also augmented with three new entries.

The author of this work, the Jesuit Filippo Bonanni, was chief librarian at the Collegio Romano, and succeeded his teacher Athanasius Kircher as Professor of Mathematics. He was also responsible for the Museum Kircherianum, and this volume presents the important collection of musical instruments once assembled in this museum. Bonanni describes a total of 151 ancient and modern instruments, including examples from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and America: among others, violas, violins, mandolins, and Spanish guitars; oboes, tubas, and double-flutes; bagpipes, bird calls, and clam-castanets; serpentone, palla di bronzo, xilorgano, and zampogne; Jewish, Roman, Chinese and Persian horns; and other exotic instruments like the 'Tamburro de Batam', and the 'Instrumento di Affricani'. Several instruments are also related to the New World, such as the 'Trombo della Florida'. The double-folding plate shows the 'Galleria armonica', i.e., the elaborate multi-keyboard built by Michele Todino and held at that time in the Roman palace of 'Signor Verospi'.

The present book, reprinted in 1723, was Bonanni's last publication.

RISM B-6, p. 161; Hirsch IV, 1476; The New Grove, 3, p. 14; A. Mayer-Deutsch, Das Musaeum Kircherianum. Kontemplative Momente, historische Rekonstruktion, Bildrhetorik, Zürich 2010; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 226.

The Magnificence of Venice

227. Graevius, Johann Georg (1632-1703)

Splendor Magnificentissimae Urbis Venetiarum Clarissimus; E Figuris elegantissimis, & accurata Descriptione emicans; In Duas Partes distributus.... Peter Van der Aa, 1722.

Two parts in one volume, folio (393x243 mm). [18], 242; [4], 247-324, 324a-324k, 362, 362a, 363, 363a, 364, 364a, 365, 365a, 366, 366a, 367, 367a, 368, 368a, 369-419, [1] pages. Title-pages printed in red and black, with engraved vignettes. One large folding bird's-eye view of Venice (475x1075 mm), one folding chart of the city (490x570 mm), and 115 double-page plates (395x440 mm), all engraved. Contemporary polished calf, covers within triple gilt fillet. Spine with six raised bands, richly gilt; title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Marbled flyleaves. Edges marbled. Covers slightly worn and rubbed, front joint partly open. A fine, wide-margined copy, with a very good impression of the plates. Slightly uniformly browned.

First edition of this lavishly illustrated book, which was issued as part of the monumental publication Thesaurus antiquitatum et historiarum Italiae (it is part Secunda and Tertia of the fifth volume) and edited by the German scholar Johann Georg Graevius, a disciple of Daniel Heinsius in Leiden. From 1662 Graevius taught rhetoric, history, and politics at the University of Utrecht, and was well known for his editions of Latin classics as well as the great collection Thesaurus antiquitatum Romanarum.

The forty-five volume Thesaurus antiquitatum et historiarum Italiae was published posthumously by the Leiden printer Vander Aa between 1704 and 1725. Graevius was able to edit only the first six volumes; his pupil Pieter Burmann was responsible for the remaining thirty-nine.

The fine illustrative apparatus supplementing the present volume shows the monuments of Venice, as well as popular and religious festivals, regattas, ceremonies, processions, and parades. The engravings are mainly based on images by Vincenzo Coronelli and Luca Carlevarijs, while the texts are mostly taken from the work of Domenico Martinelli.

These views of Venice were re-issued by Peter Vander Aa in his La galerie agréable du monde (Leiden 1729), and again in 1762 by Cornelis Haak under the title Vües des palais.

Cassini, 69-70; Cicogna 4478; J. Martineau - A. Robinson (eds.), The Glory of Venice: Art in the Eighteenth Century, London 1994; P. G. Hoftijzer, Pieter van der Aa (1659-1733). Leids drukker en boekverkoper, Hilversum 1999; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 227.

in carta Turchina con Rami cinabrio — Libri Stampati da Giuseppe Bettinelli

230. Valaresso, Zaccaria (1686-1769)

Rutzvanscad il Giovine. Arcisopratragichissima Tragedia. Elaborata ad uso del buon gusto de’ Grecheggianti Compositori da Cattuffio Panchianio Bubulco Arcade. Giuseppe Bettinelli, 1737.

8° (204x138 mm). CXXXV, [1] pages. Printed on blue paper. Engraved allegorical frontispiece in orange ink, counted in the foliation. On the title-page engraved vignette in orange ink. Two engraved initials and headpieces printed in orange. Nine full-page satirical copperplates, counted in the foliation and printed in red and orange ink; the engraving on fol. C4r is repeated on fol. F1v. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, with inked title, partly faded, traces of an earlier lettering-piece; minor losses to the foot of spine and lower cover. Green silk bookmark. A beautiful copy, ink stains to the lower inner corner of the last two leaves, not affecting the text.

Provenance: Isidore-Justin-Séverin baron Taylor (1789-1879; on the recto of the front flyleaf cutting taken from his sale catalogue, Catalogue de la bibliothèque dramatique de feu le baron Taylor: vente, Paris, 28, rue des Bons-Enfants, 27 novembre-13 décember 1893, lot 2262).

An extraordinary copy, printed on blue paper, of this 'ultra-super-tragical tragedy' (P. Monnier, Venice in the Eighteenth Century, p. 34). Valaresso's tragedia satirizes the contemporary tragic dramaturgy, and in particular the inflated and tearful Ulisse il giovane (The Young Ulysses) by Domenico Lazzarini, first performed in 1718. The plot takes place in the fictional capital of Nova Zembla, the domain of the protagonist Rutzvanscad, King of China, and governed by two dictators, mockingly named – with obscene wordplay – Tettinculusso and Culicutidonia. The Rutzvanscad il Giovine originally appeared in Bologna in 1722 printed by Ferdinando Pisarri, but the present third edition is the first and only edition to be supplemented with illustrations. Of this tragedy two issues are known: an ordinary issue on white paper and illustrated in black, and a deluxe issue in carta Turchina con Rami cinabrio – as Giuseppe Bettinelli states in the catalogue of his publications included at the end of the volume (fol. I4r). The text is illustrated with ten full-page copperplates (one repeat), exceptionally printed in the present copy in orange and red ink. The depicted scenes poke fun at tragedies based on the Greek model, which are based on horrible events and far removed from contemporary life. The first plate introduces the charlatan 'Astrologa di Piazza', while the last one shows the prompter explaining that the characters 'Son tutti morti' ('are all dead'). These engravings are unsigned, but Eleonor Garvey suggests they may be the work of Gaetano Zompini.

Furthermore the volume has a very appropriate provenance, having once been held in the library of the famous French dramatist and traveller Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor, whose influential role in the cultural life of Paris led him to be known as the 'Father of Artists'. In 1825 he was made Royal Commissioner of the Theatre Français, where he opened the door to the Romantic movement, by supporting the work of Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas.

Allacci 686; Gamba 2297; Lancetti, Pseudonimia, 58.; Melzi I, 189 ('faceto critico-satirico componimento'); Lapiccirella, Libri illustrati veneziani del XVIII secolo, no. 244; Lanckoronska, Venezianische Buchgraphik, 72; Morazzoni, Il libro illustrato veneziano del Settecento, p. 221; P. Monnier, Venice in the Eighteenth Century, Boston 1910; E.M. Garvey, “Some Venetian Illustrated Books of the Eighteen Century in the Harvard College Library”, Bulletin du bibliophile, 2 (1999), pp. 293-312; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 230.

The Soranzo-Smith copy, printed on large blue paper

231. Svetonius Tranquillus, Gaius (70-126)

Le vite de’ dodici Cesari... Tradotte in volgar Fiorentino da F. Paolo Del Rosso Cavalier Gerosolomitano. Nuova edizione con le vere effigie de’ Cesari Ed altre illustrazioni.... Francesco Piacentini, 1738.

Folio (296x215 mm). Printed on blue paper. [2], XIX, [1], 377, [3] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Title-page printed in red and black. Half-title within a frame executed and signed by John Baptist Jackson (1701-ca.1780). Woodcut vignette on the title-page, fine cul-de-lampe. Each Vita is introduced by a large woodcut medallion portrait, from the series executed by the Flemish artist Hubert Goltzius (1526-1583). Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with five raised bands, double morocco lettering-piece, title and imprint lettered in gilt. Gilt edges. A very fine, wide-margined copy, printed on strong paper, partly uncut.

Provenance: the Venetian senator Giacomo Soranzo (1686-1761; ownership inscription on the recto of the front flyleaf, '1743 Di Giano Soranzo'); the British Consul in Venice Joseph Smith (1682-1770; large ex-libris on the front pastedown; his sale Bibliotheca Smithiana, Venice 1755, p. CCCLVIII, “la stessa, tradotta dal suddetto, con le vere Effigie de' Cesari (cavate da Goltzio) ed altre illustrazioni. Ven. per Francesco Piasentini [sic] 1738. 4. c. gr. turchina. leg. Oll.”). On the rear pastedown a cutting taken from an unidentified sale catalogue 'Splendida copia, una delle poche stampate in carta grigia. Leg. orig. in piena perg. taglio dorato, Con un belliss. Ex-libris di Joseph' Smith, Britisch Consul, ad venice'.

A superb copy, printed on strong blue paper, of this famous historical work, divided into eight books and containing the biographies of twelve Roman emperors, from Julius Caesar to Domitianus.

