Volume III: From the 17th to the 21st Century Philobiblon

One Thousand Years of Bibliophily from the 11th to the 21st Century

On one of the most famous Egyptian artifacts

213. Pignoria, Lorenzo (1571-1631)

Mensa Isiaca, qua sacrorum apud Aegyptios ratio & simulacra subjectis tabulis aeneis simul exhibentur & explicantur. Accessit ejusdem authoris de Magna Deum matre discursus, & sigillorum, gemmarum, amuletorum aliquot figurae & earundem ex Kirchero Chisletioque interpretatio. Nec non Jacobi Philippi Tomasini Manus Aenea, & de vita rebusque Pignorij dissertatio. Andreas Fries, 1669.

Two parts in one volume, 4° (238x187 mm). Collation: *4, **1, A-N4, O2; [π]4, [a]-[n]4. [10], 96, [12]; [8], 96 [i.e. 94] pages. Roman and italic type. Extra engraved title-page, executed by A. Blothelingh (included in the foliation). Eleven engraved folding plates. Three engraved title-vignettes, nine full-page illustrations, and additional vignettes and other illustrations in the text. Contemporary vellum. Spine gilt tooled, title in gold on lettering-piece. Front hinge slightly opened. A very good copy.

Provenance: J. H. Harrison (ex-libris on the front pastedown).

Third and best edition of the Mensa Isiaca by the Paduan antiquarian Pignoria, the first scholarly work on Egyptology, which first appeared in Venice in 1605, under the title Vetustissimae tabulae aeneae sacris Aegyptiorum.

The 'Mensa Isiaca' or the table of Isis was an elaborate bronze table with enamel and silver inlay discovered in the ruins of the Temple of Isis after the Sack of Rome in 1527; it may have been executed – as Pignoria himself suggests – in Rome in the first century AD.

The table was then bought by Cardinal Pietro Bembo (it is also known as the 'Bembine Table'); after his death in 1547 the table was acquired by the Gonzagas, remaining in their collections until the capture of Mantua in 1630. The table of Isis eventually came into the hands of Cardinal Pava, who gave it to the Duke of Savoy, who then presented it to the King of Sardinia. In 1797 the tablet was carried in Paris by French troops, and in 1809 – as Alexandre Lenoir attests – it was exhibited in the Bibliothèque Nationale. Later, it returned to Turin, and is now held at the Egyptian Museum of this city.

In the seventeenth century the table of Isis became one of the most famous Egyptian artifacts known: it was used by the Jesuit Athanasius Kircher as a primary source for deciphering hieroglyphs, and an illustration showing the table was included in his Oedypus Aegyptiacus (1652/55).

The effective function of the 'Mensa Isiaca' is still subject to debate, although Pignoria's explanation was the simplest and most convincing: he believed it was a representation of sacrificial ceremonies according to Egyptian rites.

The 1669 edition is supplemented with numerous illustrations in the text which had been executed e Musaeo Bembi in 1559 by the Parma engraver Aeneas Vico (1523-1567).

Blackmer 1312; Gay 1567; Ibrahim-Hilmy II, 119; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 213.

One of the 'One Hundred Famous Books in Science’ — Horblit

214. Steno, Nicolaus (1638-1687)

De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis prodromus. Insegna della Stella, 1669.

4° (225x169 mm). Collation: [π]2, A-K4. [4], 78, [2] pages. Complete with fol. [π]1 blank. Roman and italic type. Title-page printed in red and black, with engraved vignette. Seven-line decorated initial on fol. A1r, head- and tailpieces. Large folding plate, with engraved diagram and explanatory letter-press. Contemporary limp vellum, spine with inked title; blue edges. A very good copy, some minor foxing, a few spots.

First edition of this “great work [...] which outlines the principles of modern geology” (DSB), by the Danish anatomist Niels Stensen, better known as Nicolaus Steno, then physician at the Florentine court. The De solido is dedicated to Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

In this work, a cornerstone of geology based on data collected in the Arno Valley, Steno sought to describe the anatomy of the earth and to explain the entire system of nature stratum super stratum. His contributions to plate tectonic theory and to stratigraphy is based on his theory that layers or strata of the earth, which are not horizontal, must have been tilted or folded by a force, such as an earthquake, after they formed. His principle of superposition also applied to other geologic events on the surface, such as lava flows and ash layers from volcanic eruptions.

Although brief in form – the work was only intended as an introduction to a larger work that Steno would never write – the impact of De solido was far greater than its modest size would suggest, establishing important principles of geology and elaborating upon new tools for writing its history. In his treatise, the Danish geologist “described the composition of the earth's crust in Tuscany and a famous diagram in his book shows six successive types of stratification: the first attempt ever made to represent geological sections. This was a sequence which he believed would be found all over the world. He explained the true origin of fossils found in the earth as being remains of once living things and he discriminated between the volcanic, chemical and mechanical modes of the origin of the rocks. He was the first clearly to recognize that the strata of the earth's crust contain the records of a chronological sequence of events from which the history of the earth can be reconstructed. He attempted to find the principles of stratigraphy [...] He deduced that these changes in the original position of the strata are the real causes of the unevenness of the earth's surface. This was in direct contradiction to the accepted belief that mountains had existed ever since the beginning of things or had simply grown” (PMM).

STC 17th Century, 877; Bruni-Evans 5151; Dibner 90; Horblit-Grolier 96; Norman 2013; PMM 151; D.R. Oldroyd, Thinking about Earth, London 1996, pp. 60-76; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 214.

The first public library of Liguria

215. Aprosio, Angelico (1607-1681)

La Biblioteca Aprosiana, Passatempo Autunnale di Cornelio Aspasio Antivigilmi, Trà Vagabondi di Tabbia detto l’Aggirato.... Manolessi for Giovanni Niccolò Cavanna, 1673.

Two parts in one volume, 12° (137x69 mm). The two parts with running collation and foliation. Collation: a-b12, c6, A-Z12, Aa-Ee12, Ff6. [10], 733 [i.e. 683, pp. 337-386 omitted], [1] pages. Roman and italic type. Frontispiece engraved by Giovanni Mattia Striglioni after Domenico Piola, showing the inside of a library, surmounted by the coat of arms of the dedicatee, Giovanni Niccolò Cavanna. On fol. C12r, a half-page woodcut illustration depicting an Egyptian stele. Contemporary green morocco, over pasteboards. Covers within gilt frame. Spine with four raised bands richly gilt tooled, title in gold on red morocco lettering-piece. Marbled flyleaves. Reference notes on the front flyleaves, in an English eighteenth-century hand. A fine copy.

Rare first edition of the catalogue of holdings in the first public library of Liguria, the Aprosian Library, named after its founder, the Augustinian Friar Angelico Aprosio, and established in 1648 at the Augustinian monastery of Ventimiglia. The catalogue was financed by the work's dedicatee, Aprosio's friend Giovanni Niccolò Cavanna, and edited by Lorenzo Legati. Aprosio's name is concealed within the pseudonym Cornelio Aspasio Antivigilmi, an anagram of his real name along with that of his hometown, Ventimiglia.

The Biblioteca Aprosiana, also the most important source of information we have about Aprosio's own life, consists of a list of the collection's supporters – the so-called 'Fautori' – arranged alphabetically by first name. For each fautore, Aprosio provides bio-bibliographical information; the individuals in question tend to have been writers or scholars who gifted the library with some of their own works, the descriptions of which have been included as well.

The catalogue is interrupted at the letter 'c'; the continuation (up to the letter 'm') remained unpublished and is known only through an autograph manuscript that Aprosio had prepared for printing, preserved today at the University Library in Genoa. The second part of the volume contains the Biblioteca Aprosiana cantata by Pier Francesco Minozzi, which is introduced by a separate title-page on fol. Cc9r.

The Aprosian Library housed over ten thousand volumes and was officially recognized in 1653 by Pope Innocent X, who issued a ban prohibiting the sale of any of its books and opened it to the public. In the following years, Aprosio dedicated himself to expanding the library, enlarging the monastery to hold its volumes, and compiling this catalogue.

The Aprosian Library was partly dispersed in 1798 upon the arrival of French troops and the suppression of the Augustinian order. Part of the collection ended up in the National Library of Genoa.

Melzi I, p. 69; Brunet II, 325; L. Gavazzi, Angelico Aprosio, la Biblioteca Aprosiana e il complesso di Sant'Agostino a Ventimiglia, Ventimiglia 2010; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 215.

Sir Joshua Reynolds' copy

216. Malvasia, Carlo Cesare (1616-1693)

Felsina Pittrice. Vite de pittori bolognesi alla Maestà Christianissima di Luigi XIIII Re di Francia e di Nauarra il Sempre Vittorioso consagrata... Diuisa in duoi tomi; con indici in fine copiosissimi. Tomo primo [-secondo]. Domenico Barbieri's Heir for Giovanni Francesco Davico, 1678.

Two parts in one volume, 4° (239x168 mm). Collation: [a]-b4, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Zzz4, Aaaa-Cccc4, Dddd4; [π]2, A-Z4, Aa-Zz4, Aaa-Zzz4, Aaaa-Gggg4. [16], 581, 1 of [3]; [4], 606, [2] pages. Lacking in the first part fol. Dddd4 blank. In this copy fols. b1-b2 are bound after fols. b3-b4. Issue C (no priority) with 'incudi' instead of 'incudini' on fol. B3r, in the first part. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on fol. Ee4v of the first part. Forty-three woodcut portraits in the manner of Vasari; eight empty portrait frames, fifteen small illustrations of paintings by the Carraccis, four other full-page woodcuts. Woodcut decorated initials. Contemporary blind-tooled vellum, over pasteboards. Covers within fillet borders, in the centre four fleurs-de-lis and a large lozenge-shaped tool. Spine with five raised bands, inked title and imprint. A single ink stain to the lower cover. A very good copy, slight waterstaining at the lower margin of the central and last quires.

Provenance: the famous English artist Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792).

Sir Joshua Reynold's personal copy of the first edition of this famous work, presented here in the early issue with the name of the edition's financial backer, Giovanni Francesco Davico, on the title-page, and the famous insult towards Raphael, called 'Boccalaio Urbinate' (fol. Nnn4r, line 14), which was subsequently corrected to 'gran Raffaele'.

Carlo Cesare Malvasia was a pupil of the painters Giacinto Campana and Giacomo Cavedone, and is considered the most important historian of the Bolognese school of painting. His Felsina Pittrice deals with the life and works of celebrated Bolognese artists, and the sections dedicated to Guido Reni, Agostino Mitelli, and the Procaccinis are especially noteworthy. A third volume of additions, edited by Luigi Crespi, was published in Rome in 1769.

The present copy comes from the library of Sir Joshua Reynolds, one of the most influential English painters and theorists of his time, who specialised in portraiture. He was the first president of the Royal Academy of Arts, and was knighted by George III in 1769. Reynolds was deeply influenced by Italian painters and Italian art theorists. “Among the Italian art literature that Reynolds studied particularly intensively was Carlo Cesare Malvasia's Felsina Pittrice (1678) and his Pitture di Bologna (1686).

This explains, to an extent, the importance Reynolds attached to Bolognese paintings in his Discourses.

Whereas we can only presume that Reynolds possessed a copy of the Felsina Pittrice because he directly quoted from it in his Discourses, Pitture di Bologna” (I. Wenderholm, “The President as a Reader: Reynolds and Books”, p. 214). We can now prove it was this very copy that was in his possession.

Libreria Vinciana 4381; J. Schlosser Magnino, La letteratura artistica, Firenze 1967, pp. 529 and 579; I. Wenderholm “The President as a Reader: Reynolds and Books”, H. Damm, M. Thimann, C. Zittel (eds.), The Artist as Reader: On Education and Non-Education of Early Modern Artists, Leiden 2013, pp. 195-217; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 216.

The Roman Gardens of the Baroque

217. Falda, Giovan Battista (1643-1678)

I Giardini di Roma. Con le loro Piante Alzate e Vedute in Prospettiva.... Giovanni Giacomo De Rossi, [ca. 1680].

Oblong folio (342x471 mm). [21] engraved plates, including the title-page and dedication to Pope Innocent XI, engraved by Arnold Van Westerhout after Giovanni Battista Manelli, and nineteen landscape views by G. B. Falda and Simon Felice. Late nineteenth-century half-vellum, marbled covers. Marbled edges. A very good copy, a few marginal stains.

