Volume II: The 16th Century Philobiblon

One Thousand Years of Bibliophily from the 11th to the 21st Century

Con nuovi, rari, e grati balli leggiadri, et amorose rime... — Francesco Guglia, sonnet for Fabrizio Caroso

96. Caroso, Fabrizio (1526/31- after 1605)

Il Ballarino... diuiso in due trattati; nel primo de’ quali si dimostra la diuersita de i nomi, che si danno a gli atti, & mouimenti, che interuengono ne i balli... Nel secondo s’insegnano diuerse sorti di balli, & balletti... Ornato di molte figure.... Francesco Ziletti, 1581.

Two parts in one volume, 4° (233x172 mm). Collation: A-F4; a-z4, Aa-Zz4, †4. [8], 16; 184, [4] leaves. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page, and repeated on the separate title-page introducing the Trattato secondo. Engraved author's portrait on fol. B4v, within a border including Caroso's coat of arms, and signed by Giacomo Franco (1550-1620). Twenty-two full-page copper engravings in the text (partially repeated), within ornamental borders and executed likewise by Franco. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Printed music and lute tablature. Red morocco signed by Georges Trautz-Bauzonnet (1808-1879), over pasteboards. Covers within triple gilt fillets. Spine with five raised bands, compartments richly tooled, title lettered in gold. Marbled pastedowns, inside dentelles, gilt edges. A very fine copy. Slightly browned in places.

First edition – dedicated to Bianca Capello – of the most important sixteenth-century Italian treatise on dancing, and one of the most beautiful dance books ever produced, and presented here in the issue bearing Ziletti's device on the title-page.

Born in Sermoneta, Fabrizio Caroso was a protégé of Felice Maria Orsini Caetani (d. 1596), Duchess of Sermoneta. He spent most of his life in Rome, where he was active as a dancer, 'inventore di scene', dance master, musician, and composer. He was the last proponent of Renaissance Italian dance style, opposing the French danse noble, which had begun to spread across Europe in the last decades of the Cinquecento. Caroso was not only a practicing dancer, but also a refined theorist, and his Ballarino – i.e., The Dancer – provides a vast amount of detail about the dances of the period.

The first part of this magnificent work illustrates fifty-five rules for steps, while the more lengthy second part describes seventy-six separate dances, including, among others, the alta, bassa, balletto, pavan, cascarda, saltarello, and spagnoletta. Each dance is supplemented with a poem in praise of a different woman – mostly members of Roman noble families – and includes musical notation for lute. Each of the dances under discussion is designed for one or more pairs of dancers. Throughout the work, Caroso celebrates the concept of 'nobil vivere', and the figure of the well-educated dancer-courtesan.

The work is especially praised for its illustrative apparatus, which includes twenty-two full-page copper engravings executed by the renowned artist Giacomo Franco. These illustrations depict the positions of dancers at the beginning of each of the various dances and cumulatively represent a precious iconographic source not only for the history of dance, but also that of fashion as well as culture more generally.

In 1600 Caroso published an expanded edition of his manual, entitled differently La nobiltà di dame, which likewise enjoyed wide popularity, and was reprinted in 1605 and 1640.

Adams C-755; Mortimer Italian, 106; RISM C, p. 1233; Gregory & Bartlett I, 53; Lipperheide 3055; P. D. Magriel, A Bibliography of Dancing, pp. 42-44; A. Feves, “Fabrizio Caroso and the Changing Shape of the Dance, 1550-1600”, Danse Chronicle, 14 (1991), pp. 159-174; P. Gargiulo (ed.), La danza italiana tra Cinque e Seicento. Studi per Fabrizio Caroso da Sermoneta, Roma 1997; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 158.

From the celebrated Pillone Library Vecellio’s drawn maps on vellum covers

97. Anania, Gianni Lorenzo da (1545-1609)

L’uniuersale fabrica del mondo, overo Cosmografia... Diuisa in quattro Trattati... Di nuouo ornata con le figure delle quattro parti del Mondo in Rame. Andrea Muschio for Giacomo Aniello De Maria, 1582.