The well-known artist John Baptist Jackson (1701- ca.1780) is responsible for the fine border framing the half-title. The portraits of Roman Emperors, or “le vere effigie dei Cesari” – as the Venetian printer Piacentini states in his preliminary address – are by anonymous designers and engravers, and closely reproduce the outline of Hubert Goltzius' series of medallions, originally executed in chiaroscuro, which first appeared in the volume Vivae omnium Imperatorum Imagines, published in Antwerp in 1557.

The volume has a very distinguished provenance, having once belonged to Joseph Smith, refined lover of paintings and books, and Canaletto's patron (see no. 232). He spent his life in Venice, and in 1740 was named British Consul of the city. Smith's library was sold at auction in 1755, while his celebrated art collection was purchased by King George III in 1762.

Previously this fine copy of the Le vite de' dodici Cesari had been in the possession of the Venetian patrician and senator of the Serenissima Giacomo Soranzo, one of the greatest collectors of books printed on blue paper.

Brunet v, p. 584; Gamba 1669; Morazzoni, Il libro illustrato veneziano del Settecento, p. 255 (listing only the octavo edition); J. Kainen, J. B. Jackson, 18th Century Master of the Color Woodcut, Washington, D.C.1962, p. 29; F. Vivian, The Consul Smith Collections, Munich 1986; M S. Morrison, “Records of a Bibliophile. The Catalogues of Consul Joseph Smith and some Aspects of his Collecting”, The Book Collector, 43 (1994), pp. 27-54; M. Zorzi, “La stampa, la circolazione del libro”, P. del Negro – P. Preto (eds.), Storia di Venezia, dalle origini alla caduta della Serenissima, VIII, Roma 1998, pp. 801-860; L. Hellinga, “Il Console Joseph Smith Collezionista a Venezia per Il Mercato Inglese”, La Bibliofilia, 102 (2000), pp. 109-121.

A spectacular wide-margined and complete set of Canaletto etchings, in a contemporary binding together with a series by Marieschi

232. Canaletto, Antonio Canal called (1697-1768) - Marieschi, Michele (1710-1743)

Vedute Altre prese da i Luoghi altre ideate da Antonio Canal e da esso intagliate poste in prospetiva umiliate All’Ill.mo Signor Giuseppe Smith Console di S.M. Britannica appresso la Ser.ma Repubblica di Venezia. In segno di stima ed ossequio. [Venice, Giambattista Pasquali, after June 1744]. (bound with:) Marieschi, Michele (1710-1743). Magnificentiores selectioresque Urbis Venetiarum prospectus, quos olim Michael Marieschi Venetus Pictor, et Architectus in plerisque tabulis depinxit. Nunc vero ab ipsomet acurate delineante, incidente, tijpisque mandante, iterum in sexdecim aeris tabulis in lucem aeduntur. Venice, at the author’s atelier, 1741.

Two works in one volume, large oblong folio (429x614mm). I. Thirty-one unnumbered etchings printed on eighteen leaves (for the different states see below). Bromberg nos. 1-11, 13-16, 18-33, as no. 12 is the undivided plate “Imaginary view of Venice”, known in only six impressions and later divided for unknown reasons by the artist into two plates (nos. 13 and 14), and as no. 17 is the small “Fragment of a Bishop's tomb” known only in one impression, at Windsor. Watermarks (both present on all sheets): three crescent moons with the letter 'A' (Bromberg, no. 22); stylized fleur-de-lis with the letters 'AS' (Bromberg, no. 43). II. Title-page bearing the portrait of the author drawn by Angelo Trevisani and etched by Carlo Orsolini, and twenty-one unnumbered views designed and etched by Marieschi, including the dedication to French nobleman Marc de Beauvau surmounted by a view of the Doge's Palace seen from the Canal Grande. Fine early impressions of the first state (of four) before numbering and with the plate of Campo San Rocco with its original baroque façade on the church. Watermarks (present alternatively): large crest with comet (star and flame), countermark: 'OLANDA'; comet (star and flame), countermark: initials 'FF' under coronet.

Contemporary Venetian vellum, over pasteboards. Covers within gilt floral frame. Spine in compartments decorated with gilt fleur-de-lis tool, title on red morocco lettering-piece. Marbled edges. Original flyleaves preserved bearing two watermarks: a bow and the initials 'AZc' (not mentioned in Bromberg). Corners slightly damaged, but very well preserved. A marvellous, wide-margined copy on thick paper, with very good impressions of the plates.

I. List of the thirty-one Canaletto etchings (ten in first state, eighteen in second, and three in third state, of variably 1, 2, 3 or 4 states):

1. Title plate “Vedute Altre prese da i Luoghi altre ideate...” (Bromberg 1, 2nd state of 2)

2. “La Torre di Malghera” (Bromberg 2, 2nd of 3)

3. “Mestre” (Bromberg 3, 1st of 2)

4. View of a Town on a River Bank (Bromberg 9, 1st of 2)

5. “Santa Giustina in Pra' della Valle” (Bromberg 7, 1st of 2)

6. “Prà della Valle” (Bromberg 8, 1st of 2)

7. “Alle Porte del Dolo” (Bromberg 5, 2nd of 3)

8. “Al Dolo” (Bromberg 4, 2nd of 3)

9. “Le Porte del Dolo” (Bromberg 6, 2nd of 3)

10. Imaginary View of Padua (Bromberg 11, 2nd of 3)

11. The Portico with the Lantern (Bromberg 10, 2nd of 3)

12. Imaginary View of Venice, two etchings on one leaf:
-The House with the Inscription (left half of undivided plate) (Bromberg 13, 1st of 1)
-The House with the Peristyle (right half of undivided plate) (Bromberg 14, 2nd of 2)

13. View of a Town with a Bishop's Tomb (Bromberg 16, 2nd of 2)

14. Four etchings on one leaf:
-“La Libreria” (Bromberg 18, 2nd of 3)
-“Le Procuratie” (Bromberg 25, 1st of 2)
-“La Piera del Bando” (Bromberg 19, 2nd of 3)
-“Le Preson” (Bromberg 21, 2nd of 3)

15. Four etchings on one leaf:
-The Terrace (Bromberg 24, 2nd of 3)
-The Market at Dolo (Bromberg 26, 3rd of 4)
-Imaginary View of S. Giacomo di Rialto (Bromberg 30, 1st of 2)
-The Market on the Molo (Bromberg 20, 3rd of 4)

16. Four etchings on one leaf:
-Landscape with the Pilgrim at Prayer (Bromberg 27, 3rd of 3)
-The Equestrian Monument (Bromberg 23, 1st of 1)
-Landscape with a Woman at a Well (Bromberg 29, 2nd of 3)
-Mountain Landscape with five Bridges (Bromberg 22, 2nd of 2)

17. Three etchings on one leaf:
-The Little Monument (Bromberg 33, 2nd of 2)
-The Bishop's Tomb (Bromberg 15, 1st of 1)
-The Wagon passing over a Bridge (Bromberg 32, 2nd of 2)

18. Two etchings on one leaf:
-Landscape with Ruined Monuments (Bromberg 31, 1st of 1)
-Landscape with Tower and two Ruined Pillars (Bromberg 28, 2nd of 2)

II. List of Marieschi etchings:

1. Title-page

2. “Prospectus Urbis Venetiarum”

3. “Foscarorum Aedes”

4. “Forum Maius et Basilica D. Marci”

5. “Templum S. Mariae Salutis”

6. “Forum olitorium”

7. “Forum maius D. Marci aliter Prospectum”

8. “Pisaurorum familiae Aedes ...”

9. “Pars Canalis Magni se extendens a laeva”

10. “Platea ac templum D.D. Ioannis et Paoli”

11. “Templum et platea F.F. Ord ...”

12. “Ingressus in Urbem venienti e Clodia”

13. “Platea D. Bassi et suum Templum”

14. “Canale ...”

15. “Forum Minus D. Marci ...”

16. “Pons Rivoalti”

17. “Magnificum Aedium Divalium”

18. “Prospectus Canalis magni ...”

19. “Magni Armamentari Venetiarum”

20. “Templum cum Platea S. Mariae Formosae”

21. “Forum Minus Divi Marci”

22. “Aedis Divi Rocchi”

An extraordinary set, including all of Canaletto's published etchings together with Marieschi's beautiful series of etched views, two of the most impressive eighteenth-century series of views of Venice and surrounding areas ever made.

The present volume represents both a stunning work of art and a remarkable historical artifact. Firstly, it is very rare to see such a 'holistic' and authentic presentation of Canaletto etchings – bound as a complete volume and housed in its original binding – become available on the market: it is far more typical to find made-up albums, with etchings amassed from various sources. Furthermore, the Canaletto set is bound with an impressive series by Marieschi, all fine early impressions in the first state (of four), and both sets feature wide, beautifully preserved margins. The sheet size is uniform across the volume; because the platemarks of the Marieschi series are wider than those of the Canaletto, this means that the Marieschi margins are wide, and the Canaletto margins are even wider – a truly remarkable feature for any Canaletto etching (which tend to have smaller, or even trimmed margins), let alone for a complete set!