First edition – offered here in its first issue with the plates unnumbered – of the most beautiful garden book produced in the Roman Baroque. Falda's work illustrates the layout and embellishment of nine of the finest gardens of Rome dating from the mid-sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. The publication includes bird's-eye views and plans of the Vatican Gardens, those on Quirinal Hill, and, among others, the Villas Mattei, Pamphili, Borghese, Ludovisi, and Montalto. The gardens were designed by Alessandro Algardi, Carlo Maderno, Ottavio Mascarini, Annibali Lippi, Cavalier Rainaldi, Domenico Fontana, Flaminio Pontico, and Giacomo Del Duca. The book is of particular importance as it shows the gardens before they were destroyed or underwent extensive alterations.

As a boy, Falda was sent to Rome to work in the studio of Gian Lorenzo Bernini. His skills attracted the attention of the publisher Giovanni Giacomo De Rossi, for whom Falda engraved the series Le fontane di Roma ('Fountains of Rome'), Palazzi di Roma ('Palaces of Rome'), and the present Giardini. His work became very popular among participants of the Grand Tour and tourists in the second half the seventeenth century and sold very well.

Berlin Katalog 3492; Kissner 133; Libreria Vinciana 4440; Rossetti 4831; G. B. Falda, Li giardini di Roma. Faksimile-Neudruck der Ausgabe Rom 1683, Nordlingen 1994; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 217.

The new multipoint perspective scenery

218. David, Domenico (d. 1698)

La forza della virtu drama per musica da rappresentarsi nel Teatro Malvezzi l’anno m.dc.xciv... Dedicato all’Eminentissimo, e Reverendissimo Sig. Cardinale Marcello Durazzo Legato di Bologna.... Antonio Pisarri's heirs, 1694.

4° (199x137 mm). Collation: A8, B-H4, I6. 82 pages, lacking the last blank leaf. Roman and italic type. Twelve folding etchings, engraved by Carlo Antonio Buffagnotti after Marco Antonio Chiarini; each plate signed by artist and engraver, and with caption titles. Rebound in cardboards covered with a beautiful eighteenth-century gilt-blocked floral paper. Marbled edges. A good copy, some foxing and staining. Title-page slightly soiled, pale waterstain to the title-page and second leaf, small repaired tear to fol. B1, without any loss. Other repaired tears on some folding plates with no damage. B1, without any loss. Other repaired tears on some folding plates with no damage.

The rare first illustrated edition of this opera libretto in three acts, published on the occasion of its presentation at Bologna's Teatro Malvezzi. The librettist is Domenico David, while the music was composed by Giacomo Antonio Perti (1661-1756), whose name is not mentioned in the work. The drama had already been performed the previous year, in 1693, in the Teatro San Giovanni Crisostomo in Venice with music by Carlo Francesco Pollaroli. On that occasion the libretto had been printed in Venice by Nicolini, in an unillustrated edition in 12° format. These editions testify to the success of the opera, which deeply influenced Metastasio's libretto for the Siface (Naples 1723).

The 1694 Bolognese edition is enriched with twelve splendid plates illustrating the different stage scenes, engraved by the printmaker, painter, and accomplished cellist Carlo Antonio Buffagnotti (1660-ca. 1715) after drawings executed by the renowned Bolognese architect Marcantonio Chiarini (ca. 1652-1730), who trained with Francesco Quaino and Domenico Santi. Active in Bologna and Milan, Chiarini was a quadratura specialist and painted scenography for several plays. The plates included in La forza della virtu attest to his use of the scena per angolo, or multipoint perspective, a significant innovation in seventeenth-century stage design which is generally attributed to Francesco Bibiena, but was in all likelihood used here for the first time. “Until this time, all perspective scenery had a single vanishing point – for a spectator seated in an ideal position, the scenery seemed to disappear at a single point in the distance [...] Multipoint perspective, as the name implies, could have several vanishing points. The effect [...] was to free the stage from the auditorium. The scene behind the proscenium no longer had to conform to the scale of the spectator, it could be larger than life. There was no need for symmetry: a scene could be shown from any point of view” (The Cambridge Guide to Theatre, Cambridge 2000, p. 1093).

Frati, 8208; Gaspari V, 396; Gregory-Sonneck, p. 526; Grove Dictionary of Opera I, p. 1086; Sartori, Libretti italiani a stampa, 10875; Schatz 7948; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 218.

Ex dono Auctoris

219. Meyer, Cornelius (1629-1701)

Nuovi ritrovamenti divisi in due parti con trè Tavole in lingua Latina, Francese, & Ollandese. Parte prima. Delli ordegni per cavar pali. Armature della calamita. Del modo di levare i sassi sott’acqua, e trovar la lega dell’oro, e dell’argento... Rome, Giovanni Giacomo Komarek, 1696. (bound with:) Idem. Alla Santità di N.S. Papa Innocentio XI. Beatissimo Padre. [Rome, Giacomo Antonio de Lazzeri Varese, 1679]. (bound with:) Idem. Nuovi ritrovamenti dati in luce dall’Ingegneiro [sic] Cornelio Meyer per eccitare l’ingegno de’ virtuosi ad aumentarli, ò aggiungervi maggior perfettione... Rome, Giovanni Giacomo Komarek, 1689. (together with:) Idem. L’Arte di restituire à Roma la tralasciata Navigatione del suo Tevere. Divisa in tre parti.... Giacomo Antonio de Lazzari Varese, 1685.

Two volumes containing four works, in near uniform bindings.

First volume. Three works bound together, folio (411x261 mm). I. [28] unsigned leaves, including title-page with a large engraved vignette showing a dragon with the caption 'Drago come viveva il primo di Decembre 1691 nelle paludi fuori di Roma'; dedication to the Grand Duke of Tuscany Cosimo III dated Rome, 22 June 1696; 22 leaves consisting of plates with letter-press explanatory text, all of them half-page (except two full-page and three double-page); 4 leaves of indices in Latin, French, and Dutch. Roman and italic type. II. Collation: A14. [14] leaves. Issued without title-page, opening with dedicatory epistle to Innocent XI. Twelve numbered half-page engravings accompanied by explanatory text below, printed on recto only. Roman and italic type. The plates are partly dated between 1677 and 1679, engraved by Giovanni Battista Falda and Jacques Blondeau, after Meyer. III. Collation: [π]2-1, A-D2, 2D2, E2-1. [12] leaves. Roman and italic type. Typographical ornament on the title-page. Fifteen engravings in the text, two of which are double page. Most of the plates signed by Meyer as designer, and sometimes as both designer and engraver. The double-page astronomical engraving is signed by Ioannes Baptista Honoratus Polustinus.

Contemporary limp vellum. Extremities of the spine damaged. Fine, unsophisticated copy. Worm-tracks on the upper margin of several leaves not affecting the text, some leaves somewhat loose.

Second volume. Three parts, folio (401x265 mm). [92] leaves, 15, [1] pages. All leaves are unsigned, except for fols. [9-10] signed A-A2 and the final 8 leaves signed A-D2. The edition includes: two additional titles with dedication to Innocent XI and a large allegorical engraving present here in two states (one variant has the caption title 'Fluminis Fluctus Letificant Civitatem' written on a cartouche on top of the engraving, while the second version has 'D.O.M.' instead); a letter-press title with a woodcut ornament; sixty-eight engraved illustrations and maps (six double-page, one full-page and the rest half-page). The final 15 pages contain the relations of the Sacra Congregatio riparum Tyberis, and end with the colophon 'Romae, ex Typographia Rev. Cam. Apost., 1685'. The first illustration of part two, a double-page map showing the Delineatione del stagno di Maccarese, is captioned: 'In Roma, nella stamperia di Nicol'Angelo Tinassi, 1681'. The comet plate referred to in the list of plates is absent, in keeping with all other copies. At the bottom of the figura quarta in Part one are two contemporary ink drawings of technical structures. Roman and italic type. Woodcut head- and tailpieces.

Contemporary vellum, over thin boards. Spine with inked title, partly damaged and with a few losses. A genuine copy, with good margins. Some browning and foxing, double-page map of Delinatione del stagno di Maccarese heavily browned.

Provenance: I. Meyer's own inscription 'Ex dono Auctoris' on the verso of the front flyleaf; on the front pastedown nineteenth-century armorial ex-libris of the Odescalchi family, bearing the motto 'per servire s'acquista servi quando poi', and engraved by Michelassi. II. Meyer's own inscription 'Ex dono Auctoris' on the verso of the front flyleaf.

Two-volume set containing four rare first editions by Cornelius Meyer (Cornelis Meijer), both volumes bearing the author's inscription 'Ex dono Auctoris'. Dedication copies of these already rare works are extremely hard to come by separately, and even more so bound together, and in copies complete with all their parts. This is the case of this set, in which the first volume also bears the ex-libris of the Odescalchi family, and it is especially noteworthy that Pope Innocent XI Odescalchi was the patron of Meyer as well as the dedicatee of the second edition bound in this volume.

I. The first work bound – Nuovi ritrovamenti divisi in due parti... Parte prima – though printed seven years later, in 1696, forms the first section of a two-part work, which gathers some of the author's technical inventions and scientific experiments. The second part, Nuovi ritrovamenti dati in luce, was issued first, in 1689, but both texts are clearly related insofar as the index to both parts is printed at the end of the Part one.

The plates show inventions and experiments undertaken by Meyer in Rome and other places like Livorno and Civitavecchia: among others, the large magnet of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, instruments and technical tools to raise cannons and poles from below the sea and to break stones underwater, methods for melting metals, canalization and other hydraulic works, a plan of the harbor of Livorno, fortification works, spectacles, games and curiosities including how to break a glass with a musical instrument, the eclipse of Jupiter's first satellite, a map of the mouth of Po river, chariots, the design of a room, the orbit of a comet, and fountains. One of the plates included here shows the Civitavecchia harbor, where the author recovered the hull of a sunken vessel.

The third work included in the first volume – the one bound in the middle – is the rarest of all three. It was issued without a title-page and opens with a dedication to Innocent XI Odescalchi. Meyer's name appears at the end of the dedication, while the imprint is at the bottom of the last two leaves. As stated in the notice to the reader, with this publication Meyer intended to show to the general public how he so brilliantly completed the first task assigned to him by Clement X upon his arrival in Rome.

Born in Amsterdam, Cornelius Meyer left his country in 1674 for Venice, then a popular destination for Dutch engineers seeking employment. He moved to Rome one year later. Pope Clement X put Meyer in charge of a major project aimed at protecting the Via Flaminia against the flooding of the Tiber. Meyer, whose plans were less expensive than those proposed by the project's former head engineer, Carlo Fontana, constructed a passonata, i.e., a row of piles, in the Tiber, which deflected the river's current away from the Via Flaminia.

II. First edition of Meyer's important work on the restoration of the Tiber River for navigation, L'arte di restituire a Roma la tralasciata navigatione del suo Tevere, which is considered his masterpiece, and is presented here in its second issue (the first issue is dated 1683 on the title-page).

After this first successful work on the Tiber, Clement X and his successor Innocent XI hired Meyer to improve navigation on the river with the purpose of increasing commerce. Meyer came up with revolutionary solutions to expedite travel along the river and in 1683, with the help of artist Gaspar van Wittel, he published his projects in L'arte di restituire a Roma la tralasciata navigatione del suo Tevere. The book, which is divided into three parts, was both a record of Meyer's engineering skills as well as a form of self-promotion for seeking further commissions. It includes a beautiful series of etchings by Meyer himself as well as by Giovanni Battista Falda, Gaspar van Wittel, Jacques Blondeau, Barend de Bailliu, Balthasar Denner, Gomar Wouters, Johannes Collin, and Ioannes Baptista Honoratus Polustinus. It was with his designs in L'arte di restituire that Meyer consolidated his reputation among the artistic and scientific elite of Rome.

Michel & Michel V, p. 161; Cicognara 3791-3792; Olschki 17589; Poggendorff II, 134; Rossetti 7022-7023c; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 219.

Poetry, fortune, and gambling. The Spello-Game.

220. [Spello?]

Vago e diletteuole giuoco della diuitia di Spello. Illustrated manuscript on paper, in Italian. Spello (?), end of the seventeenth century- beginning of the eighteenth century.