4° (218x157 mm). Collation: †8, ††4, a-d4, A-Z4, Aa- Zz4, Aaa-Bbb4, Ddd6. [56], 402 pages, lacking the last blank leaf. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. One double-page engraved map of 'ORBIS DESCRIPTIO'; four folding engraved maps depicting Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum over pasteboards, with original drawings in pen and ink executed by Cesare Vecellio, depicting a map of Europe, Asia, and Africa on the front cover, and a map of the Americas (Mondo Novo) on the back. Spine with three raised bands, title 'FABRICHA DEL MONDO' vertically inked in the two central compartments, arabesques in ink at the external compartments. Edges decorated with curving lines. Binding in excellent condition, a little faint staining, two pairs of ties on the fore-edge replaced. A good copy, small repairs to the leaves of the first quire, affecting a few letters, light browning, the first leaves slightly waterstained; a small wormhole at the upper blank margin.

Provenance: Odorico Pillone of Casteldardo (1503-1593); Sir Thomas Brooke of Armitage Bridge House, Huddersfield (1830-1908; ex-libris on the front pastedown; see A Catalogue of the Manuscripts and Printed Books Collected by Thomas Brooke, F.S.A. Vol. II. M-Z, London 1891, no. 100, “Lorenzo d'Anania, Gio. L'Universale Fabrica del Mondo, overo Cosmografia. In Venetia, 1587. 4to. v.”); from Humprey Brooke to Pierre Berès (P. Berès, Un group de livres Pillone. Catalogue no. 67, Paris 1957, no. 132; label on the front pastedown 'Livre no. 132 de la Bibliothèque Pillone Pierre Berès'); John Roland Abbey (1896-1969; ex-libris on the front pastedown; sale Sotheby's 21 June 1967, Catalogue of the Celebrated Library of Major J.R. Abbey. 3rd portion. London 1967, lot 2091); Sotheby's London, 25 May 2000, lot 89.

A rare surviving copy from the celebrated library assembled by the Pillone family in their Villa of Casteldarno in Val Cadore, near Belluno: the third edition of Anania's Cosmografia, an influential and much-cited sixteenth-century guide which first appeared in Naples in 1573, and presented here in a magnificent vellum binding decorated with India ink and wash drawings by Cesare Vecellio (1521-1601; see no. 157), a cousin and pupil of Titian. Vecellio is also famously the author of Habiti antichi et moderni, as well as the Corona delle nobili e virtuose donne, one of the finest cut pattern books for embroidery and lace designs (see no. 169).

The library was formed by the Pillones over several generations, but significantly expanded by Antonio (1464-1533) and his eldest son Odorico (1503-1594). These finely painted bindings were commissioned by Odorico, or possibly by his son Giorgio in the late 1570s-1580s. In all, 172 books were bound and decorated, mainly by Vecellio and a few other artists.

The Pillone Library was larged and varied, and well supplied with geographical books and travel narratives. The present copy of Anania's Universale fabrica del mondo or Cosmografia is one of only twenty-one volumes bound in vellum whose covers were finely decorated by Vecellio with drawings in pen and ink appropriate to the content of the book, which in this case contains – along the double-page engraved map of 'orbis descriptio' – four folding engraved maps of the continents known at the time, depicting Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. On the upper cover, Vecellio presents a map of Europe, Asia, and Africa, while the lower cover bears a map depicting the Mondo Novo.

“Si elles n'ont pas pour l'amateur d'art le prix inestimable des oeuvres originales de Vecellio, elles offrent pour l'amateur de livres des spécimens également désirables à cause de leur précision iconographique et de l'élegance de leur facture. Les vélins peints [...] ressortissent plus à la gravure qu'au dessin. Leur presence [...] concourt à donner sa physionomie unique à la bibliothèque Pillone. Par le souci réellement artistique qui a présidé à leur décoration et dont on ne connaît aucun exemple, ils doivent être considerés commes des oeuvres artistiques exceptionnelles” (L. Venturi, Cesare Vecellio et la Bibliothèque Pillone, introduction to Bibliothèque Pillone).

STC Italian 26; Bibliothèque Pillone, 132; Sabin 1364; T. Conte (ed.), Cesare Vecellio, 1521 c.-1601, Belluno 2001; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 159.

The first Elzevier book

98. Drusius, Johannes (1550-1616)

Ebraicarum Quaestionum, sive, Quaestionum ac Responsionum libri duo, videlicet secundus ac tertius. Leiden, Lodewijk Elzevier [and Jan Paets Jacobszoon], 1583. (bound with:) Idem. Quaestionum ac responsionum liber. In quo varia scripturae loca explicantur aut emendantur. Indices tres. [Jan Paets Jacobszoon], 1583.