As Bromberg observes, etching was extraordinarily well suited to Canaletto's painterly style, and the pains he bestowed on the plates is evident from his frequent use of re-biting. Whereas his paintings characteristically portrayed the grand buildings of Venice, in the etchings Canaletto expressed his love of the Venetian countryside with its humble buildings and poor inhabitants. Further, the Vedute reveal Canaletto's great inventiness, in continuous play between fantasy and reality, as some imaginary views of Venice (pl. 12, Bromberg 13 and 14), or 'invented' details such as the lantern (pl. 11, “The Portico with the Lantern” Bromberg 10) or the sign on the façade of a building (pl. 7, “Le Porte del Dolo”, Bromberg 6) attest.

The exact date of issue for Canaletto's series is unknown, but it appears most likely to have been between 1744 – the year in which Joseph Smith (ca. 1682-1770), the dedicatee of the series, was appointed British consul at Venice – and 1746, the year of Canaletto's departure from Venice to London. Only one etching, the “Imaginary View of Venice” (Bromberg no. 12 before the division of the plate, and then nos. 13-14 after the division) bears a date: 1741. Nevertheless, the production of the prints clearly extended over a period of several years, probably beginning around 1735, shortly after the publication of Visentini's series of engravings after Canaletto.

Joseph Smith was already an established collector, patron and art dealer before meeting and working with Canaletto around 1728, and had an active role supporting the leading publishing firm of Giambattista Pasquali (1702-1784). As such, it is no coincidence that Antonio Visentini's series of etchings, Prospectus Magni Canalis Venetiarum, all taken from Canaletto's paintings, was printed by Pasquali in 1735 (and, in a second enlarged edition, in 1742). It is probable that Canaletto began printmaking around this first publication in 1735, and that he may have even collaborated with Visentini to bring the latter's ambitious project to conclusion; the paper on which Canaletto's proof states were printed, seems to come from the same stock on which Visentini's series was published, i.e., from Pasquali's warehouse.

Canaletto started etching in a period when engraved views of Venice were becoming popular among tourists visiting Venice, as these buyers were attracted to their relative affordability compared to a painting of the same subject – and the ease with which they could be transported back over the Alps. Nevertheless, Smith probably commissioned the series from Canaletto without the intention of publishing and selling it to the same clientele who habitually purchased Canaletto's paintings. The publication of the etchings finally occurred only when Smith was appointed consul, in June 1744, as a tribute from Canaletto to his patron. The responsibility of printing was presumably given to Pasquali. Canaletto's total etched work consists of thirty-four plates, of which three are preserved as unique examples, and were excluded from the printed edition for unknown reasons. The etchings were published in both bound volumes, and were individually issued.

Differing plate sequences across bound volumes indicates that the decision regarding plate order was made by the printer, rather than the artist, and that the order of publication does not correspond to the order in which the etchings were created. A rough idea of order and date is nevertheless somewhat obtainable following the pioneering scholarship of Ruth Bromberg on Canaletto's printmaking. Through a comparative, qualitative study of different impressions, compiled albums, and the various watermarks of each sheet, one is able to establish an understanding regarding the dating and order of the artist's printed oeuvre.

In this copy, the order of the sheets containing more than one etching, corresponds to Bromberg's printing order D, which, as in the album she describes held at the Museo, Biblioteca, and Archivio of Bassano del Grappa, is associated with watermarks 22 and 43. The space (2-3 mm) between etchings nos. 13 and 14, which previously formed the undivided plate no. 12, is also consistent with the spacing found in the aforementioned album. Only the positioning of the four etchings in the sheet with “La Libreria”, “Le Procuratie”, “La Piera del Bando”, and “Le Preson”, differs from the three (D I-III) cited by Bromberg. Bromberg considers the printing of albums following order D as having been printed in the 1760s, presumably by Pasquali. As such it is probable that the copy presented here was printed sometime after the very first impressions of the 1740s, and before the late Remondini impressions of the 1770s.

Later publications of the series are known. The plates were re-issued by the Remondini family after Canaletto's death in 1768. These later Remondini editions are usually printed on a thinner paper bearing the watermark of the house, an 'R', and the signature and the title are also often erased alongside a decline in the quality of the impressions. According to their advertising catalogue of 1772, the Remondinis were then the owners of Canaletto's plates, but it is not known from whom they acquired them. When Consul Smith found himself in financial troubles in the late 1750s, he negotiated the sale of the entire warehouse of the Stamperia Pasquali to the booksellers Caraboli and Pompeati. The sale failed and presumably the plates remained with Pasquali, whereupon he republished them until Smith's death in 1770. We know that his widow sold the copperplates by Visentini to the publisher Ludovico Furlanetto, so we can presume that Remondini bought Canaletto's plates from her, shortly after the Consul's death in 1770. As stated above, the etchings made their first appearance in Remondini's 1772 catalogue; after 1778 the series was numbered.

“Canaletto brought to his etchings a painterly approach. The technique employed is not that of a professional etcher, but rather the painter, the fine draughtsman, working the etching needle with a certain freedom, much in the manner of drawings, the final aim being the achievement of 'colour'. Etching, which permits the artist the nervous strokes of a sketch, was a medium suited to Canaletto's temperament. His etchings owe much to the penwork of his drawings and the loosely handled short strokes, given contrast by variation of direction and intensity, produce luminous etchings in a distinctly individual style [...] Faced with a different technique, a new side of Canaletto's art emerges. Precluded is the instant vision of drawing, in its stead a laborious process begins. Each print becomes a challenge, and by comparing the states we have the possibility of following the artist's working method in his search for perfection. The innumerable additions and alterations make us realize with what infinite patience and love of detail Canaletto executed his plates. There is nothing casual about these etchings, the final result is meticulously sought after [...] Since the compositions are virtually complete after the first biting, the second [and following] state is characterized by technical precision [...] Although Canaletto's etched oeuvre is small, he obviously considered print-making an important activity in his life as an artist. [...] For his etchings, Canaletto found inspiration in portraying the Venetian countryside. The humble buildings and everyday occupations of its inhabitants took on the same poetic significance as the palaces and monuments of Venice. His most immediate concern to capture the atmosphere and particular illumination of the places portrayed is the quality which makes Canaletto's etchings outstanding” (Bromberg, pp. 5-13).

II. Like Canaletto, Marieschi was trained in his youth as both a stage designer and a stagehand. This experience is visible in all his productions; in the vedute paintings, which, over the years, became his main activity and interest, as well as in the engravings. Marieschi's series of etchings was published one year before the definitive edition of Antonio Visentini's Prospectus Magni Canalis Venetiarum came to light in 1742. At its appearance in 1741, the Magnificentiores selectioresque Urbis Venetiarum prospectus struck the audience with the power of a manifesto. Such exquisite quality and mastery of the etching technique, enhanced with bulino detailing, had never before been achieved. The precision with which all the details of the monuments were articulated and the illusory angular perspective of many of the views was unprecedented. To attain such incredible perspectives, Marieschi used a dark room with a quadrangular lens which created a visual field much wider than that of the human eye. If one compares Marieschi's views with the actual sites of the towns depicted, one is immediately struck by both the superb degree of detailing as well as the rather distorted perspectival frame.

Michele Marieschi dedicated himself to the art of etching only in the last years of his very short life; it was the perfect medium for making his skill as a vedutista known to a wider audience. Almost all of Marieschi's etchings are taken from his paintings, presumably with the purpose of promoting his own work. By this time, he was already enjoying a certain amount of popularity and was the protégé of the great art collector Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg, but had he not died so young, the series of etchings he published in 1741 would almost certainly have brought him far more commissions and general renown. The series was indeed very successful; it was reprinted several times and had a great impact on many contemporary vedutisti who based their paintings on Marieschi's etchings.

On 5 May 1741, Marieschi obtained the privilege for sixteen prints, as stated in the title-page of the series. He completed the remaining five plates in the short time preceding his death (18 January 1743). The plates were later acquired by the printer Teodoro Viero, who re-issued them, adding a plate number in the bottom left-hand corner.

“Marieschi's etched vedute, created with a wide variety of strokes to suggest different textures, have a dramatic allure and whiff of intrigue suggested by some of the figural groups that give them a nervous energy absent from those of Carlevarijs and Visentini. Marieschi, like Canaletto, had been trained as stage designer, and like Canaletto he took liberties with the perspective, exaggerating the breadth of the city views as though they were stage sets” (S. Boorsch, Venetian Prints and Books in the Age of Tiepolo, p. 21).

I. R. Bromberg, Canaletto's Etchings, San Francisco 1993; R. Pallucchini - G.F. Guarnati, Le acqueforti del Canaletto, Venezia 1945; D. Succi, Canaletto & Visentini fra Venezia & Londra. Castello di Gorizia, 7 giugno-21 settembre 1986. Catalogo della mostra, Cittadella 1986; K. Baetjer - J.G. Links (eds.), Canaletto, New York 1989; F. Vivian, The Consul Smith Collection, Munich 1989; S. Boorsch (ed.), Celebrating Canaletto: Etchings from the collection of the Arthur Ross Foundation, Istituto Italiano di Cultura, New York, November 6-December 30, 1997, Boca Raton Museum of Art, Boca Raton, Florida, January 22 - March 15, 1998, New York 1997; F. Montecuccoli degli Erri, Canaletto incisore, Venezia 2002. II. Millard 59; Cicognara 4040; Berlin Katalog 2697; D. Succi, Le incisioni di Michele Marieschi, Gorizia 1981, nos. 2-23; Pedrocco, 1-22; F. Mauroner, “Catalogue of the Complete Etchings of Michele Marieschi”, Print Collector's Quarterly, 27 (April 1940), no. 2, pp. 199-211; R. Toledano, Michele Marieschi, l'opera completa, Milano 1988, pp. 59-108; S. Boorsch, Venetian Prints and Books in the Age of Tiepolo, New York 1997; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 232.