273x205 mm. 34 leaves. Complete. Four quires. Collation: 18 (the first blank leaf used as front pastedown), 2-38, 410. Blanks: 1/1, 1/2r, 4/10. Contemporary inked foliation in the upper outer corner (used here). Written in brown ink in a unique hand, in neat cursive. Twelve vignettes drawn in brown ink; twelve full-page ink drawings within rectangular frames, partly coloured in brown, red, and greenish wash; some details in red- and brown-pencil heightening. Contemporary cardboards, smooth spine. Covers rather abraded and stained, corners and spine worn. In a marbled cardboard box, leather spine with title and the note 'M.S. XVII SEC.' lettered in gilt. An unsophisticated manuscript, some stains and spots, numerous traces of use. On the recto of the first leaf the note 'Perugia', in a different early hand.

Illustration

The first section of the manuscript contains twelve vignettes, drawn in brown ink in popular style, depicting views and monuments of Spello and supplemented with captions, mainly in Italian vernacular. The subjects are as follows, as indicated by the inked captions:

fol. 3r: 'Colonia Iulia di Spello detta di Giulio Cesare' (below a Latin note 'Vel Hijspellum fuit prima Ciuitas per Ianum, id est Noè, Vmbria aedificata Vel Gornualia Hijspellum vocaretur – cornu Vallis per translationem');

fol. 3v: 'Antica Porta Venere. descritta con tre porte, e due Torri dalle bande, dall'Architetto Sebastiano Serlio Bolognese nel loco 3.° dell'Antichità';

fol. 4r: 'Carcere di Orlando Vicino alla Porta Venere di Spello, come ne scriue il detto Serlio Bolognese nelle sue Antichità';

fol. 4v: 'Misura di Orlando Nipote di Carlo Magno Imperatore, come nelle Mura di Spello nella publica Strada, che ua uerso Assisi';

fol. 5r: 'Antico Campo da Combattere Nel Territorio di Spello uicino la Via Flaminia, della cui antica virtù bellica ne fa anco mentione Silio Italico libro terzo Belli Punici';

fol. 5v: 'Antico Vocabolo Poeta al Colle uicino à Spello detto da Propertio Poeta, doue egli aueua la sua Villa Suburbium Propertij';

fol. 6r: 'Bagno del Fiume Clitunno dato à Spellani da Augusto Imperatore Oggi detto le Vene di Pissiniano';

fol. 6v: 'Nobile Antico Mausoleo uicino Spello circondato de Fenestrelle, doue Erano i lumi perpetui, oggi fatto Tempio alla Virgine Maria';

fol. 7r: 'Cerere Dea Rappresentata in Spello Con due Cornucopij per dimostrare l'abbondanza dell'antico Spello';

fol. 7v: 'Antiche tre Statue Gradi Consolari Poste nella uia Flaminia sopra la Porta principale di Spello';

fol. 8r: 'Antico Anfiteatro di Spello Colonia amplissima de Romani posto in mezzo alla gran Valle Spoletana, doue conueniuano tutti i Popoli dell'Umbria ai Spettacoli';

fol. 8v: 'Portone ò Arco uicino à Spello nella publica strada che ua uerso Assisi, doue con bel gioco uedrai se sei legitimo, ò no'.

The second part of the manuscripts contains twelve full-page drawings, in the same technique and style, depicting poets originating from Spello, with the indication of their names. The subjects are as follows:

fol. 9r: 'Il Poeta Mauro'

fol. 11r: 'Il Poeta Propertio'

fol. 13r: 'Il Poeta Vetruuio'

fol. 15r: 'Il Poeta Olorino'

fol. 21r: 'Il Poeta Dandola'

fol. 23r: 'Il Poeta Angelini'

fol. 25r: 'Il Poeta Gentile'

fol. 27r: 'Il Poeta Barbagnacca'

fol. 29r: 'Il Poeta Cecchi'

fol. 31r: 'Il Poeta Marcorelli'

fol. 17r: ‘Il Poeta Sforza'

fol. 19r: ‘Il Poeta Venantio'

An unrecorded, and extremely interesting variant of fortune-telling book, a genre that enjoyed wide popularity during the Renaissance. Manuscript versions of this game are all of the greatest rarity, owing to the fragility of supports and their extensive use at social occasions.

This manuscript is an adaption of the structure and rules of the game as developed in the Libro della Ventura of Lorenzo Spirito (ca. 1425-1496; see nos. 42 and 202) from Perugia, the first fortune-telling book produced in Italy which served as a source of inspiration for numerous later compilations, in print as well as in manuscript. Here the readers wandered not among celestial spheres, prophets, kings or philosophers, but rather among the history and cultural tradition of Spello in Umbria, the ancient Roman colony known as Hispellum. In fact, the anonymous author who produced – according to the title inscribed on the verso of the second leaf – this Vago, e diletteuole giuoco della diuitia di Spello sought to celebrate the ancient monuments of Spello, as well as the numerous poets born in this small Italian city over the centuries, such as the illustrious Propertius.

The game rules are explained in the preliminary pages. The players were to choose one of the questions listed ('Partiti da Proponersi dal Signore') pertaining to health, wealth, career, business, travel, and happiness in love and marriage. They then threw two dice and proceeded to locate the cast result in the following twelve tables of diagrams, each bearing, at the centre, a drawn vignette showing views or monuments of Spello. The diagrams would guide players to twelve sections of quatrains which provided answers to the chosen questions, each of them introduced by a full-page drawing depicting a poet born in Spello. Remarkably, the Spello-game – which doubles as a gambling game – also involves a stake with pecuniary value (called in the preliminary instructions Tesoro, and managed by a Tesoriere, or banker): in the quatrains the prediction of future events is therefore supplemented, in the final verse, with the notice of an amount to be payed or cashed out.

The last drawings portray poets active in the seventeenth century, a feature that allows us to date the execution of the present manuscript to the end of that century. In particular, the drawing on the recto of fol. 31 depicts the poet and musician Giovanni Francesco Marcorelli, who was an organist in the Collegiata Santa Maria at Spello between 1627-1634, and then active as maestro di cappella in the oratory of the Church of Santa Maria Nova in Rome. He also composed some oratories – in the present manuscript he is even shown writing a musical score – and he died around 1656.

T. De Marinis, “Le illustrazioni per il Libro de le Sorte di Lorenzo Spirito”, Idem, Appunti e ricerche bibliografiche, Milano 1940, pp. 67-83; M. Sensi – L. Sensi, “Fragmenta hispellatis historiae. 1. Istoria della terra di Spello, di Fausto Gentile Donnola”, Bollettino storico della città di Foligno, 8 (1984), pp. 7-136; A. Tini Brunozzi, “Appunti sulla toponomastica spellana”, ibid., 19 (1995), pp. 299-329; L. Nadin, Carte da gioco e letteratura fra Quattro e Ottocento, Lucca 1997; G. Proietti Bocchino, Spello città d'arte, Perugia 2011; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 220.

A defence of Raphael and Carracci, printed on blue paper

221. Victoria, Vicente (1658-1712)

Osseruazioni sopra il libro della Felsina pittrice per la difesa di Raffaello da Urbino, dei Caracci, e della loro scuola. Publicate, e diuise in sette lettere.... Gaetano Zenobi, 1703.

8° (198x129 mm). Printed on blue paper. 114, [2] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Large engraved vignette with the coat of arms of Pope Clement XI on the title-page, rendered by Victoria. Full-page engraving showing a hand sharpening a quill above a copy of Malvasia's Felsina pittrice, with the inscription in a cartouche 'VT SCRIBAT NON FERIAT', likewise after Victoria. Fine woodcut head- and tailpieces; numerous woodcut decorated initials. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, title in gold on painted lettering-piece. Covers restored. A fine copy, a few minor stains to the title-page. Light foxing in places, some fingermarks.

Provenance: armorial ex-libris on the title-page, including six bees; below the inked letters 'B. D. M.'.

A handsome copy – printed on blue paper – of this work by the Spanish painter, printmaker, and canon Vicente Victoria y Gastaldo. Born in Valencia, Victoria was primarily active in Rome, and known under the Italianised name of Vittorio Vincente. A protégé of the Albani family, he was appointed, in 1703, as antiquarian to Pope Clement XI, whose coat of arms is engraved on the title-page of this edition, likewise printed in 1703. Victoria amassed a notable library and a large collection of classical antiquities.

He published the Osservazioni in defence of Raphael and Annibale Carracci, whose styles had been criticised as 'dry and lifeless' by Count Carlo Cesare Malvasia (1616-1693) in his Felsina Pittrice of 1678 (see no. 216), the biographical work on Bolognese painters, and one of the most relevant sources for the history of Italian painting. Victoria had perceived in Malvasia's treatise an anti-Roman bias: as is well known, in a few copies of the Felsina Pittrice Malvasia had referenced Raphael – in a passage related to the Vatican Stanze – as the boccalaio di Urbino, i.e., the 'potter from Urbino', an expression which was later changed to ‘the great Raphael' in the definitive issue.

The 1703 publication is famous for including a full-page engraving, executed after a drawing of Victoria himself, depicting a hand sharpening a quill close to a copy of Malvasia's treatise, and surmounted by the caption VT SCRIBAT NON FERIAT', i.e., 'May it write, not strike'.

This copy of Victoria's Osservazioni is printed on blue paper, indicating that this precious volume was gifted by its author to an as yet unidentified but evidently prominent figure.

E. Páez, Repertorio de Grabados Españoles, Madrid 1981; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 221.

Festival culture in Baroque Palermo

222. Vio, Ignazio de (1659-1749)

L’Emporio delle glorie palermitane, o vero il compendio di molti pregi della Città di Palermo, consecrato a S. Rosalia Vergine Palermitana, nella solennità di quest’anno 1704.... Domenico Cortese, 1704.

4° (183x129 mm). [4], 138, [2] pages. Four engraved folding plates, signed 'D. Paulus Amato Ingignerius inventor'. Decorated woodcut initials and tailpieces. Modern gilt-tooled morocco. A good copy, some foxing and staining. Upper margin slightly trimmed but not affecting the text. Some marginal repairs, small restored hole on fol. D8, with loss of a few letters.

First edition of this work describing the magnificent religious festival held in Palermo in 1704 in honour of the city's patron saint, St. Rosalia, who, according to local tradition, had saved the city from the plague (see no. 204). The text is attributed in the dedicatory epistle to the Jesuit Ignazio de Vio, teacher of theology, mathematics, and Hebrew. Between 1693 and 1704 he published several works on the festival of Santa Rosalia, which, initiated in 1625, began on 12 July and lasted four days. The cult of the patron saint was strongly supported by the Jesuits, who were directly involved – as this publication testifies – in the organisation of processions and other festivities.

The volume is supplemented with four fine plates, which are signed by the leading architect, engineer, and painter Paolo Amato (1634-1714), the designer and inventor of all the spectacular ephemeral structures or apparati. Amato was in charge of the fabulous decorations for almost all festivities commissioned by the Senate of Palermo between the 1680s and 1714, the year of his death. One of the folding plates is especially impressive: it measures 1098 mm in length, and shows a procession of chariots looking like galleons. The other plates are also of great interest, depicting various ephemeral structures used in the festival, such as an incredible firework machine built as a castle on an island surrounded by boats and elaborate church apparati.

“Con la llegada de la dinastia Borbón al solio español, el festino se enriquecerà con nuovos tipos de decoración; en los palacios públicos y privados, arcos triumfales, etc. Así los vemos en las últimas celebraciones del Palermo español, entre 1701 y 1713 [...] En 1704 el carro de la santa fue sostituido por un simulacro del Bucintoro de Venecia y la máquina de fuegos se presentó come un castillo sobre una isla, rodeado de barcos” (La fiesta barroca, p. 123).

Melzi I, 355; Biblioteca centrale della Regione siciliana “Alberto Bombace”, Sanctae Rosaliae Dicata, Bibliografia cronologica su Santa Rosalia, September 2004, p. 58; S. di Fede, “La festa barocca a Palermo: città, architetture, istituzioni”, Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, series VII, 18-19 (2005-2006), p. 65; M. Cornelles, V. Manuel et al. (eds.), La fiesta barroca. Los reinos de Nápoles y Sicilia (1535-1713), Palermo 2014, pp. 111-123; F. Checa Cremades - L. Férnandez-González, Festival Culture in the World of the Spanish Habsburgs, Farnham 2015, pp. 229-231; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 222.