Two works in one volume, 8° (158x102 mm). I. Collation: A-H8. 126, [2] pages. Roman, Greek, and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page and coat of arms of the city of Leiden on fol. A8v. II. Collation: A-D8, E4. 72 pages. Roman, Greek, and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Contemporary vellum, traces of ties. Smooth spine with inked title. A very good, unsophisticated copy. Wormhole in the outer margin, partially restored, and occasionally slightly affecting the text; some light browning.

The first book published by the leading printer and bookseller Lodewijk Elzevier: the first edition of the Ebraicarum quaestiones by the Flemish Hebraist Johannes van den Driesche, better known as Johannes Drusius, professor of Oriental languages at Oxford, Louvain, and later active as a professor of Hebrew at the universities of Leiden and Franeker. The volume also contains a copy of another edition by Drusius, printed contemporaneously. Both works are usually found bound together in the recorded copies.

Lodewijk or Louis was the founder of the famous Elzevier dynasty of publishers, printers and booksellers; throughout the seventeenth century, the Elzevier house represented the most important publishing house in Europe, and it remained active until 1791. Lodewijk began his career as a bookbinder at the workshop of Christophe Plantin in Antwerp. In 1580 he settled in his hometown of Leiden to serve as bookbinder and bookseller at the new university. Three years later he published his first book using the presses of Jan Paets Jacobszoon, in Academia Lugdunensi.

The copy presented here is complete with the often lacking errata and colophon leaf, which, according to Pieters was added much later, probably after 1 May 1587, as attested by the mention in the colophon of the New School (“e regione Scholae novae”), the place which Elzevier started building within the Academy after that date. Pieters' suggestion was however contested by Willems, who states that “le feuillet d'errata fait corps avec le feuiller signé Hij; le papier est de même qualité et a les mêmes pontuseaux que le reste du volume” (Willems 22).

Drusius's career in the Dutch Republic was however affected by “the pressure to maintan orthodoxy in the church [...] In Franeker, Johannes Drusius was repeatedly forced to answer the accusations and insinuations of colleagues on the theological faculty [...] concerning his own theological soundness” (S. G. Burnett, Christian Hebraism in the Reformation Era, p. 63), whereas in Rome the works of the Reformed Drusius were condemned by the Congregation of the Index, and included in the Index of Prohibited Books issued in 1596, “a powerful tool in forbidding the spread of heresy in general and of heretical books of Christian Hebraists in particular” (ivi, p. 231).

Adams D-936; Pettegree-Walsby, Netherlandish Books 10350, 10351; Copinger, The Elzevier Press, 1461; Pieters 1; Rahir 14; Willems 22; S. G. Burnett, Christian Hebraism in the Reformation Era (1500–1660). Authors, Books, and the Transmission of Jewish Learning, Leiden 2012, passim; J. L. North, “Johannes van den Driessche, 1550-1616 and the Study of the Old Testament in the New”, B. Koet et al. (eds.), The Scriptures of Israel in Jewish and Christian Tradition, Leiden 2013, pp. 409-423. II. Adams D-935; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 160.

The two rarest Giordano Bruno editions

99. Bruno, Giordano (1548-1600)

Figuratio Aristotelici Physici auditus... Ad illustrem admodum atque reuerendum dominum D. Petrum Dalbenium Abbatem Belleuillae. Paris, Pierre Chevillot, 1586. [bound with:] Idem. Dialogi duo de Fabricii Mordentis Salernitani propè diuina adinuentione ad perfectam cosmimetriae praxim. Pierre Chevillot, 1586.

Two works in one volume, 8° (163x101 mm). I. Collation: ã8, A-E8, F2, 2A-B8. [8], 14, [2] leaves. The copy is incomplete, and contains the preliminary quire ã8 (title-page, dedicatory epistle to Pietro Dalbene, Iordanus Brunus Nolanus de Quindecim imaginibus auditionis physicae figuratiuis, the woodcut on fol. ã6v, and the Divisio Universae Philosophiae), and 2A-2B8 (Iordani Bruni Nolani De Physico auditu Aristotelis liber quintus ad septimum & octauum illius, including 2B7 2B8 blanks). Lacking are quires A-E8, and F2, with the text of Iordani Brun. Nolani De physico auditu, Arist. propositum. De intentione, & ordine octo librorum Physicae auscultationis: item de eiusdem intentionis & ordinis ratione. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. One half-page woodcut on black ground on the verso of fol. ã6. Woodcut headpieces and decorated initials. II. Collation: ã4, A-B8, C4. [4], 20 leaves. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Three half-page woodcuts on black ground on fols. B2r, B6r, and C4r, illustrating the compass. Woodcut headpieces and decorated initials, on seven lines the one on fol. ã2r. Contemporary vellum over pasteboards. Smooth spine, title inked vertically. A volume in good condition. Leaves of the first edition browned, and waterstained; title-page with old repairs (not affecting the text) and minor loss to the blank lower corner; the outer blank margin of fol. A2 damaged, without any loss. In the second bound edition pale waterstains, slight foxing. Some bibliographical notes on the verso of the front flyleaf, in different hands.