The damask chairs of the Imperial Diet

233. Imperial Diet Ceremonies

Disegni dei sedili e banchi nelli varj Apartamenti dell’Imperiale Palazzo di Vienna disposti per li Ministri ed Ufficiali aulici secondo il rispettivo loro grado cominciando dal Sedile di S.M.C. sopra 4. gradini sotto il Baldacchino.... Manuscript on paper, in French. Austria (?), mid-eighteenth century.

335x205 mm. [6] leaves. Six watercolours depicting the tables and armchairs (mostly coloured in green, brown, and red) in the Hofburg Imperial Apartments once used for meetings of the Imperial Diet. Contemporary marbled and gauffered paper. Italian title inked in a contemporary hand on the upper cover, small paper label on the spine, with early shelfmark. Paper rather abraded along the board edges. A well-preserved manuscript.

Fascinating album of six watercolours depicting the furnishings – especially the chairs, armchairs, and tables – of the great chambers of the Imperial Diet at the Hofburg in Vienna. The former imperial palace and main residence of the Habsburg dynasty rulers, the Hofburg is also the only court residence to have permanently been kept furnished. As the documented seat of government, its chambers provided the setting for countless ceremonies and delegate receptions for Diets held in Vienna, this being the highest representative assembly of the Holy Roman Empire.

The plates are titled, in French, La Sale de Re et Correlation; Le College Electoral; Le College des Princes; L'Appartement Electoral; L'Appartement des Princess; and Le College des Villes Imperiale. For each of the six plates, a legend is provided describing the furniture depicted as well as the relative placements of the Emperor and Prince-Electors, among other various representatives. Thus, for example, the plate Le College des Princes illustrates the furnishings for meetings presided over by the Imperial Diet's Council of Princes, including the chairs of its director, co-director, and secretaries, the bench for the bishops of Osnabrück and Lübeck, and even a clock – an 'horologe fait de la manière que celui de Strasbourg' – and small jam table – a 'table petite pour les Confitures'. The plate of the College Electoral, meanwhile, depicts a large table with a seat for the envoyés of the different Prince Electors, 'selon l'ordre suivant Mayence, Treves, Cologne, Bohême, Bavarie, Saxe, Brandenbourg, Palatin et Brounsvic': also in this chamber is a small table for Confitures that must not be missed. The tables here are covered in green velvet and the chairs are upholstered in a wonderful red damask rendered with especial care by the work's anonymous artist.

An album of watercolours (353x221 mm) titled Mobiliar der Zimmer zur Kaiserwahl and illustrating six identical subjects is now preserved in the Hessische Landesbiliothek Fulda (Hs 48). The Moravian Library in Brno holds a similar album, bearing the exact same German title, but with illustrations that have been rather carelessly executed.

This newly discovered manuscript is of the greatest import to the history of the Imperial Diet and its ceremonial traditions, as well as the history of eighteenth-century design in general.

G. von Demilić, The Hofburg in Vienna: Dwelling and Ceremonial Apartments of the Former Imperial Family, Vienna [ca. 1930]; H. Karner (ed.), Die Wiener Hofburg 1521-1705. Baugeschichte, Funktion und Etablierung als Kaiseresidenz, Wien 2014; L. Hellmut (ed.), Die Wiener Hofburg 1705-1835. Die kaiserliche Residenz vom Barock bis zum Klassizismus, Wien 2016; M. Beck, Macht-Räume Maria Theresias. Funktion und Zeremoniell in ihren Residenzen, Jagd- und Lustschlössern, Berlin 2017; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 233.

Vend. Pinelli, Unico in Carta turchina — Gamba —

236. Tacitus, Caius Cornelius (ca. 55 – ca. 120)

Opere... con la traduzione in Volgar Fiorentino del Signor Bernardo Davanzati Posta rincontro al Testo Latino. Con le Postille del medesimo e la Dichiarazione d’alcune voci meno intese... Novella Edizione, purgata dagl’innumerabili errori di tutte le precedenti.... Giuseppe Comino; Giovanni Antonio Volpi and Gaetano Volpi, 30 August 1755.

Two parts in one volume, large 4° (245x174 mm). Printed on blue paper. lxxx, 343; [5], 344- 669, [1] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Text in two columns. Engraved Comino printer's device at the end. Engraved medallion portrait of Davanzati on the title-page, with the inscription 'BERNARDO DAVANZATI GENTILUOMO FIORENTINO.' Decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, with inked title and printing date. Pastedowns and flyleaves in blue paper. Gilt and gauffered edges. A very fine copy. On the front pastedown the inked number '966'; on the recto of the front flyleaf the stamped shelfmark 'D 327'.

Provenance: Giovanni Antonio Gotti from Ceneda, near Treviso (the ownership inscription 'Die 27 February 1777 Joh:is Antonj Gotti Cenetensis, Vicarj Pretorj Paduae cum Px:mo Antonio Gajnerio - Costò £ 26.-' on the front pastedown); Giovanni Giacomo Trivulzio (1774-1831; ex-libris); Biblioteca Trivulziana, Milan (small stamps on the recto of the front flyleaf and on a few leaves of the volume; copy sold as a duplicate).

The Cominiana edition of Tacitus' Annales and Decades, offered here in the only copy known to have been printed on blue paper. This elegant Italian translation by the Florentine Bernardo Davanzati (1529-1606) successfully captures Tacitus' brevity while illuminating his obscurity. It first appeared posthumously in Florence in 1637, where it was printed on behalf of the Accademia della Crusca, which had inherited Davanzati's manuscripts. This translation represents a significant chapter in the history of the great Roman historian's reception in early modern Europe. During his lifetime Davanzati had only published a version of the first book of the Annales which appeared in Venice in 1596.

Tacitus was considered a master of political thought, and a sceptical analyst of political reality; his works could thus offer an interpretation of contemporary political events and the problems of monarchies through discussions of ancient civil wars and the unlimited power of Roman emperors. “The condemnation of Machiavelli's works by the Catholic Church (1559) had left an empty space which Tacitus could easily fill. What could be not be said in the name of Catholic Machiavelli could be said in the name of pagan Tacitus” (A. Momigliano, The Classical Foundations of Modern Historiography, Berkeley 1990, p. 123). This explains the popularity of Davanzati's translation, and more generally the vernacular translation of Tacitus, which was indeed a European phenomenon.

This marvellous copy was once held in the exquisite library collected by Giovanni Giacomo Trivulzio and is mentioned by Gamba with regard to the Paduan Tacitus of 1755. The Milanese bibliophile may have purchased the volume at the sale of the Bibliotheca Pinelliana (see no. 250).

Gamba 940; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 236.

Bound by Georg Friedrich Krauss for Duke Albrecht Kasimir August von Sachsen-Teschen

237. Bayardi, Ottavio Antonio (1695-1764)

Catalogo degli antichi monumenti dissotterrati dalla discoperta città di Ercolano... Naples, Regia Stamperia, 1755. (uniformly bound with:) Le antichità di Ercolano, esposte. Regia Stamperia, 1757 - 1792.

Nine volumes, large folio (510x390 mm). Complete, with 609 plates (the extra plate no. 610 recorded in RIBA, is usually not included in the known copies). The first six volumes of the Antichità feature a frontispiece with medallion portrait of Charles III, King of Spain and the Indies, engraved by Filippo Morghen (1730-1807) after a drawing by Camillo Paderni (this frontispiece is lacking in the seventh volume); the frontispiece of the eighth volume bears a medallion portrait of Charles III's successor, his son Ferdinand IV. Contemporary Viennese bindings executed by Georg Friedrich Krauss (fl. 1791-1824) for Duke Albrecht von Sachsen-Teschen. The fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh volumes of the Antichità bound in red gilt-tooled full-morocco, while the boards of the first, second, third, and eighth ones, and those of Bayardi's Catalogo are covered with red painted paper. All nine volumes feature uniform red morocco spines with seven raised bands, with double green morocco lettering-pieces, the other compartments decorated with gilt floral tools, and the gilt monogram 'AST'. Marbled pastedowns and flyleaves, inside dentelles in the volumes bound in full morocco. A very fine, wide-margined set, printed on strong paper. Minor wear to the head of the spine of the first volume.

Provenance: Herzog Albrecht Kasimir August von Sachsen-Teschen (1738-1822; armorial bindings; see no. 253); Giorgio Fanan (ex-libris on the front pastedown of the first volume).

A splendid set of large volumes containing the first edition of this monumental work devoted to archaeological discoveries at the ancient Roman town of Herculaneum, printed on thick paper and magnificently bound for the well-known bibliophile Albert of Sachsen-Teschen, founder of the eponymous Albertina in Vienna. The set is complete with the Catalogo degli antichi monumenti dissotterrati per ordine della maestà di Carlo re delle due Sicilie by the archaeologist from Parma Ottavio Antonio Bayardi or Baiardi (1695-1764). The Catalogo briefly describes more than two thousand monuments and works unearthed in the discovered town. It was printed in 1755 and is often lacking in the recorded sets.