A very scarce 1710 re-issue of the first edition (1687)

223. Hope, William (1660- 1724)

The Compleat Fencing-Master: in which is fully describ’d all the guards, parades and lessons belonging to the small-sword; as, also the best rules for playing against either Artists or others, with blunts or sharps. Together With Directions how to Behave in Single Combat on Horse-Back: Illustrated with Figures Engraven on Copper-Plates, representing the most necessary Postures... The third edition. W. Taylor, [1687]-1710.

Small 8° (152x90 mm). [22], 197 [i.e. 167], [17] pages. Title-page is a cancel. Twelve engraved folding plates. Nineteenth-century English calf, covers within double blind-ruled frame. Spine with five raised bands, title on morocco lettering-piece. Red edges. A good copy, some light browning throughout, margins somewhat trimmed.

Provenance: John Whitefoord Mackenzie (1794-1884; engraved armorial ex-libris on the front pastedown). He was a member of the Society of Writers to His Majesty's Signet.

The exceedingly rare 1710 re-issue – after the editions which appeared in 1687, 1691 and 1692 – of this treatise by Sir William Hope, indicated on the title-page as 'Lieutenant Governor of the Castle of Edinburgh'. Hope is the author of many works on fencing, but the The Compleat Fencing-Master is undoubtedly his most complete and important treatise, as well as the first book on this topic to be published in Britain. A true manual for fencers, the text clearly epitomises the body of practical knowledge surrounding the discipline and remained the standard textbook until the end of the eighteenth century.

This 1710 publication is basically a re-issue of the first 1687 edition, the only one bearing the title The Scots Fencing-Master. The title-page was recomposed with a new title and imprint, while the rest of the book – as the running title 'The Scots Fencing Master' attests – belonged to the 1687 edition, whose unsold copies were thus offered for sale with a new title after twenty-three years. The first quire is composed of eleven leaves, owing to the fact that in the 1687 edition the title had been printed on two leaves, and are replaced here by only one.

The 1710 re-issue is unknown to most of the specialised bibliography. Over his lifetime, John Whitefoord MacKenzie, the former owner of the present copy, assembled a fine collection of early Scottish books, most of which are distinguishable by his bookplate. His library was sold by Thomas Chapman & Son in two sales in 1886. A good number of his books are now in the National Library of Scotland.

ESTC N27837; Pardoel 1282; C. A. Thimm, A Complete Bibliography of Fencing and Duelling, London 1896, p. 138; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 223.

A fine association copy, gifted by the author to the Italian historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio

224. Vallisneri, Antonio (1661-1730)

Opere diverse... cioe: I. Istoria del Camaleonte Affricano, e di varj Animali d’Italia. II. Lezione Accademica intorno all’Origine delle Fontane. III. Raccolta di varj Trattati accresciuti con Annotazioni, e con Giunte. Giovanni Gabriele Hertz, 1715.

Three parts in one volume, 4° (231x156mm). [12, including frontispiece], 200; [8], 87, [1]; [4], 261, [3] pages; complete with the last blank leaf. Engraved author's portrait as a frontispiece. Thirty engraved folding plates. Contemporary vellum, ink title on the spine. Marbled edges. A very good copy, pale waterstains to the lower outer margin, small wormholes to the gutter of a few leaves, without any loss.

Provenance: Antonio Vallisneri, given as a gift by him to the Italian scholar and historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio (1695-1756; see Vallisneri's dedication on the recto of the first leaf, 'All'Illmo P.R.D. Francesco Xauerio Quadrio della Comp.a di Gesù L'Authore in segno de riuerentiss.ma Stima, e di eterne obbligazioni').

First edition of this collection of Vallisneri's writings on natural history, offered here in a fine copy gifted by him to the renowned Italian historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio, who is especially well-known for his Della storia e della ragione di ogni poesia, a voluminous history of poetry, theatre, and music.

Antonio Vallisneri was born at Trassilico, in Garfagnana, on 3 May 1661. His education initially followed the traditional path of the Jesuit schools – a path reserved for the sons of the 'best' families of the day. In 1682, he started attending Bologna University, where he became one of Malpighi's students. In 1685, he was awarded a degree from the College of Reggio (Emilia), after which he extended his practical knowledge and experience in Venice, Padua and Parma. He subsequently returned to his homeland, where he practised his profession and simultaneously initiated an extremely intense period of natural history studies. Vallisneri's works and observations evince an original interpretation of the themes and perspectives of the Galileian medical tradition followed by Malpighi and Redi and were positioned along the most advanced front of the debates between natural history and life science that were then under way in Europe. Vallisneri was inclined to set his scientific hypotheses within a general theoretical framework although maintained a Baconian respect for empirical data, and he committed himself to overcoming the limits of Cartesian dualism and mechanism, first with reference to Malebranchian thought and then to that of Leibniz. His teachings were based on his meticulous observations of natural science, particularly in the fields of entomology and comparative anatomy; he was convinced that scientific knowledge is best acquired through experience and reasoning, and this principle was followed in his anatomical dissections and carefully drawn descriptions of insects.

Vallisneri's research into reproduction demonstrated the non-existence of spontaneous generation and anticipated evolutionist theory.

In the collection presented here the Lezione Accademica intorno all'Origine delle Fontane is especially noteworthy. The lucidity of Vallisneri's experimental approach makes it a perfect example of the Galileian method.

Garrison-Morton, 302; Pritzel 9675; M. Sabia, Le opere di Antonio Vallisneri medico e naturalista reggiano (1661-1730). Bibliografia ragionata, Rimini 1996, pp. 106-120; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 224.

The South Sea Bubble

225. Baston, Thomas (fl. 18th century)

Thoughts on Trade, and a Publick Spirit. Consider’d under the Following Heads, viz. I. Companies in Trade. II. Stock-jobbers. III. Projectors. IV. Corruptions in the Law and Public Offices. V. Of a Public Spirit.... Printed for the Author, 1716.

8° (189x114 mm). [16], 212 pages. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary English mottled calf, over pasteboards. Boards within gilt fillets, spine with five raised bands, underlined by gilt fillets. Title in gold on lettering-piece. Upper joint split at the head, corners lightly damaged. A very good copy, somewhat spotted and browned; waterstaining on the last leaves, a few fingermarks. The lower blank corner of fol. C3 is lacking, without any loss. Two marginal notes on fols. G6v and I1r referring to the Appendix.

The first edition of this essay by the Tory Thomas Baston, dedicated – as the title-page states – 'to all Lovers of their Country'. Thoughts on Trade is one of the most interesting works on political economics in Early Modern Britain: an invective against stock-jobbers, projectors, fraud, financial degeneracy or corruption, and an acute warning about stock market bubbles: the South Sea Bubble occurred in 1720, owing to the financial exploits of John Law (1671-1729) and the failure of his system, causing bankruptcy and ruin especially in France, England, and the Netherlands.

The work was issued entirely anonymously, although it was entered into the Stationers' Register under Baston's name. In 1732 the work was published under the author's name, with the new title Observations on Trade and a Publick.

Baston was active in London as a printmaker. In 1710 he was incarcerated for six years in the Kings Bench prison for debt. Thoughts on Trade contains a large section entitled Case of the poor Debtors, which reflects his first-hand experience.

Goldsmiths 5282; Kress 2981; Hanson, Contemporary Printed Sources for British and Irish Economic History 2217; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 225.

Musical instruments in the Museum Kircherianum

226. Bonanni, Filippo (1638-1725)

Gabinetto Armonico pieno d’Istromenti sonori indicati, e spiegati dal padre Filippo Bonanni della Compagnia di Giesù offerto al santo re David. Giorgio Placho, 1722.

4° (240x175 mm). [16], 177, [1, with the errata] pages. Frontispiece engraved by Giovanni Battista Sintes after Stefano Spargioni containing an excerpt from Psalm 150. A portrait of King David with a harp engraved by Arnold Van Westerhout after Spargioni, and 151 full-page engraved plates depicting musical instruments. The plates are numbered I-CXLVIII; two plates are numbered XII-XIII and XIII-XIV; numbers XXIX and LXXVIII are repeated; two plates are not numbered (pp. 94 and 138); pl. CIII is misplaced before p. 131. Plate no. XXXIII (p. 80) is folding and depicts the magnificent organ at Palazzo Verospi in Roma. The unsigned plates are attributed to Van Westerhout and Spargioni. Woodcut title vignette, elaborate woodcut initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary mottled calf, covers within triple gilt fillet. Spine with five raised bands, gilt-tooled; title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Marbled flyleaves, red edges. Spine damaged, joints heavily restored. A good, genuine copy. Very light browning throughout, some plates more heavily browned.

First edition of the earliest attempt to describe and depict every known musical instrument from ancient times up to the period in which the author lived, and one of the most important eighteenth-century sources for the history of musical instruments. The edition is presented in the issue supplemented with the final Aggiunta containing seven additional pages of text and twelve more plates; the errata on the recto of the final leaf, which replaces the errata leaf that was bound in the first issue after fol. X5v, is also augmented with three new entries.

The author of this work, the Jesuit Filippo Bonanni, was chief librarian at the Collegio Romano, and succeeded his teacher Athanasius Kircher as Professor of Mathematics. He was also responsible for the Museum Kircherianum, and this volume presents the important collection of musical instruments once assembled in this museum. Bonanni describes a total of 151 ancient and modern instruments, including examples from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and America: among others, violas, violins, mandolins, and Spanish guitars; oboes, tubas, and double-flutes; bagpipes, bird calls, and clam-castanets; serpentone, palla di bronzo, xilorgano, and zampogne; Jewish, Roman, Chinese and Persian horns; and other exotic instruments like the 'Tamburro de Batam', and the 'Instrumento di Affricani'. Several instruments are also related to the New World, such as the 'Trombo della Florida'. The double-folding plate shows the 'Galleria armonica', i.e., the elaborate multi-keyboard built by Michele Todino and held at that time in the Roman palace of 'Signor Verospi'.

The present book, reprinted in 1723, was Bonanni's last publication.

RISM B-6, p. 161; Hirsch IV, 1476; The New Grove, 3, p. 14; A. Mayer-Deutsch, Das Musaeum Kircherianum. Kontemplative Momente, historische Rekonstruktion, Bildrhetorik, Zürich 2010; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 226.

The Magnificence of Venice

227. Graevius, Johann Georg (1632-1703)

Splendor Magnificentissimae Urbis Venetiarum Clarissimus; E Figuris elegantissimis, & accurata Descriptione emicans; In Duas Partes distributus.... Peter Van der Aa, 1722.

Two parts in one volume, folio (393x243 mm). [18], 242; [4], 247-324, 324a-324k, 362, 362a, 363, 363a, 364, 364a, 365, 365a, 366, 366a, 367, 367a, 368, 368a, 369-419, [1] pages. Title-pages printed in red and black, with engraved vignettes. One large folding bird's-eye view of Venice (475x1075 mm), one folding chart of the city (490x570 mm), and 115 double-page plates (395x440 mm), all engraved. Contemporary polished calf, covers within triple gilt fillet. Spine with six raised bands, richly gilt; title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Marbled flyleaves. Edges marbled. Covers slightly worn and rubbed, front joint partly open. A fine, wide-margined copy, with a very good impression of the plates. Slightly uniformly browned.

First edition of this lavishly illustrated book, which was issued as part of the monumental publication Thesaurus antiquitatum et historiarum Italiae (it is part Secunda and Tertia of the fifth volume) and edited by the German scholar Johann Georg Graevius, a disciple of Daniel Heinsius in Leiden. From 1662 Graevius taught rhetoric, history, and politics at the University of Utrecht, and was well known for his editions of Latin classics as well as the great collection Thesaurus antiquitatum Romanarum.

The forty-five volume Thesaurus antiquitatum et historiarum Italiae was published posthumously by the Leiden printer Vander Aa between 1704 and 1725. Graevius was able to edit only the first six volumes; his pupil Pieter Burmann was responsible for the remaining thirty-nine.