Provenance: Jean Viardot (see Binoche et Giquello, Paris, Livres précieux – Bibliothèque Jean Viardot, 1 June 2016, lot 22).

This exceptional, miscellaneous volume – presented in its contemporary binding – contains two of the scarcest works by the celebrated Italian philosopher, the Figuratio Aristotelici Physici auditus, and the Dialogi duo de Fabricii Mordentis Salernitani. No copy of the Figuratio has come up at auction since the early nineteenth century (see below), while the Dialogi duo has never appeared on the market before this copy.

The Figuratio Aristotelici Physici auditus deals with Aristotle's physics and was likely published by Bruno at the beginning of 1586, during his second stay in Paris (for his first Parisian stay see no. 154). Only four copies of the Figuratio are recorded in the institutional libraries: those preserved in the National Library in Turin, the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris, the Bodleian Library in Oxford, and the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, DC; the copies in Paris and in Turin are both imperfect.

The copy of the Figuratio presented here contains on fol. ã6v the famous woodcut designed by Bruno himself. This illustration enlists a curious mnemonic iconography based on ten loci to depict – albeit in rough form – the geometrical schema of a human body. The design reveals the influence of the famed homo ad quadratum by Vitruvius, along with other contemporary pictorial models, an iconographic tradition originally re-interpreted by Bruno, transforming the different parts of the body into triangles, squares, and other geometrical shapes.

The second work bound here is even rarer: in fact, the Dialogi duo de Fabricii Mordentis Salernitani prope diuina adinuentione is known by only two copies, one in the National Library in Turin and the other at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris – in both cases the work is bound, like the present miscellany, with a copy of the Figuratio Aristotelici Physici auditus.

In the Dialogi duo, which appeared in Paris in April 1586, Bruno praises the proportional eight-pointed compass invented by Salerno mathematician Fabrizio Mordente (1532–ca. 1608), who had provided a detailed description of his invention in his Compasso con altri istromenti mathematici, published in Antwerp in 1584. Mordente's instrument is considered to be a forerunner of Galileo Galilei's proportional compass. “Bruno knew Mordente who was in Paris at the time and was immensely struck by the compass. He mentioned it to his patient listener, the librarian of the Abbey of St. Victor [i.e., Guillaume Cotin], describing Mordente as the “god of geometricians”, and adding that, since Mordente did not know Latin, he, Bruno, would publish his invention in Latin for him. This he did with a vengeance, for he wrote four dialogues about Mordente's compass, in which he patronised the inventor for not having seen the full meaning of his divine invention, as he, Bruno, has seen it. We know from Jacopo Corbinelli's letters that Mordente, not unnaturally, “fell into a brutal rage”; that he bought up the edition of the dialogues and destroyed them (missing the two copies, one complete, the other incomplete, which have reached us” (F. A. Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, p. 295).

Bruno's work is divided into two parts entitled Mordentius and De Mordenti circino, respectively, and supplemented with two woodcuts executed by Bruno himself. The first woodcut shows the application of the operations of Mordente's compass (fol. B2r) and is known in two variants. In the first state there are three capital letters 'BIH' well visible on the left margin, whereas in the second state these letters were erased by Bruno, and the letter 'C' was added on the lower side. The copy presented here bears – like the copy of the National Library in Turin – the woodcut in its first state, before the correction made by Bruno, who was in effect an 'improvisational' designer and block cutter. A second woodcut illustrating Mordente's instrument is printed on fol. B6r.

The last leaves of the edition contain a short text bearing the title Insomnium, and includes on fol. C4r a third woodcut designed by Bruno, the content of which is particularly enigmatic and may relate to an oneiric vision. It is the most mysterious image of Giordano Bruno's entire Corpus iconographicum.