The Antichità di Ercolano represents the most important source for the development of neo-classical art. It was printed by the Regia Stamperia, the royal publishing house founded by the Bourbons in 1750, and edited by the Royal Herculaneum Academy. The vast project involved several scholars, and the reports were supplemented with magnificent illustrations by prominent artists of the time, including Camillo Paderni, director of the Royal Herculaneum Museum at Portici, and court artists who had obtained permits to draw the objects, including Anton Raphael Mengs, Luigi Vanvitelli, and Giovanni Battista Casanova.

The frontispiece of the first six volumes of the Antichità di Ercolano features a fine engraved portrait of Charles III (1716-1788), Duke of Bourbon, with symbols of the excavations carried out while he was King of Naples: some papyrus scrolls, a bust of Epicurus, vessels and coins, a pick and a shovel. It also depicts the inscription found in the theatre, including the word 'Herculanenses', which enabled excavators to identify the town brought to light as Herculaneum. The frontispiece of the eighth volume – appeared in 1792, i.e., thirty-five years after the publication of the first volume – bears instead the medallion portrait of Charles III's successor, his son Ferdinand IV (1751-1828). It is rare to find a such numbers of engraved portraits in the volumes of the Antichità. In fact, the copies known are often found lacking many of the frontespieces.

Albrecht von Sachsen-Teschen assembled one of the most complete and finely illustrated books from the presses of leading printers. Although unsigned, the present binding can confidently be attributed to the outstanding Viennese binder Georg Friedrich Krauss (fl. 1791-1824), one of von Sachsen-Teschen's principal binders (see no. 253). “Les exemplaires sont tous d'exception, imprimés sur grand papier, les gravures soit avant la lettre, soit en différents états; mais ce qui rend la collection tout à fait unique ce sont les superbes reliures de l'époque, la pluspart avec les dos mosaïqués et ornés du chiffre du duc Albert de Saxe, d'une fraicheur et d'un état de conservation parfaits” (Catalogue de beaux livres ayant appartenu au duc Albert de Saxe-Teschen, p. VIII).

Cicognara 2645; Ebert 711; RIBA 112 and 224; Kissner 199; Blackmer 678; Catalogue de beaux livres ayant appartenu au duc Albert de Saxe-Teschen, Milan 1930; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 237.

At age twenty-three... he already had the talent of a genius — Robison

239. Piranesi, Giovanni Battista (1720-1778)

Prima Parte di Architetture e Prospettive inventate ed incise da Giambatista Piranesi architetto veneziano, tra gli Arcadi Solcindio Tiseio. [Rome, late 1760s-early 1770s]. (bound with:) Idem. Antichità Romane de’ tempi della Repubblica, e de’ primi Imperatori, disegnate, ed incise da Giambattista Piranesi architetto veneziano: e dallo stesso dedicate all’Ill.mo e Rev.mo Sig. Monsig. Giovanni Bottari Cappellano segreto di N.S. Benedetto XIV. Uno de custodi della Biblioteca Vaticana, e canonico di S. Maria in Trastevere. Parte prima. Roma, si vende dall’Auttore dirimpetto l’Accademia di Franzia, [1748, but late 1760s-early 1770s].

Two works in one volume, folio (330x465 mm). I. Seventeen etched plates. Watermarks: Robison 39 (late 1760s-early 1770s). II. Thirty etched plates (two titles, dedication to Giovanni Gaetano Bottari dated 20 July 1748, two plates of inscriptions and index, and twenty-five views). Watermarks: Robison nos. 17 and 36 (late 1760s-early 1770s). This copy also includes nine etchings taken from other Piranesi works: four from the 1753 edition of the Trofei and ten etchings, printed on five leaves, from a 1760s edition of the Opere varie. Eighteenth-century half-calf. Spine with gilt title and volume numbering on double morocco lettering-pieces. Binding worn and rubbed, corners and extremities of the spine damaged. A very good, wide-margined copy. Book block partly detached from the binding.

I. Second edition, fifth issue of Piranesi's first work: a record of the young engraver's first encounter with the antiquities of Rome and of his difficulty in giving visual form to its immense grandeur. The series presented here, according to Robison, represents the second of six editions and it is in the fifth of eight issues.

“Piranesi's first published work. As such, it is a remarkable production. Granted that some of its thirteen plates are little more than pleasant exercises in a set tradition, others are strikingly inventive, extraordinarily successful in their complex compositions, and remarkably sophisticated in their harmonious technique. Clearly, Piranesi learned and developed further, but the level of the first publication at age twenty-three shows he already had the talent of a genius” (Robinson, p. 12).

The first edition of the Prima Parte was printed in 1743 and comprised thirteen plates and a letter-press dedication. Piranesi did not publish a second part, but in the following years he etched other plates similar to the original thirteen and revised the entire work. Between 1743 and 1749 six different issues of the first edition appeared on the market. During the 1750s and 1760s Piranesi made a few changes to the plates and, by 1761, when he finally moved to a large house in Strada San Felice, from which he published and sold his prints for the rest of his life, the second edition of the Prima Parte was ready. He then continued to work on the series until his death in 1778, producing eight issues of this second edition. All subsequent editions of the work are posthumous.

As often happens with copies of the second edition, in the present volume the seventeen plates of the series are followed by other prints taken from different series: four are taken from the Trofei of 1753 (Facciata d'un Gocciolatojo in piano; Parte di una cornice di marmo; Capitello di marmo, il quale co' l'altro; Capitello di marmo nel Palazzo Mattei), and ten from the Opere varie (after 1761): Appartenenze d'antiche terme; Veduta d'uno de' circhi antichi (reduced version of the large frontispiece to vol. III of the Antichità Romane); Ponte trionfale (reduced version of the large frontispiece to vol. I of the Antichità Romane); Braccio di città pensile (reduced version of the large frontispiece to vol. IV of the Antichità Romane); Idea delle antiche vie Appia e Ardeatina (reduced version of the large frontispiece to vol. II of the Antichità Romane); Ingresso d'un antico ginnasio; Scuola antica architettata alla Egiziana e Greca; Portici tirati d'intorno ad un foro; Rovine d'antichità Egiziana e Greca (upright), and Idea d'un atrio reale (upright).

II. First edition, a later issue probably printed in the late 1760s and early 1770s, of the complete series, in first state, of this precocious manifesto of Piranesi's historical study of the antiquities of Rome. “From the purely artistic side there is scarcely anything more attractive in Piranesi's work than this early series” (Hind). The series is divided into two parts, each opening with its own title-page: the first shows Roman antiquities in Rome; the second Roman antiquities outside Rome. The series was reprinted around 1765, with the addition of two plates, under the title Alcune vedute di archi trionfali et altri monumenti.

H. Foucillon, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, eds. M. Calvesi and A. Monferini, Bologna 1967, pp. 287-290; A. M. Hind, Giovanni Battista Piranesi: A Critical Study, London 1978, pp. 75-76, 78-83; A. Robison, Early Architectural Fantasies: A Catalogue raisonné of the Etchings, Chicago 1986, pp. 65-112; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 239.

If a government needs censorship, it comes from the weakness of its constitution — Cesare Beccaria

240. Beccaria, Cesare (1734-1794)

Dei delitti e delle pene.... [Livorno, Marco Coltellini for Giuseppe Aubert], 1764.

4° (197x143 mm). 104, [2] pages. Complete, including the final leaf with the errata, often lacking in recorded copies. Woodcut headpiece on fol. A2r. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, divided into compartments by gilt fillets, and decorated with small floral tools. Title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Pastedowns covered with floral patterned paper. A very fine copy. Leaves somewhat browned, as usual.

Provenance: Walter Ashburner (1864-1936; small and partly erased stamps on fol. N4v and on the verso of the last leaf); gifted to him by the jurist Ferdinando Bosi in 1925 (autograph note on the title-page, 'W. Ashburner Dedit mihi v.cl. Ferd. Bosi IC 1925'); the Italian scholar Luigi Firpo (1915-1989; ex-libris on the front pastedown).

The first edition of one of the most important works of the Italian Enlightenment. A manifesto on legal reform, and one of the best interpretations of the ideas circulating around France in the second half of the eighteenth century.

The young Milanese nobleman Cesare Beccaria Bonesana composed this work between March 1763 and January 1764, while he was an active member of the intellectual circle known as the Accademia dei pugni, founded in Milan in 1762 by the brothers Alessandro and Pietro Verri, and Beccaria himself, among others. The central theme of the work is the reform of criminal justice, in a context in which punishment was still both brutal and arbitrary. Beccaria advocates an egalitarian justice system, and traces a new metric for punishment and laws rooted in the concept of public happiness. “One of the most influential books in the whole history of criminology [...] Beccaria maintained that the gravity of the crime should be measured by its injury to society and that the penalties should be related to this. The prevention of the crime he held to be of greater importance than its punishment [...] his ideas have now become so commonplace that it is difficult to appreciate their revolutionary impact at the time” (PMM).