The fine illustrative apparatus supplementing the present volume shows the monuments of Venice, as well as popular and religious festivals, regattas, ceremonies, processions, and parades. The engravings are mainly based on images by Vincenzo Coronelli and Luca Carlevarijs, while the texts are mostly taken from the work of Domenico Martinelli.

These views of Venice were re-issued by Peter Vander Aa in his La galerie agréable du monde (Leiden 1729), and again in 1762 by Cornelis Haak under the title Vües des palais.

Cassini, 69-70; Cicogna 4478; J. Martineau - A. Robinson (eds.), The Glory of Venice: Art in the Eighteenth Century, London 1994; P. G. Hoftijzer, Pieter van der Aa (1659-1733). Leids drukker en boekverkoper, Hilversum 1999; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 227.

The vehicle by which the concept of historical development at last entered the thought of Western Europe — PMM

229. Giambattista Vico (1668-1744)

Principj di una scienza nuova intorno alla natura delle nazioni per la quale si ritrovano i principj di altro sistema del diritto naturale delle genti. All’Eminentiss. Principe Lorenzo Corsini amplissimo Cardinale dedicati. Felice Mosca, 1725.

12° (147x78 mm). 270, [12] pages. Small woodcut ornament on the title-page. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, with yapp edges. Traces of ties, title inked on the spine, renewed flyleaves. A good, clean copy. Small, almost invisible tears in the text, skilfully repaired.

The first edition of the most influential work by the great Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico, whose name appears in the dedication to Cardinal Lorenzo Corsini (the future Pope Clement XII) dated 8 May 1725. Here Vico develops the theory that human history is cyclical. As such, he may be considered the intellectual predecessor of modern philosophers of history such as Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee; his theories on history and religion were also used by James Joyce. “Vico inherited the conception of a cyclical pattern in history, an idea revived in our own day by Spengler and Toynbee [...] it was only in the 19th century that he was rediscovered and his influence has greatly increased since [...] Benedetto Croce has done much to spread the knowledge of Vico's contribution to historical scholarship [...]. The 'Principles of a New Science regarding the Character of Nations' [is] the vehicle by which the concept of historical development at last entered the thought of Western Europe” (PMM).

The 1725 edition was issued in about 1,000 copies on normal paper, and a dozen others were printed on special paper with wide margins. After the dedicatee, Lorenzo Corsini, declined to cover the publication expenses, the philosopher was forced to pay the costs himself; he attempted to condense the text as much as possible but still ended up having to sell a five-carat diamond ring to raise enough money. Vico was also directly involved in the distribution of the book. He personally gave copies of the first edition of the Scienza nuova to friends, and – as we know from his correspondence – he sent copies to pre-eminent European contemporaries, such as Jean Leclerc in Amsterdam, Johann Burckhard Mencke in Leipzig, Charles-Louis Montesquieu in Paris, and Isaac Newton in London.

The edition was sold out immediately, and in 1729 copies were sold for two gold scudi. As Vico states in his Vita “dentro tre anni dalla sua stampa si era fatta rarissima per l'Italia, e se alcuna se ne ne ritruovava, comperavasi a carissimo prezzo” (G. B. Vico, Opere filosofiche, Firenze 1971, p. 47).

Several copies of this edition bear manuscript corrections in the hands of the printer, close collaborators, or Vico himself, as the latter went through as many copies as he could to offer the most correct version of the text.

The present copy contains textual emendations in Italian, which are certainly authorial, added on Vico's behalf in the printing house, emending misprints or inserting words omitted by the compositor: this is the case of the corrections indicated in the margins of fols. C6r, C6v, C7r, H3r, L5r, and M2r. Similar corrections are visible in other recorded copies of the 1725 edition, but in variable numbers, and the list of authorial emendations given in 1931 by Fausto Nicolini as an appendix to the edition of the Scienza nuova is merely partial; it does not include, for example, the corrections indicated, in this copy, in the margins of fols. C6v, C7r and M2r.

This copy contains another extremely uncommon feature, found in only a handful of copies that were generally sent as gifts to distinguished figures or patrons: on the verso of the last leaf of text (fol. M8v) the printer Mosca has skilfully pasted – always on Vico's behalf – a paper slip covering lines 11-13 which contained numerous misprints; the three lines, recomposed, were reprinted on the slip.

B. Croce - F. Nicolini, Bibliografia vichiana, Napoli 1947, pp. 34-41; PMM 184; G. B. Vico, La scienza nuova prima, ed. F. Nicolini, Bari 1931, pp. 325-336; Idem, Principj di una scienza nuova intorno alla natura delle nazioni. Ristampa anastatica dell'edizione 1725, ed. T. Gregory, Roma 1979, pp. 10-15; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 229.

in carta Turchina con Rami cinabrio — Libri Stampati da Giuseppe Bettinelli

230. Valaresso, Zaccaria (1686-1769)

Rutzvanscad il Giovine. Arcisopratragichissima Tragedia. Elaborata ad uso del buon gusto de’ Grecheggianti Compositori da Cattuffio Panchianio Bubulco Arcade. Giuseppe Bettinelli, 1737.

8° (204x138 mm). CXXXV, [1] pages. Printed on blue paper. Engraved allegorical frontispiece in orange ink, counted in the foliation. On the title-page engraved vignette in orange ink. Two engraved initials and headpieces printed in orange. Nine full-page satirical copperplates, counted in the foliation and printed in red and orange ink; the engraving on fol. C4r is repeated on fol. F1v. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, with inked title, partly faded, traces of an earlier lettering-piece; minor losses to the foot of spine and lower cover. Green silk bookmark. A beautiful copy, ink stains to the lower inner corner of the last two leaves, not affecting the text.

Provenance: Isidore-Justin-Séverin baron Taylor (1789-1879; on the recto of the front flyleaf cutting taken from his sale catalogue, Catalogue de la bibliothèque dramatique de feu le baron Taylor: vente, Paris, 28, rue des Bons-Enfants, 27 novembre-13 décember 1893, lot 2262).

An extraordinary copy, printed on blue paper, of this 'ultra-super-tragical tragedy' (P. Monnier, Venice in the Eighteenth Century, p. 34). Valaresso's tragedia satirizes the contemporary tragic dramaturgy, and in particular the inflated and tearful Ulisse il giovane (The Young Ulysses) by Domenico Lazzarini, first performed in 1718. The plot takes place in the fictional capital of Nova Zembla, the domain of the protagonist Rutzvanscad, King of China, and governed by two dictators, mockingly named – with obscene wordplay – Tettinculusso and Culicutidonia. The Rutzvanscad il Giovine originally appeared in Bologna in 1722 printed by Ferdinando Pisarri, but the present third edition is the first and only edition to be supplemented with illustrations. Of this tragedy two issues are known: an ordinary issue on white paper and illustrated in black, and a deluxe issue in carta Turchina con Rami cinabrio – as Giuseppe Bettinelli states in the catalogue of his publications included at the end of the volume (fol. I4r). The text is illustrated with ten full-page copperplates (one repeat), exceptionally printed in the present copy in orange and red ink. The depicted scenes poke fun at tragedies based on the Greek model, which are based on horrible events and far removed from contemporary life. The first plate introduces the charlatan 'Astrologa di Piazza', while the last one shows the prompter explaining that the characters 'Son tutti morti' ('are all dead'). These engravings are unsigned, but Eleonor Garvey suggests they may be the work of Gaetano Zompini (see no. 249).

Furthermore the volume has a very appropriate provenance, having once been held in the library of the famous French dramatist and traveller Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor, whose influential role in the cultural life of Paris led him to be known as the 'Father of Artists'. In 1825 he was made Royal Commissioner of the Theatre Français, where he opened the door to the Romantic movement, by supporting the work of Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas.

Allacci 686; Gamba 2297; Lancetti, Pseudonimia, 58.; Melzi I, 189 ('faceto critico-satirico componimento'); Lapiccirella, Libri illustrati veneziani del XVIII secolo, no. 244; Lanckoronska, Venezianische Buchgraphik, 72; Morazzoni, Il libro illustrato veneziano del Settecento, p. 221; P. Monnier, Venice in the Eighteenth Century, Boston 1910; E.M. Garvey, “Some Venetian Illustrated Books of the Eighteen Century in the Harvard College Library”, Bulletin du bibliophile, 2 (1999), pp. 293-312; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 230.

The Soranzo-Smith copy, printed on large blue paper

231. Svetonius Tranquillus, Gaius (70-126)

Le vite de’ dodici Cesari... Tradotte in volgar Fiorentino da F. Paolo Del Rosso Cavalier Gerosolomitano. Nuova edizione con le vere effigie de’ Cesari Ed altre illustrazioni.... Francesco Piacentini, 1738.

Folio (296x215 mm). Printed on blue paper. [2], XIX, [1], 377, [3] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Title-page printed in red and black. Half-title within a frame executed and signed by John Baptist Jackson (1701-ca.1780). Woodcut vignette on the title-page, fine cul-de-lampe. Each Vita is introduced by a large woodcut medallion portrait, from the series executed by the Flemish artist Hubert Goltzius (1526-1583). Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with five raised bands, double morocco lettering-piece, title and imprint lettered in gilt. Gilt edges. A very fine, wide-margined copy, printed on strong paper, partly uncut.

Provenance: the Venetian senator Giacomo Soranzo (1686-1761; ownership inscription on the recto of the front flyleaf, '1743 Di Giano Soranzo'); the British Consul in Venice Joseph Smith (1682-1770; large ex-libris on the front pastedown; his sale Bibliotheca Smithiana, Venice 1755, p. CCCLVIII, “la stessa, tradotta dal suddetto, con le vere Effigie de' Cesari (cavate da Goltzio) ed altre illustrazioni. Ven. per Francesco Piasentini [sic] 1738. 4. c. gr. turchina. leg. Oll.”). On the rear pastedown a cutting taken from an unidentified sale catalogue 'Splendida copia, una delle poche stampate in carta grigia. Leg. orig. in piena perg. taglio dorato, Con un belliss. Ex-libris di Joseph' Smith, Britisch Consul, ad venice'.

A superb copy, printed on strong blue paper, of this famous historical work, divided into eight books and containing the biographies of twelve Roman emperors, from Julius Caesar to Domitianus.

The well-known artist John Baptist Jackson (1701- ca.1780) is responsible for the fine border framing the half-title. The portraits of Roman Emperors, or “le vere effigie dei Cesari” – as the Venetian printer Piacentini states in his preliminary address – are by anonymous designers and engravers, and closely reproduce the outline of Hubert Goltzius' series of medallions, originally executed in chiaroscuro, which first appeared in the volume Vivae omnium Imperatorum Imagines, published in Antwerp in 1557.

The volume has a very distinguished provenance, having once belonged to Joseph Smith, refined lover of paintings and books, and Canaletto's patron (see no. 232). He spent his life in Venice, and in 1740 was named British Consul of the city. Smith's library was sold at auction in 1755, while his celebrated art collection was purchased by King George III in 1762.

Previously this fine copy of the Le vite de' dodici Cesari had been in the possession of the Venetian patrician and senator of the Serenissima Giacomo Soranzo, one of the greatest collectors of books printed on blue paper.

Brunet V, p. 584; Gamba 1669; Morazzoni, Il libro illustrato veneziano del Settecento, p. 255 (listing only the octavo edition); J. Kainen, J. B. Jackson, 18th Century Master of the Color Woodcut, Washington, DC 1962, p. 29; M. Zorzi, “La stampa, la circolazione del libro”, Storia di Venezia, dalle origini alla caduta della Serenissima, VIII, pp. 801-860; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 231.

A spectacular wide-margined and complete set of Canaletto etchings, in a contemporary binding together with a series by Marieschi

232. Canaletto, Antonio Canal called (1697-1768) - Marieschi, Michele (1710-1743)

Vedute Altre prese da i Luoghi altre ideate da Antonio Canal e da esso intagliate poste in prospetiva umiliate All’Ill.mo Signor Giuseppe Smith Console di S.M. Britannica appresso la Ser.ma Repubblica di Venezia. In segno di stima ed ossequio. [Venice, Giambattista Pasquali, after June 1744]. (bound with:) Marieschi, Michele (1710-1743). Magnificentiores selectioresque Urbis Venetiarum prospectus, quos olim Michael Marieschi Venetus Pictor, et Architectus in plerisque tabulis depinxit. Nunc vero ab ipsomet acurate delineante, incidente, tijpisque mandante, iterum in sexdecim aeris tabulis in lucem aeduntur. Venice, at the author’s atelier, 1741.

Two works in one volume, large oblong folio (429x614mm). I. Thirty-one unnumbered etchings printed on eighteen leaves (for the different states see below). Bromberg nos. 1-11, 13-16, 18-33, as no. 12 is the undivided plate “Imaginary view of Venice”, known in only six impressions and later divided for unknown reasons by the artist into two plates (nos. 13 and 14), and as no. 17 is the small “Fragment of a Bishop's tomb” known only in one impression, at Windsor. Watermarks (both present on all sheets): three crescent moons with the letter 'A' (Bromberg, no. 22); stylized fleur-de-lis with the letters 'AS' (Bromberg, no. 43). II. Title-page bearing the portrait of the author drawn by Angelo Trevisani and etched by Carlo Orsolini, and twenty-one unnumbered views designed and etched by Marieschi, including the dedication to French nobleman Marc de Beauvau surmounted by a view of the Doge's Palace seen from the Canal Grande. Fine early impressions of the first state (of four) before numbering and with the plate of Campo San Rocco with its original baroque façade on the church. Watermarks (present alternatively): large crest with comet (star and flame), countermark: 'OLANDA'; comet (star and flame), countermark: initials 'FF' under coronet.

Contemporary Venetian vellum, over pasteboards. Covers within gilt floral frame. Spine in compartments decorated with gilt fleur-de-lis tool, title on red morocco lettering-piece. Marbled edges. Original flyleaves preserved bearing two watermarks: a bow and the initials 'AZc' (not mentioned in Bromberg). Corners slightly damaged, but very well preserved. A marvellous, wide-margined copy on thick paper, with very good impressions of the plates.

I. List of the thirty-one Canaletto etchings (ten in first state, eighteen in second, and three in third state, of variably 1, 2, 3 or 4 states):

1. Title plate “Vedute Altre prese da i Luoghi altre ideate...” (Bromberg 1, 2nd state of 2)

2. “La Torre di Malghera” (Bromberg 2, 2nd of 3)

3. “Mestre” (Bromberg 3, 1st of 2)

4. View of a Town on a River Bank (Bromberg 9, 1st of 2)

5. “Santa Giustina in Pra' della Valle” (Bromberg 7, 1st of 2)

6. “Prà della Valle” (Bromberg 8, 1st of 2)

7. “Alle Porte del Dolo” (Bromberg 5, 2nd of 3)

8. “Al Dolo” (Bromberg 4, 2nd of 3)

9. “Le Porte del Dolo” (Bromberg 6, 2nd of 3)

10. Imaginary View of Padua (Bromberg 11, 2nd of 3)

11. The Portico with the Lantern (Bromberg 10, 2nd of 3)

12. Imaginary View of Venice, two etchings on one leaf:
-The House with the Inscription (left half of undivided plate) (Bromberg 13, 1st of 1)
-The House with the Peristyle (right half of undivided plate) (Bromberg 14, 2nd of 2)

13. View of a Town with a Bishop's Tomb (Bromberg 16, 2nd of 2)

14. Four etchings on one leaf:
-“La Libreria” (Bromberg 18, 2nd of 3)
-“Le Procuratie” (Bromberg 25, 1st of 2)
-“La Piera del Bando” (Bromberg 19, 2nd of 3)
-“Le Preson” (Bromberg 21, 2nd of 3)

15. Four etchings on one leaf:
-The Terrace (Bromberg 24, 2nd of 3)
-The Market at Dolo (Bromberg 26, 3rd of 4)
-Imaginary View of S. Giacomo di Rialto (Bromberg 30, 1st of 2)
-The Market on the Molo (Bromberg 20, 3rd of 4)

16. Four etchings on one leaf:
-Landscape with the Pilgrim at Prayer (Bromberg 27, 3rd of 3)
-The Equestrian Monument (Bromberg 23, 1st of 1)
-Landscape with a Woman at a Well (Bromberg 29, 2nd of 3)
-Mountain Landscape with five Bridges (Bromberg 22, 2nd of 2)

17. Three etchings on one leaf:
-The Little Monument (Bromberg 33, 2nd of 2)
-The Bishop's Tomb (Bromberg 15, 1st of 1)
-The Wagon passing over a Bridge (Bromberg 32, 2nd of 2)

18. Two etchings on one leaf:
-Landscape with Ruined Monuments (Bromberg 31, 1st of 1)
-Landscape with Tower and two Ruined Pillars (Bromberg 28, 2nd of 2)

II. List of Marieschi etchings:

1. Title-page

2. “Prospectus Urbis Venetiarum”

3. “Foscarorum Aedes”

4. “Forum Maius et Basilica D. Marci”

5. “Templum S. Mariae Salutis”

6. “Forum olitorium”

7. “Forum maius D. Marci aliter Prospectum”

8. “Pisaurorum familiae Aedes ...”

9. “Pars Canalis Magni se extendens a laeva”

10. “Platea ac templum D.D. Ioannis et Paoli”

11. “Templum et platea F.F. Ord ...”

12. “Ingressus in Urbem venienti e Clodia”

13. “Platea D. Bassi et suum Templum”

14. “Canale ...”

15. “Forum Minus D. Marci ...”

16. “Pons Rivoalti”

17. “Magnificum Aedium Divalium”

18. “Prospectus Canalis magni ...”

19. “Magni Armamentari Venetiarum”

20. “Templum cum Platea S. Mariae Formosae”

21. “Forum Minus Divi Marci”

22. “Aedis Divi Rocchi”

An extraordinary set, including all of Canaletto's published etchings together with Marieschi's beautiful series of etched views, two of the most impressive eighteenth-century series of views of Venice and surrounding areas ever made.

The present volume represents both a stunning work of art and a remarkable historical artifact. Firstly, it is very rare to see such a 'holistic' and authentic presentation of Canaletto etchings – bound as a complete volume and housed in its original binding – become available on the market: it is far more typical to find made-up albums, with etchings amassed from various sources. Furthermore, the Canaletto set is bound with an impressive series by Marieschi, all fine early impressions in the first state (of four), and both sets feature wide, beautifully preserved margins. The sheet size is uniform across the volume; because the platemarks of the Marieschi series are wider than those of the Canaletto, this means that the Marieschi margins are wide, and the Canaletto margins are even wider – a truly remarkable feature for any Canaletto etching (which tend to have smaller, or even trimmed margins), let alone for a complete set!

As Bromberg observes, etching was extraordinarily well suited to Canaletto's painterly style, and the pains he bestowed on the plates is evident from his frequent use of re-biting. Whereas his paintings characteristically portrayed the grand buildings of Venice, in the etchings Canaletto expressed his love of the Venetian countryside with its humble buildings and poor inhabitants. Further, the Vedute reveal Canaletto's great inventiness, in continuous play between fantasy and reality, as some imaginary views of Venice (pl. 12, Bromberg 13 and 14), or 'invented' details such as the lantern (pl. 11, “The Portico with the Lantern” Bromberg 10) or the sign on the façade of a building (pl. 7, “Le Porte del Dolo”, Bromberg 6) attest.

The exact date of issue for Canaletto's series is unknown, but it appears most likely to have been between 1744 – the year in which Joseph Smith (ca. 1682-1770), the dedicatee of the series, was appointed British consul at Venice – and 1746, the year of Canaletto's departure from Venice to London. Only one etching, the “Imaginary View of Venice” (Bromberg no. 12 before the division of the plate, and then nos. 13-14 after the division) bears a date: 1741. Nevertheless, the production of the prints clearly extended over a period of several years, probably beginning around 1735, shortly after the publication of Visentini's series of engravings after Canaletto.

Joseph Smith was already an established collector, patron and art dealer before meeting and working with Canaletto around 1728, and had an active role supporting the leading publishing firm of Giambattista Pasquali (1702-1784). As such, it is no coincidence that Antonio Visentini's series of etchings, Prospectus Magni Canalis Venetiarum, all taken from Canaletto's paintings, was printed by Pasquali in 1735 (and, in a second enlarged edition, in 1742). It is probable that Canaletto began printmaking around this first publication in 1735, and that he may have even collaborated with Visentini to bring the latter's ambitious project to conclusion; the paper on which Canaletto's proof states were printed, seems to come from the same stock on which Visentini's series was published, i.e., from Pasquali's warehouse.

Canaletto started etching in a period when engraved views of Venice were becoming popular among tourists visiting Venice, as these buyers were attracted to their relative affordability compared to a painting of the same subject – and the ease with which they could be transported back over the Alps. Nevertheless, Smith probably commissioned the series from Canaletto without the intention of publishing and selling it to the same clientele who habitually purchased Canaletto's paintings. The publication of the etchings finally occurred only when Smith was appointed consul, in June 1744, as a tribute from Canaletto to his patron. The responsibility of printing was presumably given to Pasquali. Canaletto's total etched work consists of thirty-four plates, of which three are preserved as unique examples, and were excluded from the printed edition for unknown reasons. The etchings were published in both bound volumes, and were individually issued.

Differing plate sequences across bound volumes indicates that the decision regarding plate order was made by the printer, rather than the artist, and that the order of publication does not correspond to the order in which the etchings were created. A rough idea of order and date is nevertheless somewhat obtainable following the pioneering scholarship of Ruth Bromberg on Canaletto's printmaking. Through a comparative, qualitative study of different impressions, compiled albums, and the various watermarks of each sheet, one is able to establish an understanding regarding the dating and order of the artist's printed oeuvre.

In this copy, the order of the sheets containing more than one etching, corresponds to Bromberg's printing order D, which, as in the album she describes held at the Museo, Biblioteca, and Archivio of Bassano del Grappa, is associated with watermarks 22 and 43. The space (2-3 mm) between etchings nos. 13 and 14, which previously formed the undivided plate no. 12, is also consistent with the spacing found in the aforementioned album. Only the positioning of the four etchings in the sheet with “La Libreria”, “Le Procuratie”, “La Piera del Bando”, and “Le Preson”, differs from the three (D I-III) cited by Bromberg. Bromberg considers the printing of albums following order D as having been printed in the 1760s, presumably by Pasquali. As such it is probable that the copy presented here was printed sometime after the very first impressions of the 1740s, and before the late Remondini impressions of the 1770s.

Later publications of the series are known. The plates were re-issued by the Remondini family after Canaletto's death in 1768. These later Remondini editions are usually printed on a thinner paper bearing the watermark of the house, an 'R', and the signature and the title are also often erased alongside a decline in the quality of the impressions. According to their advertising catalogue of 1772, the Remondinis were then the owners of Canaletto's plates, but it is not known from whom they acquired them. When Consul Smith found himself in financial troubles in the late 1750s, he negotiated the sale of the entire warehouse of the Stamperia Pasquali to the booksellers Caraboli and Pompeati. The sale failed and presumably the plates remained with Pasquali, whereupon he republished them until Smith's death in 1770. We know that his widow sold the copperplates by Visentini to the publisher Ludovico Furlanetto, so we can presume that Remondini bought Canaletto's plates from her, shortly after the Consul's death in 1770. As stated above, the etchings made their first appearance in Remondini's 1772 catalogue; after 1778 the series was numbered.

“Canaletto brought to his etchings a painterly approach. The technique employed is not that of a professional etcher, but rather the painter, the fine draughtsman, working the etching needle with a certain freedom, much in the manner of drawings, the final aim being the achievement of 'colour'. Etching, which permits the artist the nervous strokes of a sketch, was a medium suited to Canaletto's temperament. His etchings owe much to the penwork of his drawings and the loosely handled short strokes, given contrast by variation of direction and intensity, produce luminous etchings in a distinctly individual style [...] Faced with a different technique, a new side of Canaletto's art emerges. Precluded is the instant vision of drawing, in its stead a laborious process begins. Each print becomes a challenge, and by comparing the states we have the possibility of following the artist's working method in his search for perfection. The innumerable additions and alterations make us realize with what infinite patience and love of detail Canaletto executed his plates. There is nothing casual about these etchings, the final result is meticulously sought after [...] Since the compositions are virtually complete after the first biting, the second [and following] state is characterized by technical precision [...] Although Canaletto's etched oeuvre is small, he obviously considered print-making an important activity in his life as an artist. [...] For his etchings, Canaletto found inspiration in portraying the Venetian countryside. The humble buildings and everyday occupations of its inhabitants took on the same poetic significance as the palaces and monuments of Venice. His most immediate concern to capture the atmosphere and particular illumination of the places portrayed is the quality which makes Canaletto's etchings outstanding” (Bromberg, pp. 5-13).