The work enjoyed wide and immediate success, and its influence was enormous. Voltaire, d'Alembert, Helvétius, Holbach, Hume and Hegel all counted among its enthusiastic readers; Beccaria's ideas also inspired justice reforms introduced by Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, Emperor Joseph II, and Catherine II of Russia, and its influence on constitutionalism broadly, especially the Declarations des droits de l'homme of 1789, is likewise evident.

The Dei delitti e delle pene was published in Livorno (Tuscany) – then one of the most advanced cities in Italy – on 12 April 1764, anonymous and without indication of place, for fear of repercussions owing to its strong egalitarianism. The printer Coltellini had already published, in 1763, the Meditazioni sulla felicità by Pietro Verri, Beccaria's closest friend. The 'innovative' feature of the reform proposed by Beccaria was, however, perceived by the Roman censorship, and in 1766 Dei delitti e delle pene was included in the Index of Forbidden Books. A good sign, as Beccaria admonishes: if a government needs censorship, it comes from the weakness of its constitution.

The work was translated into English in 1767, and On Crimes and Punishments “significantly shaped the views of American revolutionaries and lawmakers. The first four U.S. Presidents – George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison – were inspired by Beccaria's treatise and, in some cases, read it in the original Italian. On Crimes and Punishments helped to catalyze the American Revolution, and Beccaria's anti-death penalty views materially shaped American thought on capital punishment, torture and cruelty.” (J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution”, p. 1).

The first edition also appeared with an errata leaf containing twenty-one corrections, likely printed as a separate sheet, and thus now scarcely found. Exceptionally, the present copy contains this errata leaf. Another feature of interest lies in the provenance of the volume, as it was gifted by Ferdinando Bosi, lawyer for the British writer Osbert Sitwell, to the great collector and co-founder of the British Institute in Florence, Walter Ashburner.

Einaudi 3362; PMM 209; B. E. Harcourt, Beccaria's 'On Crimes and Punishments': A Mirror on the History of the Foundations of Modern Criminal Law, Chicago 2013; M. Palumbo – E. Sidoli (eds.), The Books that Made Europe, Bruxelles 2016, pp. 248-249; J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence on American Law”, Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 37.1 (2017; accessed January 2018); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 240.

241. Beccaria, Cesare (1734-1794)

Dei delitti e delle pene.... [Livorno, Marco Coltellini for Giuseppe Aubert], 1764.

4° (204x150 mm). 104 pages. Lacking the final leaf with the errata. Woodcut headpiece on fol. A2r. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. A very good, wide-margined copy. Minor, and sporadic foxing to the first and last leaves.

The first edition of one of the most important works of the Italian Enlightenment. A manifesto on legal reform, and one of the best interpretations of the ideas circulating around France in the second half of the eighteenth century.

The young Milanese nobleman Cesare Beccaria Bonesana composed this work between March 1763 and January 1764, while he was an active member of the intellectual circle known as the Accademia dei pugni, founded in Milan in 1762 by the brothers Alessandro and Pietro Verri, and Beccaria himself, among others. The central theme of the work is the reform of criminal justice, in a context in which punishment was still both brutal and arbitrary. Beccaria advocates an egalitarian justice system, and traces a new metric for punishment and laws rooted in the concept of public happiness. “One of the most influential books in the whole history of criminology [...] Beccaria maintained that the gravity of the crime should be measured by its injury to society and that the penalties should be related to this. The prevention of the crime he held to be of greater importance than its punishment [...] his ideas have now become so commonplace that it is difficult to appreciate their revolutionary impact at the time” (PMM).

The work enjoyed wide and immediate success, and its influence was enormous. Voltaire, d'Alembert, Helvétius, Holbach, Hume and Hegel all counted among its enthusiastic readers; Beccaria's ideas also inspired justice reforms introduced by Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, Emperor Joseph II, and Catherine II of Russia, and its influence on constitutionalism broadly, especially the Declarations des droits de l'homme of 1789, is likewise evident.

The Dei delitti e delle pene was published in Livorno (Tuscany) – then one of the most advanced cities in Italy – on 12 April 1764, anonymous and without indication of place, for fear of repercussions owing to its strong egalitarianism. The printer Coltellini had already published, in 1763, the Meditazioni sulla felicità by Pietro Verri, Beccaria's closest friend. The 'innovative' feature of the reform proposed by Beccaria was, however, perceived by the Roman censorship, and in 1766 Dei delitti e delle pene was included in the Index of Forbidden Books. A good sign, as Beccaria admonishes: if a government needs censorship, it comes from the weakness of its constitution.

The work was translated into English in 1767, and On Crimes and Punishments “significantly shaped the views of American revolutionaries and lawmakers. The first four U.S. Presidents – George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison – were inspired by Beccaria's treatise and, in some cases, read it in the original Italian. On Crimes and Punishments helped to catalyze the American Revolution, and Beccaria's anti-death penalty views materially shaped American thought on capital punishment, torture and cruelty.” (J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution”, p. 1).

The first edition also appeared with an errata leaf containing twenty-one corrections, likely printed as a separate sheet, and thus now scarcely found; as with most copies, the errata leaf is missing in the present copy.

Einaudi 3362; PMM 209; B. E. Harcourt, Beccaria's 'On Crimes and Punishments': A Mirror on the History of the Foundations of Modern Criminal Law, Chicago 2013; M. Palumbo – E. Sidoli (eds.), The Books that Made Europe, Bruxelles 2016, pp. 248-249; J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence on American Law”, Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 37.1 (2017; accessed January 2018); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 241.

A fine reglé copy, printed on strong blue paper

242. Ioannes, Diaconus (ca. 965-1018)

Chronicon Venetum omnium quae circumferuntur vetustissimum et Johanni Sagornino vulgo tributum e Mss. codice Apostoli Zeno V.Cl. nunc primum Cum Mss. Codicibus Vaticanis collatum, Notisque illustratum in lucem profert. H. Fr. Zanetti Al. F. Venice, at the expense of Giuseppe Farsetti, 1765..

Small 4° (218x131 mm). Printed on blue paper. XIX, [1], 131, [1] pages. Woodcut headpiece and decorated initial on fol. A2r. Fine contemporary, possibly French, red straight-grain morocco, over pasteboards. Covers within triple gilt fillet. Spine with five small raised bands, compartments decorated in gilt with diagonal of dotted fillets, small floral tools, and dots. Title in gold on red morocco lettering-piece. Marbled pastedowns and flyleaves, board edges gilt ruled, inside dentelles. Green silk bookmark. Yellow edges. A very good, wide-margined copy, printed on strong paper, and reglé throughout in red ink. A few minor spots; some leaves slightly browned and waterstained on the lower margin. Small tear to the lower margin of fol. A5, without any loss.

The first edition of the Chronicon Venetum, a significant medieval source for Venetian history. This Chronicle of Venice was written in the early eleventh century, and its composition is generally attributed to Ioannes Diaconus.

The Chronicon was edited by the antiquarian Girolamo Francesco Zanetti (1723-1782) on the basis of a manuscript then in the possession of the Venetian scholar Apostolo Zeno (1669-1750), whose textual version was collated with two codices preserved in the Vatican Library.

The work enjoyed lasting popularity; counting among its legacy of readers was the especially noteworthy English critic and writer John Ruskin (1819-1900), who referenced the Chronicon Venetum in his celebrated work on Venetian art and architecture, The Stones of Venice, which first appeared in 1851.

Cicogna 583; B. Rosada, “Il Chronicon Venetum di Giovanni Diacono”, Ateneo veneto, 28 (1990), pp. 79-94; Ioannes Diaconus, La cronaca veneziana, ed. M. De Biasi, Venezia 1986-1988; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 242.

Bodoni’s finest illustrated book

243. Paciaudi, Paolo Maria (1710-1785)

Descrizione delle Feste celebrate in Parma l’anno MDCCLXIX per le auguste Nozze di Sua Altezza Reale l’Infante Don Ferdinando colla Reale Arciduchessa Maria Amalia. nella Stamperia Reale, [1769].

Imperial folio (552x406 mm). [8], 76 pages. Parallel text in Italian and French. Engraved title-page within architectural border, the typographical title-page follows. Thirty-six engraved plates, thirty of which are full-page and six are double-page. Engraved head- and tailpieces. Contemporary mottled calf, with the gilt arms of Duke Ferdinand I of Bourbon-Parma on the covers. Spine with seven raised bands, title in gold on red morocco lettering-piece in the second compartment; the other compartments richly decorated with gilt tools showing the symbols of the Bourbon-Parma coat of arms: the towers, the rampant lion and the fleur-de-lis. Joints restored, a few repairs to covers, gilt arms on front panel worn and rubbed. A good copy, light marginal staining to a few leaves, ink spots on the half-title and last plate. Tears repaired in the margin of some plates.

A magnificent festival book printed by Bodoni just a year after his appointment as head of the ducal typography, on the occasion of the marriage of Ferdinand, Duke of Parma to the Archduchess of Austria Maria Amalia of Habsburg-Lothringen, Imperial Princess and daughter of Francis I and Maria Theresa. The wedding was formally celebrated at Colorno on 27 July 1769, but the splendid festival organised in celebration of the union took place in Parma. “On 19 July 1769, Maria Amalia left Mantua for her solemn state entry into the duchy of Parma [...] Finally, on 24 August, Ferdinando and Maria Amalia made their way in a huge procession from Colorno to the cathedral of Parma [...] Planning these events required all Du Tillot's formidable organizational skill, and he insisted on recording the results in the most beautiful way possible. To this end, he gathered Bodoni, [the chief architect of the ducal court Ennemond] Petitot, and Benigno Bossi, the renowned engraver, and exhorted them to produce albums that would astonish everyone with their magnificence. The first and most important of these was Descrizione delle Feste celebrate in Parma” (V. Lester, Giambattista Bodoni, pp. 79-80).

The publication is one of the finest illustrated volumes issued from the Stamperia Reale, “Forse il più attraente di tutti i libri di Bodoni per la bellezza delle figure” (Brooks). It was realised by Bodoni in close collaboration with Ennemond Alexandre Petitot (1727-1801), the latter having been responsible for designing the sumptuous apparati, fabulous scenography, and lavish costuming prepared for those festivities. The bilingual text in Italian and French was composed by the court librarian Paolo Maria Paciaudi and describes the various celebratory performances: tournaments, costume balls, processions, fireworks, a pastoral play in the Boschetto d'Arcadia, and a Chinese fair, all of which are depicted in the marvellous plates, engraved by, among others, Benigno Bossi, Domenico Muzzi, and Giuseppe Patrini, and executed after the designs of such leading artists as G. Volpato, G. Zuliani, Paolo Maria Bossi, and above all the aforementioned Petitot.

The edition, presented here in its first issue, was printed in 1,002 copies, which are housed in different bindings. This copy is one of 144 bound in bazzana, i.e., mottled calf; some of these also bear the Bourbon-Parma coat of arms in gilt, as with the present example.

Brooks 6; De Lama II, 4; Giani, pp. 1-3; Berlin Katalog 3080; Watanabe-O'Kelly & Simon 1141; V. Lester, Giambattista Bodoni: His Life and His World, Boston 2015, pp. 79-80; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 243.

Le plus grand poète priapique qui ait jamais existé et en même temps l’un des poètes les plus lyriques du XVIIIme siècle — Guillaume Apollinaire

245. Baffo, Giorgio (1694-1768)

Le Poesie di Giorgio Baffo Patrizio Veneto. [London or Venice ?], 1771.

Large 12° (179x111 mm). [2], 250 pages, lacking the last blank leaf. Nineteenth-century half-calf, over pasteboards. Marbled covers. Spine tooled in gilt, title in gold on red morocco lettering-piece. Marbled flyleaves; edges marbled. A good copy, repair to the outer blank margin of the title-page, slight foxing in places. A few leaves browned.

Rare first edition, published posthumously and clandestinely, probably in Venice or, more likely, in London, as argued by some scholars, through the efforts of Consul Joseph Smith (1682-1770), a collector of paintings and great lover of Venetian literary culture.

A second edition was issued in London in 1789, and the complete, four-volume edition of all Baffo's works (Raccolta universale delle opere) appeared from the fictional place of Cosmopolis (Venice or London) in 1789 at the expense of the Earl of Pembroke, a great admirer of the poet. However, some of the poems, which had enjoyed anonymous manuscript circulation while the author was still alive, have remained unpublished until today. Baffo refused a large sum offered to him by some British travellers who wanted to see his compositions printed, and it seems that in the last years of his life he also destroyed many of his papers.

Born on 1 August 1694 into a family of the small Venetian aristocracy, Giorgio (Zorzi) Baffo completed his studies in law and embarked upon the obvious professional career to which a man of his rank was entitled. Following assignments in Peschiera and Asola, he entered the Quarantie (Venice's Supreme Court) in 1732, particularly the Criminal Quarantia. He used to walk in town wearing a toga and would recite his poems in cafés and shops, where his company was very much appreciated. He began to write poetry at a young age, in the name of a blasphemous and sacrilegious desecration and with a spirit of vengeance against the conformism and social rigor he was forced to endure in his position as a public official. His poetic motto, in stark contrast to the boredom of Arcadian poetry, was “Cazzo ghe vol” (“Fuck is needed”).

Apollinaire inserted a section from Baffo's poems in the first volume of his L'oeuvre libertine des conteurs italiens (Paris 1910), naming him “le plus grand poète priapique qui ait jamais existé et en même temps l'un des poètes les plus lyriques du XVIIIme siècle”.

J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs à l'amour, aux femmes et au mariage et des livres facétieux, pantagruéliques, Lille 1899, III, p. 777; Gamba, Serie degli scritti impressi in dialetto veneziano, pp. 166-168; F. Govi, I classici che hanno fatto l'Italia, Milano 2010, no. 255; ; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 245.

Probably the first numeroté Italian book, one of only thirty-six copies published

247. Marcolini, Francesco (1550-1559)

Giardino dei Pensieri composta da Francesco Marcolini da Forli L’Anno mdl. Ristampata nel MDCCLXXXIV. [Venice, Santini], 1784.

Folio (374 x 265 mm). [4], 157 [i.e. 206] pages. Pages 1-7 are typeset, while all extant leaves, including the preliminaries, are engravings reproducing the text and original woodcuts of the 1550 edition. As in this previous edition, the page number on the verso is often repeated on the following recto. Marcolini's engraved portrait after the woodcut portrait of the 1550 edition, signed by Giuseppe Daniotto (1741-1789). Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with six raised bands; gilt title on morocco lettering-piece. Covers slightly soiled and bowed. An immaculate copy. Minimal fingermarks to right corners and margins of a few leaves.

Rare, privately printed eighteenth-century Venetian edition of Marcolini's Sorti, the most celebrated book of fortune games of the Italian Renaissance, and one of the great illustrated books of the sixteenth century. The present work is modeled on the more complete, and revised second edition of 1550, the first having appeared in 1540. It is of especial art historical interest for showing how the gusto of eighteenth-century Venetian engraving 'translated' the illustrations of sixteenth-century woodcuts. This generally shows higher definition of the image owing to the medium when the original was more suggestive and perhaps refined, with a greater degree of realism. The Giardino dei Pensieri of 1784 is one of the first books to be printed in a limited and numbered press run, with only thirty-six copies, of which the present copy is numbered fourteen.

As stated in the title-page, this edition is a larger-format reprint of the 1550 edition, with the exception of the lovely rococo title-page, showing a receding formal garden, and the verso of the final leaf, in which a poem in terza rima allows us to identify the printer (Santini), localize the place of publication (Venice), and infer that the book's illustrator, Giuseppe Daniotto (who signs the portrait of Marcolini), is also responsible for the vignettes. The same verses claim that after the printing of thirty-six copies, the plates perished in the proverbial fire, thus limiting production to an exclusive number. Casali credits the financing of the publication to the Venetian patrician Francesco Savorgnan of Campareggio, a noted bibliophile.

OCLC records a single copy, held at the University of Chicago.

Casali Annali, pp. 176-77; Brunet III, 1408; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 247.

Une des plus belles bibliothèques de l’Europe — Peignot

250. [Bibliotheca Pinelliana]

Bibliotheca Maphaei Pinellii Veneti magno jam studio collecta, a Jacopo Morellio... descripta et annotationibus illustrata. Tomus primus [-sextus]. Carlo Palese for Lorenzo Baseggio, 1787.

Six volumes, 8° (230x156 mm). I. LIV, 377, [3] pages. Maffeo Pinelli's portrait as a frontispiece, engraved by Francesco Bartolozzi (1827-1815). II. V, 468 pages. III. IV, 367, [1] pages, one folding plate, showing a specimen of papyrus owned by Pinelli. IV. LVI, 471, [1] pages. V. VIII, 360 pages, with five engraved plates. VI. XVI, 365, [3] pages. The last three volumes are in Italian and introduced by the title La libreria già raccolta con grande studio dal signor Maffeo Pinelli Veneziano, descritta e con annotazioni illustrata da don Jacopo Morelli. Contemporary marbled cardboards with lettering-piece on the spines. A beautiful, uncut copy.

A fine copy of the catalogue of one of the most significant private libraries in eighteenth-century Europe: the celebrated book collection assembled by the Venetian Maffeo Pinelli (1735-1785).

The catalogue was privately printed and edited by Jacopo Morelli (1745-1819), librarian of the Marciana Library in Venice, for the purposes of selling its contents. Pinelli's collection was actually purchased from Maffeo's heirs soon after – for the sum of 6,000 pounds – by the British bookseller James Edwards together with his partners Robson and Clarke, who intended to sell it at auction in London. The sale took place in two sessions, in 1789 and 1790.

The Bibliotheca Pinelliana is one of the most important private Italian library catalogues ever to be published. The first three volumes contain Classical and 'Oriental' books (7,953 titles); the fourth and fifth volumes include entries of Italian literature, manuscripts, and incunables, along with French, English, and Spanish publications, books on vellum, medals, etc. (comprising 4,610 items in all). The final volume provides the essential indices.

Maffeo Pinelli was born into a wealthy family whose members were the official Ducal printers to the Republic of Venice for almost two centuries. Beside the family business, Maffeo assembled a valuable collection of coins, medals, books, prints, statues, and paintings over the course of his life. In 1785 his fellow student and friend Jacopo Morelli compiled a catalogue of his paintings (Catalogo di quadri raccolti dal fu Signor Maffeo Pinelli ed ora posti in vendita) and, upon the request of Maffeo's stepfather, Daniele Zanchi produced this catalogue of his library.