II. Like Canaletto, Marieschi was trained in his youth as both a stage designer and a stagehand. This experience is visible in all his productions; in the vedute paintings, which, over the years, became his main activity and interest, as well as in the engravings. Marieschi's series of etchings was published one year before the definitive edition of Antonio Visentini's Prospectus Magni Canalis Venetiarum came to light in 1742. At its appearance in 1741, the Magnificentiores selectioresque Urbis Venetiarum prospectus struck the audience with the power of a manifesto. Such exquisite quality and mastery of the etching technique, enhanced with bulino detailing, had never before been achieved. The precision with which all the details of the monuments were articulated and the illusory angular perspective of many of the views was unprecedented. To attain such incredible perspectives, Marieschi used a dark room with a quadrangular lens which created a visual field much wider than that of the human eye. If one compares Marieschi's views with the actual sites of the towns depicted, one is immediately struck by both the superb degree of detailing as well as the rather distorted perspectival frame.

Michele Marieschi dedicated himself to the art of etching only in the last years of his very short life; it was the perfect medium for making his skill as a vedutista known to a wider audience. Almost all of Marieschi's etchings are taken from his paintings, presumably with the purpose of promoting his own work. By this time, he was already enjoying a certain amount of popularity and was the protégé of the great art collector Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg, but had he not died so young, the series of etchings he published in 1741 would almost certainly have brought him far more commissions and general renown. The series was indeed very successful; it was reprinted several times and had a great impact on many contemporary vedutisti who based their paintings on Marieschi's etchings.

On 5 May 1741, Marieschi obtained the privilege for sixteen prints, as stated in the title-page of the series. He completed the remaining five plates in the short time preceding his death (18 January 1743). The plates were later acquired by the printer Teodoro Viero, who re-issued them, adding a plate number in the bottom left-hand corner.

“Marieschi's etched vedute, created with a wide variety of strokes to suggest different textures, have a dramatic allure and whiff of intrigue suggested by some of the figural groups that give them a nervous energy absent from those of Carlevarijs and Visentini. Marieschi, like Canaletto, had been trained as stage designer, and like Canaletto he took liberties with the perspective, exaggerating the breadth of the city views as though they were stage sets” (S. Boorsch, Venetian Prints and Books in the Age of Tiepolo, p. 21).

I. R. Bromberg, Canaletto's Etchings, San Francisco 1993; R. Pallucchini - G.F. Guarnati, Le acqueforti del Canaletto, Venezia 1945; D. Succi, Canaletto & Visentini fra Venezia & Londra. Castello di Gorizia, 7 giugno-21 settembre 1986. Catalogo della mostra, Cittadella 1986; K. Baetjer - J.G. Links (eds.), Canaletto, New York 1989; F. Vivian, The Consul Smith Collection, Munich 1989; S. Boorsch (ed.), Celebrating Canaletto: Etchings from the collection of the Arthur Ross Foundation, Istituto Italiano di Cultura, New York, November 6-December 30, 1997, Boca Raton Museum of Art, Boca Raton, Florida, January 22 - March 15, 1998, New York 1997; F. Montecuccoli degli Erri, Canaletto incisore, Venezia 2002. II. Millard 59; Cicognara 4040; Berlin Katalog 2697; D. Succi, Le incisioni di Michele Marieschi, Gorizia 1981, nos. 2-23; Pedrocco, 1-22; F. Mauroner, “Catalogue of the Complete Etchings of Michele Marieschi”, Print Collector's Quarterly, 27 (April 1940), no. 2, pp. 199-211; R. Toledano, Michele Marieschi, l'opera completa, Milano 1988, pp. 59-108; S. Boorsch, Venetian Prints and Books in the Age of Tiepolo, New York 1997; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 232.

The damask chairs of the Imperial Diet

233. Imperial Diet Ceremonies

Disegni dei sedili e banchi nelli varj Apartamenti dell’Imperiale Palazzo di Vienna disposti per li Ministri ed Ufficiali aulici secondo il rispettivo loro grado cominciando dal Sedile di S.M.C. sopra 4. gradini sotto il Baldacchino.... Manuscript on paper, in French. Austria (?), mid-eighteenth century.

335x205 mm. [6] leaves. Six watercolours depicting the tables and armchairs (mostly coloured in green, brown, and red) in the Hofburg Imperial Apartments once used for meetings of the Imperial Diet. Contemporary marbled and gauffered paper. Italian title inked in a contemporary hand on the upper cover, small paper label on the spine, with early shelfmark. Paper rather abraded along the board edges. A well-preserved manuscript.

Fascinating album of six watercolours depicting the furnishings – especially the chairs, armchairs, and tables – of the great chambers of the Imperial Diet at the Hofburg in Vienna. The former imperial palace and main residence of the Habsburg dynasty rulers, the Hofburg is also the only court residence to have permanently been kept furnished. As the documented seat of government, its chambers provided the setting for countless ceremonies and delegate receptions for Diets held in Vienna, this being the highest representative assembly of the Holy Roman Empire.

The plates are titled, in French, La Sale de Re et Correlation; Le College Electoral; Le College des Princes; L'Appartement Electoral; L'Appartement des Princess; and Le College des Villes Imperiale. For each of the six plates, a legend is provided describing the furniture depicted as well as the relative placements of the Emperor and Prince-Electors, among other various representatives. Thus, for example, the plate Le College des Princes illustrates the furnishings for meetings presided over by the Imperial Diet's Council of Princes, including the chairs of its director, co-director, and secretaries, the bench for the bishops of Osnabrück and Lübeck, and even a clock – an 'horologe fait de la manière que celui de Strasbourg' – and small jam table – a 'table petite pour les Confitures'. The plate of the College Electoral, meanwhile, depicts a large table with a seat for the envoyés of the different Prince Electors, 'selon l'ordre suivant Mayence, Treves, Cologne, Bohême, Bavarie, Saxe, Brandenbourg, Palatin et Brounsvic': also in this chamber is a small table for Confitures that must not be missed. The tables here are covered in green velvet and the chairs are upholstered in a wonderful red damask rendered with especial care by the work's anonymous artist.

An album of watercolours (353x221 mm) titled Mobiliar der Zimmer zur Kaiserwahl and illustrating six identical subjects is now preserved in the Hessische Landesbiliothek Fulda (Hs 48). The Moravian Library in Brno holds a similar album, bearing the exact same German title, but with illustrations that have been rather carelessly executed.

This newly discovered manuscript is of the greatest import to the history of the Imperial Diet and its ceremonial traditions, as well as the history of eighteenth-century design in general.

G. von Demilić, The Hofburg in Vienna: Dwelling and Ceremonial Apartments of the Former Imperial Family, Vienna [ca. 1930]; H. Karner (ed.), Die Wiener Hofburg 1521-1705. Baugeschichte, Funktion und Etablierung als Kaiseresidenz, Wien 2014; L. Hellmut (ed.), Die Wiener Hofburg 1705-1835. Die kaiserliche Residenz vom Barock bis zum Klassizismus, Wien 2016; M. Beck, Macht-Räume Maria Theresias. Funktion und Zeremoniell in ihren Residenzen, Jagd- und Lustschlössern, Berlin 2017; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 233.

One of the great achievements in the history of European printmaking

234. Tiepolo, Giandomenico (1727-1804)

Idee pittoresche sopra la Fugga in Egitto. [1753].

Complete set, comprising the engraved dedication, engraved frontispiece and title-page (on the same leaf), and the series of the twenty-four etchings printed two by two. All printed over fourteen very large sheets (each 537x385 mm; platemarks 190x252 mm, and smaller), on thick cream laid paper, with watermark A, or V and reversed F surmounted by three stars, 1753; final states (according to Tunick's revisions to the Rizzi catalogue; see Italian Prints of the 18th Century, no. 11). Contemporary half-mottled calf stained red, decorative papers over pasteboards. Corners worn. An exceptional copy, with well-inked and very fine impressions, and delicate plate tone in places.

A marvellous and complete set of Tiepolo's celebrated series, Flight into Egypt, with plates in the final state; the series is without precedent in originality and inventiveness, and stands as one of the great achievements in the history of European printmaking. Giandomenico Tiepolo was only twenty-three years old when he began to work on the series, and the majority of the plates were presumably executed while he was working, together with his father Giambattista and his brother Lorenzo, on the frescos in the Imperial Hall of Würzburg; he subsequently dedicated the series to their patron, Carl Philipp von Greiffenclau, Prince-Bishop of Würzburg.

The first etchings that Giandomenico executed were the Stations of the Cross after the paintings he had produced for the Venetian church of St. Polo (1748-1749); the composition and style of execution in these works is greatly influenced by his father. The idea for The Flight into Egypt was said to have come from Giambattista, but Giandomenico took it and ran with it, intending to prove his artistic inventiveness and defend his artistic reputation.

By turning the episode into a pictorial cycle, Tiepolo changed the handling of the Flight into Egypt completely: apart from the first and last images, which depict the departure from Bethlehem and arrival into Egypt, the etchings are basically interchangeable, re-arranging the Holy Family, the angels, the donkey, and the landscape in dynamic, ever-changing compositions.

The collection of etchings – twenty-four variations on what had previously been a two-stage story (the flight, and the rest) – later became an important source of material for the monumental collection of drawings Giandomenico undertook illustrating the New Testament; at least twenty-eight of the drawings focused on the Flight into Egypt.

“The theme of the Holy Family had been rendered sterile by centuries of use [...] To give the subject a new aesthetic dignity, Giandomenico concentrated on details of landscape, such as trees, shrubs and views, and on domestic objects, which gave the episodes a feeling of truth, an ethical quality impregnated with poetry” (Rizzi, The Etchings of the Tiepolos, p. 18).

C. Feller Ives, “Picturesque Ideas on the Flight into Egypt Etched by Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo”, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 29.1970/71 (1971), 5, pp. 195-202; A. Rizzi, The Etchings of the Tiepolos, London 1971, nos. 67-93; Tunick-Rizzi, Italian Prints of the 18th Century, London 1981, no. 11; A. M. Get - G. Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: A New Testament, Bloomington, Ind., 2006, p. 77; F. Reue, Giandomenico Tiepolo - Die Flucht nach Ägypten, Augustinermuseum Freiburg (exhibition catalogue), Freiburg i.B. 2007; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 234.

A eulogy for Newton, printed on blue paper

235. Arrighi Landini, Orazio (1718-1755)

Il Tempio della Filosofia. Poema... di Orazio Arrighi Landini fra gli Agiati, Dorinio (i) In cui con accrescimenti, e osservazioni del medesimo Autore s’illustra. (2) il Sepolcro d’Isacco Newton. Con gli Argomenti di Leontippo Accad. Agiato. Marco Carnioni, 1755.

Small 4° (213x142 mm). Printed on blue paper. XVI, 142, [2] pages. Engraved frontispiece signed by Francesco Bartolozzi (1727-1815), bearing two medallions, the first portraying the author, the second showing an allegory of 'LABORE'. Title-page printed in red and black, with engraved vignette depicting an armillary sphere. A folding plate, with an outline of the different philosophical schools and the names of their proponents. Fine engraved decorated initials, head- and tailpieces, the headpiece on fol. *2r including coat of arms of the dedicatee, the Bergamo nobleman Giovanni Battista Gallizioli (1733-1806). Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with five small raised bands, marbled pastedowns and flyleaves. A very good copy, printed on strong paper. Pale waterstain to the lower gutter of the first leaves, frontispiece slightly browned. On the verso of the front flyleaf the note '4214 B 3.2' in an early hand. A nineteenth-century hand has annotated '955. I.m.7' on the recto of the rear flyleaf.

Provenance: Gottlieb Schweyer, a Venetian merchant of German origin also known as Amadeus Svajer (1727-1791; his ex-libris on the front pastedown); modern ex-libris, with the initials 'S.B.' on the front pastedown.