“Ce catalogue est un des meilleurs qui existent, tant par la valeur et le nombre des ouvrages curieux qui le composent, que par la manière dont il est redigé, et par les notes savants dont l'a enrichi le célèbre M. Morelli. Maphée Pinelli, directeur de l'imprimerie ducale à Venise, avoit l'une des plus belles bibliothèques de l'Europe” (Peignot, p. 118).

Cicogna 4380; S. De Ricci, English Collectors of Books and Manuscripts, p. 89; L. Borean - S. Mason (eds.), Il collezionismo d'arte a Venezia. Il Settecento, Venezia 2009, p. 289; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 250.

Finely bound for Antoine-Augustin Renouard

251. Lucianus Samosatensis (125–182)

Opera Graece et Latine ad editionem Tiberii Hemsterhusii et Ioannis Frederici Reitzii accurate expressa cum varietate et annotationibus.... Societas Bipontina, 1789 - 1793.

A set of ten volumes, large 8° (210x117 mm). I. [4], CXVI, 492 pages. II. [4], 552 pages. III. [4], 596 pages. IV. [4], 603, [1] pages. V. [4], 604 pages. VI. [4], 605, [3] pages. VII. [4], 583, [1] pages. VIII. [4], 598, [2] pages. IX. [4], 605, [3] pages. X. [4], 367, [313] pages. Engraved vignette on the title-page of each volume. Uniformly bound in blue morocco by Pierre-Joseph Bisiaux, active between 1777 and 1801; the binding of the tenth and last volume uses slightly different leather and tooling, and was probably executed by another binder, possibly after Bisiaux's death. Covers framed within large gilt frame. The owner's name 'renouard' is tooled in gilt on the upper cover of each volume, apart from the tenth. Spines with five double raised bands, underlined by a narrow gilt frieze on red ground and decorated with gilt stars, diagonals of dotted fillets, and small central tools. Title, imprint, and volume numbering lettered in gilt. Rose-pink silk pastedowns; flyleaves either in rose-pink silk and in vellum. Board edges tooled with gilt fillets, inside dentelles. Rose-pink silk bookmarks, gilt edges. In the first nine volumes, the original blue colour of the spines changes to dark olive. Spines occasionally repaired at extremities; upper headbands of the first and seventh volumes restored, and covered with marbled paper. A set in very fine condition, insignificant browning in places.

Provenance: the renowned French bibliographer and outstanding book collector Antoine-Augustin Renouard (1765-1853).

A fine set, uniformly bound for Antoine-Augustin Renouard by the leading Parisian binder Pierre-Joseph Bisiaux: the monumental edition of Lucianus' works, published in the Bipontine series of classical texts and edited by Johann Frederik Reiz (1695-1778) and Tiberius Hemsterhuis (1685-1766). The texts included are mainly based on the three-volume edition of Lucianus that appeared in Amsterdam in 1743.

The Societas Bipontina was established in Zweibrücken (lat. Bipontum) in 1778, and its production centered on Greek and Latin classics. Its publishing activity is famous for the elegance of its layouts and philological accuracy. The first volume opens with the Sylloge de aetate, vita scriptisque Luciani by Reitz, whereas the tenth and last volume contains philological notes on textual variants by Jacques-Nicolas Belin de Ballu, along with a series of detailed indices.

The volumes were bound for the celebrated bibliographer and great book collector Antoine-Augustin Renoaurd, who was particularly passionate about books that were elegantly bound in morocco, richly gilt tooled, and further enriched with vellum or silk – especially rose-pink – pastedowns and flyleaves, as the marvellous set presented here well testifies. The most famous binders during the transition from the Monarchy to the Directory executed bindings for his exquisite library; this included, among others, Pierre-Joseph Bisiaux, who was active in Paris between 1777 and 1801, a rival of Nicolas-Denis Derome (1731-1790), and his heir Bradel.

For an identical binding see the Renouard copy of Athenagoras' work Della risurrettione de' morti (Venice 1556), a volume which later came into the possession of Henry Davis, one of the greatest collectors of magnificent bindings, and held now in the British Library (Davis 570).

G. Burkard, Bibliographie der Editiones Bipontinae, Zweibrücken 1990, pp. 94-101; J. Schoendorf, Zweibrücker Buchdruck zur Fürstenzeit. Das Buch-und Zeitungswesen einer Wittelsbacher Residenz 1488-1794, Zweibrücken 1995, pp. 161-179; M. Baubach, Lukian in Deutschland. Eine Forschungs- und Rezeptionsgeschichtliche Analyse vom Humanismus bis zur Gegenwart, München 2002, pp. 100, 118, 266. For similar bindings see S. de Ricci, French Signed Bindings, no. 124; M. Foot, Les reliures françaises, pl. 8; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 251.

Printed on blue paper, and bound for Cardinal Salviati

254. Cecire, Antonio Maria (fl. 2. half of the 18th century)

La dottrina della Chiesa sulle Indulgenze esposta e difesa... per dimostrare il valore delle Indulgenze contenute nella Bolla-Crociata pe’ regno delle due Sicilie. nella Stamperia Simoniana, 1791.

Large 8° (214x135 mm). Printed on blue paper. 360 pages. Woodcut ornament on the title-page. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Fine contemporary honey calf, over pasteboards. Covers within elaborate gilt frame of neoclassical decorative elements, at each inner corner a small amphora-shaped tool. At the centre a large coat of arms of Cardinal Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati. Spine with five small raised bands, richly gilt tooled with larger amphora-shaped tools. Title in gold on brown morocco lettering-piece. Board edges decorated with diagonal gilt fillets. Marbled pastedowns, gilt edges. Flyleaves renewed, lower corners restored. A very fine, wide-margined copy. Insignificant paper flaws to the lower margin of fol. Y1 and outer lower corner of fol. Q3, in both cases not affecting the text.

Provenance: Cardinal Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati, Duke of Giuliano (1727-1794, armorial binding).

A fine copy – printed on 'carta turchina' – of this striking testament to the lively debate that had arisen in the late eighteenth-century Kingdom of the Two Sicilies concerning indulgences and the abuses of their practice.

Cecire's treatise aims to offer a sort of 'guide' for preachers, parish priests, and catechists on the issue of indulgences, a topic which has consistently sparked much extensive and heated controversy throughout ecclesiastical history. Here the Franciscan author deals especially with the so-called 'Bolle della Crociata', or Crusade-Bulls, issued in the 1790s by Pope Pius VI for Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, which foresaw special indulgences for punishment due to sins. The Bolla della Crociata had first been promulgated in 1509 by Julius II in favour of the Spanish monarchy, granting indulgences to those who would take part in the crusades against infidels. Obviously, at the end of the eighteenth century the Bull had lost its original function; instead, it was periodically issued for financing the construction or repair of churches and monasteries among other pious initiatives, but the money was also often used for other purposes, thus provoking criticism and polemics.

This copy, housed in a fine armorial binding and printed on blue paper, was indeed commissioned by the author for a distinguished recipient or patron: Cardinal Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati.

V. Pinchera, Lusso e decoro. Vita quotidiana e spese dei Salviati di Firenze nel Sei e Settecento, Pisa 1999; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 254.

A small catalogue for bibliophiles

255. Bodoni, Giambattista (1740-1813)

Catalogo di alcune edizioni bodoniane. Giambattista Bodoni, 1793.

Small 8° (147x103 mm). XXIII, [1] pages. Recased in old boards. A fine copy.

Very rare catalogue issued by the celebrated printer and publisher Giambattista Bodoni outlining his production. The booklet opens with an explanatory letter written by the great printer and addressed to a collector: “io ho pensato di non poter meglio soddisfare alla erudita di lei inchiesta, che trasmettendole non solo l'elenco di tutto ciò che entro il corrente anno verrà da me riprodotto, ma altresì di quanto, ajutatemi Dio, ho divisato d'intraprendere nell'anno vegnente” (“I thought the best way to reply to your request was to send you a list of everything I have printed in the current year and, with the help of God, all that I will print next year”).

The catalogue lists forty-six titles published between 1791 and 1794, along with the different issues of each edition. In a final note addressed 'to bibliophiles' and dated 15 October 1793, Bodoni announces that in 1794 he will publish four classics – Dante, Petrarch, Ariosto and Tasso – that “will end his career”. Luckily, the printer would go on producing his masterpieces up until his death some twenty years later.

Born in Saluzzo (Piedmont), Bodoni learned the rudiments of his profession in the modest workshop of his father. At eighteen he moved to Rome, where he began working at the Apostolic press De Propaganda Fide, which specialised in exotic alphabet publications. Bodoni left Rome in 1766 with the intent of relocating to England, but was forced to stay in Piedmont due to a severe illness. In 1768, he was appointed director of the Royal Press in Parma, which had been founded shortly before. In 1791, he obtained permission from the Duke of Parma to open his own atelier and run a parallel business. In 1806, he took part in the Exposition de l'Industrie Nationale in Paris, and after his death in 1813 his wife, Ghitta, maintained his legacy by continuing to run the business for many years. As Valerie Lester remarks, it is very likely that no other printer experienced – in life and in death – quite as many material and moral recognitions as the celebrated Bodoni.

Brooks 517; V. Lester, Giambattista Bodoni: His Life and His World, Boston 2015; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 255.

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