A fine copy, printed on blue paper, of this verse and prose work by Arrighi Landini, a member of the Accademia degli Agiati in Rovereto, where he came to adopt the nickname 'Dorinio'.

Divided into three books, the Tempio della filosofia is essentially a panegyric, supplemented with lengthy philosophical observations, of the 'new' physics of Isaac Newton (1643-1727). As an introduction the work contains a short biography of Newton, and the text is replete with references to such scientists and philosophers as Nicolas Malebranche, John Locke, Voltaire (see no. 238), Francesco Algarotti, and Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, among others, whose works had been included in the Index of Forbidden Books. The Tempio della filosofia is dedicated to the philosopher and orientalist Giovanni Battista Gallizioli, and also clearly reveals the influence of Giambattista Vico (see no. 229).

This handsome copy was once owned by the German merchant Gottlieb Schweyer – also known as Amadeus Svajer – who was active in Venice, where he assembled a notable library. After his death in 1791 the library was partially confiscated by the Inquisition, including his collection of manuscripts relating to Venetian politics.

Morazzoni, Il libro illustrato veneziano del Settecento, p. 214; S. Ferrari, “Amadeo Svaier (1727-1791): un mercante erudito nella Venezia del Settecento,” M. Bonazza (ed.), 'I buoni ingegni della Patria'. L'Accademia, la cultura e la città nelle biografie di alcuni Agiati tra Settecento e Novecento, Rovereto 2002, pp. 51-85; A. Battistini, “Tra Newton e Vico: Il tempio della Filosofia di Orazio Arrighi Landini”, G. Cantarutti – S. Ferrari (eds.), L'Accademia degli Agiati nel Settecento europeo. Irradiazioni culturali, Milano 2007, pp. 11-34; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 235.

Opere... con la traduzione in Volgar Fiorentino del Signor Bernardo Davanzati Posta rincontro al Testo Latino. Con le Postille del medesimo e la Dichiarazione d’alcune voci meno intese... Novella Edizione, purgata dagl’innumerabili errori di tutte le precedenti...

236. Tacitus, Caius Cornelius (ca. 55 – ca. 120)

Opere... con la traduzione in Volgar Fiorentino del Signor Bernardo Davanzati Posta rincontro al Testo Latino. Con le Postille del medesimo e la Dichiarazione d’alcune voci meno intese... Novella Edizione, purgata dagl’innumerabili errori di tutte le precedenti.... Giuseppe Comino; Giovanni Antonio Volpi and Gaetano Volpi, 30 August 1755.

Two parts in one volume, large 4° (245x174 mm). Printed on blue paper. lxxx, 343; [5], 344- 669, [1] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Text in two columns. Engraved Comino printer's device at the end. Engraved medallion portrait of Davanzati on the title-page, with the inscription 'BERNARDO DAVANZATI GENTILUOMO FIORENTINO.' Decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, with inked title and printing date. Pastedowns and flyleaves in blue paper. Gilt and gauffered edges. A very fine copy. On the front pastedown the inked number '966'; on the recto of the front flyleaf the stamped shelfmark 'D 327'.

Provenance: Giovanni Antonio Gotti from Ceneda, near Treviso (the ownership inscription 'Die 27 February 1777 Joh:is Antonj Gotti Cenetensis, Vicarj Pretorj Paduae cum Px:mo Antonio Gajnerio - Costò £ 26.-' on the front pastedown); Giovanni Giacomo Trivulzio (1774-1831; ex-libris); Biblioteca Trivulziana, Milan (small stamps on the recto of the front flyleaf and on a few leaves of the volume; copy sold as a duplicate).

The Cominiana edition of Tacitus' Annales and Decades, offered here in the only copy known to have been printed on blue paper. This elegant Italian translation by the Florentine Bernardo Davanzati (1529-1606) successfully captures Tacitus' brevity while illuminating his obscurity. It first appeared posthumously in Florence in 1637, where it was printed on behalf of the Accademia della Crusca, which had inherited Davanzati's manuscripts. This translation represents a significant chapter in the history of the great Roman historian's reception in early modern Europe. During his lifetime Davanzati had only published a version of the first book of the Annales which appeared in Venice in 1596.

Tacitus was considered a master of political thought, and a sceptical analyst of political reality; his works could thus offer an interpretation of contemporary political events and the problems of monarchies through discussions of ancient civil wars and the unlimited power of Roman emperors. “The condemnation of Machiavelli's works by the Catholic Church (1559) had left an empty space which Tacitus could easily fill. What could be not be said in the name of Catholic Machiavelli could be said in the name of pagan Tacitus” (A. Momigliano, The Classical Foundations of Modern Historiography, Berkeley 1990, p. 123). This explains the popularity of Davanzati's translation, and more generally the vernacular translation of Tacitus, which was indeed a European phenomenon.

This marvellous copy was once held in the exquisite library collected by Giovanni Giacomo Trivulzio and is mentioned by Gamba with regard to the Paduan Tacitus of 1755. The Milanese bibliophile may have purchased the volume at the sale of the Bibliotheca Pinelliana (see no. 250).

Gamba 940; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 236.

Bound by Georg Friedrich Krauss for Duke Albrecht Kasimir August von Sachsen-Teschen

237. Bayardi, Ottavio Antonio (1695-1764)

Catalogo degli antichi monumenti dissotterrati dalla discoperta città di Ercolano... Naples, Regia Stamperia, 1755. (uniformly bound with:) Le antichità di Ercolano, esposte. Regia Stamperia, 1757 - 1792.

Nine volumes, large folio (510x390 mm). Complete, with 609 plates (the extra plate no. 610 recorded in RIBA, is usually not included in the known copies). The first six volumes of the Antichità feature a frontispiece with medallion portrait of Charles III, King of Spain and the Indies, engraved by Filippo Morghen (1730-1807) after a drawing by Camillo Paderni (this frontispiece is lacking in the seventh volume); the frontispiece of the eighth volume bears a medallion portrait of Charles III's successor, his son Ferdinand IV. Contemporary Viennese bindings executed by Georg Friedrich Krauss (fl. 1791-1824) for Duke Albrecht von Sachsen-Teschen. The fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh volumes of the Antichità bound in red gilt-tooled full-morocco, while the boards of the first, second, third, and eighth ones, and those of Bayardi's Catalogo are covered with red painted paper. All nine volumes feature uniform red morocco spines with seven raised bands, with double green morocco lettering-pieces, the other compartments decorated with gilt floral tools, and the gilt monogram 'AST'. Marbled pastedowns and flyleaves, inside dentelles in the volumes bound in full morocco. A very fine, wide-margined set, printed on strong paper. Minor wear to the head of the spine of the first volume.

Provenance: Herzog Albrecht Kasimir August von Sachsen-Teschen (1738-1822; armorial bindings; see no. 253); Giorgio Fanan (ex-libris on the front pastedown of the first volume).

A splendid set of large volumes containing the first edition of this monumental work devoted to archaeological discoveries at the ancient Roman town of Herculaneum, printed on thick paper and magnificently bound for the well-known bibliophile Albert of Sachsen-Teschen, founder of the eponymous Albertina in Vienna. The set is complete with the Catalogo degli antichi monumenti dissotterrati per ordine della maestà di Carlo re delle due Sicilie by the archaeologist from Parma Ottavio Antonio Bayardi or Baiardi (1695-1764). The Catalogo briefly describes more than two thousand monuments and works unearthed in the discovered town. It was printed in 1755 and is often lacking in the recorded sets.

The Antichità di Ercolano represents the most important source for the development of neo-classical art. It was printed by the Regia Stamperia, the royal publishing house founded by the Bourbons in 1750, and edited by the Royal Herculaneum Academy. The vast project involved several scholars, and the reports were supplemented with magnificent illustrations by prominent artists of the time, including Camillo Paderni, director of the Royal Herculaneum Museum at Portici, and court artists who had obtained permits to draw the objects, including Anton Raphael Mengs, Luigi Vanvitelli, and Giovanni Battista Casanova.

The frontispiece of the first six volumes of the Antichità di Ercolano features a fine engraved portrait of Charles III (1716-1788), Duke of Bourbon, with symbols of the excavations carried out while he was King of Naples: some papyrus scrolls, a bust of Epicurus, vessels and coins, a pick and a shovel. It also depicts the inscription found in the theatre, including the word 'Herculanenses', which enabled excavators to identify the town brought to light as Herculaneum. The frontispiece of the eighth volume – appeared in 1792, i.e., thirty-five years after the publication of the first volume – bears instead the medallion portrait of Charles III's successor, his son Ferdinand IV (1751-1828). It is rare to find a such numbers of engraved portraits in the volumes of the Antichità. In fact, the copies known are often found lacking many of the frontespieces.

Albrecht von Sachsen-Teschen assembled one of the most complete and finely illustrated books from the presses of leading printers. Although unsigned, the present binding can confidently be attributed to the outstanding Viennese binder Georg Friedrich Krauss (fl. 1791-1824), one of von Sachsen-Teschen's principal binders (see no. 253). “Les exemplaires sont tous d'exception, imprimés sur grand papier, les gravures soit avant la lettre, soit en différents états; mais ce qui rend la collection tout à fait unique ce sont les superbes reliures de l'époque, la pluspart avec les dos mosaïqués et ornés du chiffre du duc Albert de Saxe, d'une fraicheur et d'un état de conservation parfaits” (Catalogue de beaux livres ayant appartenu au duc Albert de Saxe-Teschen, p. VIII).

Cicognara 2645; Ebert 711; RIBA 112 and 224; Kissner 199; Blackmer 678; Catalogue de beaux livres ayant appartenu au duc Albert de Saxe-Teschen, Milan 1930; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 237.

Le meilleur des mondes possibles — PMM

238. Voltaire [François Marie Arouet de] (1694-1778)

Candide, ou l’Optimisme. [Geneva], [Gabriel Cramer], 1759.

12° (161x95 mm). 299, [3] pages. Complete with the penultimate blank leaf, fol. N7 but the final fol. N8 (instructions to the binder) being only a stub. Woodcut ornament to the title-page, and tailpieces. Contemporary Italian mottled sheep-backed boards, gilt spine with title on red morocco lettering-piece. A very good copy. Some light foxing and browning, mostly to the upper margins.

A fine copy of the true first edition, with the following issue points: the title ornament of spray, fruit and flowers is repeated at pp. 193 and 266; p. 103, line 4, has the misprint 'que ce ce fut' (corrected to ‘que ce fut' in later editions); p. 125, line 4, has 'précisément' (corrected to 'précipitamment' in later editions); with Voltaire's revisions on p. 31 eliminating an unnecessary paragraph break, and on p. 41 the rewriting of several short sentences on the Lisbon earthquake. This first edition does not preserve the cancelled paragraph critical of German poets on p. 242 (beginning “Candide était affligé”).

The bibliographical history of this book has been extremely complex and confused, not least because before handing over a final manuscript to the Genevan publisher Gabriel Cramer, Voltaire went behind his back and sent a slightly different version of the manuscript to John Nourse, a printer in London, who may well have dispatched copies to other publishers. The result was that within weeks of the first edition of Candide appearing in Geneva, sixteen other editions appeared in Paris, London, and Amsterdam. The identification of the present issue as the true editio princeps, already supposed by Bengesco and Gagnebin, was recently confirmed by the cumulative analyses of Ira Wade, Giles Barber, and Stephen Weissman: the Genevan printing must be considered earlier than the other three editions containing 299 pages published in 1759, as well as the thirteen other editions of different sizes printed in Europe in the same year. Around 1754 Voltaire “fled [from Berlin] to Geneva where he found and bought the ideal refuge, Ferney, four miles from the city. Here, just on French soil, he could enjoy the political liberty of Geneva with the social liberty of France. Here Candide, the most perfect of the light-weight parables which were his especial and peculiar forte, was written. Typically, it was published anonymously, and many times printed and pirated in its early years” (PMM).

Drawing on the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 for inspiration, this conte philosophique became an almost instant best-seller with about 20,000 copies sold in the first year alone, despite its initial censorship.

Barber 299G; Bengesco 1434; Morize 59a; PMM 204; I. O. Wade, Voltaire and Candide: A Study in the Fusion of History, Art and Philosophy, Princeton, NJ 1959; S. Weismann (ed.), Voltaire: the Martin J. Gross collection in the New York Public Library, New York 2008; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 238.

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