On the verso of the front flyleaf is an annotation in an anonymous French hand: “je n'ay trouvé les ouvrages contenus dans le volume dans aucun des catalogues qui donnent l'enumeration des oeuvres de Jordanus Brunus, ce qui doit sans doute en augmenter le prix car tous les ouvrages de cet autheur sont fort recherchés, et rares”. The 1815 sale catalogue of the library collected by Justin MacCarthy Reagh lists eight editions by Bruno, including the Figuratio Aristotelici Physici auditus. The MacCarthy Figuratio – now in the Bodleian Library – was sold for the sum of 56 francs, the highest price paid in this sale for an edition by the great Nola philosopher.

I. Salvestrini, Bibliografia, no. 153; Sturlese, Bibliografia, no. 13; M. Gabrieli, Giordano Bruno. Corpus Iconographicum, Milano 2001, pp. 281-294; M. Matteoli, “La Figuratio Aristotelici Physici auditus di Giordano Bruno: luoghi e immagini per una 'nuova' Fisica di Aristotele”, Rinascimento, 55 (2015), pp. 331-362. II. Salvestrini, Bibliografia, no. 155; Sturlese, Bibliografia, no. 14; M. Gabrieli, Giordano Bruno. Corpus Iconographicum, pp. 295-318; F. Camerota, Il compasso di Fabrizio Mordente. Per una storia del compasso di proporzione, Firenze 2000, pp. 83-105; F. A. Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, Eadem, Selected Works. II, London-New-York 2001, pp. 294-298; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 161.

Sausage ‘alla fiorentina’

100. Grazzini, Antonfrancesco (1504-1584)

Lezione di Maestro Niccodemo dalla Pietra al Migliaio: Sopra il Capitolo della Salsiccia del Lasca. Domenico and Francesco Manzani, 1589.

8° (157x108 mm). Collation: A-D8. 60, [4] pages. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page and on the verso of the last leaf. Later vellum over pasteboards. Spine with four raised bands, with inked title and imprint. A good copy, slightly browned and foxed throughout, heavier to fols. B1-C1; a few marginal stains in the last leaves.

Provenance: faded ownership inscription on the title-page no longer legible.

The first and very rare edition of this gastronomic burlesque work in praise of pork and sausage, dedicated by the Florentine printer Domenico Manzani to the Archconsul of the Accademia della Crusca, Pier Francesco Cambi.

Grazzini was a member of the Accademia degli Umidi, which wanted to revive the Florentine tradition of burlesque poetry. In 1582, he was co-founder of the renowned Florentine Accademia della Crusca, adopting the nickname, or nome di Crusca, of 'Lasca'. The booklet was issued from the press of Domenico Manzani, mostly engaged by this Florentine academy, and well-known for the printing, in 1591, of the Commedia edited by the Crusca, the first modern critical edition of Dante's masterpiece.

The Lezione contains the composition in verse Capitolo sopra la salciccia, supplemented with an extensive commentary. Grazzini celebrates here many different kinds of food, but comes to the conclusion that pork meat is the finest of all and that sausage is the most delicious part of the pork, preferable to any other. He then gives the recipe for sausage 'alla fiorentina' (in Florentine style), which, according to him, is the absolute best, and reports several entertaining stories related to sausage with comic and occasionally erotic effect.

STC Italian 370; C. Spalanca, Anton Francesco Grazzini e la cultura del suo tempo, Palermo 1981; F. Pignatti, “Il ‘Comento di maestro Nicodemo dalla Pietra al Migliaio' del Lasca. Preliminari per un'edizione e note critiche”, A. Corsaro - P. Procaccioli (eds.), Cum notibusse et comentari-busse. L'esegesi parodistica e giocosa del Cinquecento. Seminario di letteratura italiana Viterbo, 23-24 novembre 2001, Manziana 2002, pp. 99-108; M. Plaisance, Anton Francesco Grazzini dit Lasca (1505-1584). Écrire dans la Florence des Médicis, Manziana 2005; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 163.

The first bio-bibliography of Florentine authors, used for writing Ciriaco Strozzi’s biography

101. Poccianti, Michele (1536-1576)

Catalogus scriptorum Florentinorum omnis generis, quorum, et memoria extat, atque lucubrationes in literas relatae sunt ad nostra usque tempora... Florence, Filippo Giunta, 1589. (bound with:) Monti, Zaccaria (fl. 16th-17th century). Vita Kyriaci Strozae. Auctior. Paris, Adrien Périer for the Officina Plantiniana 1604. . Filippo Giunta, 1589.

Two works in one volume, 4° (231x156 mm). I. Collation: *2, A-L8, M4. [4], 172, [12] pages. Roman and italic type. Giunti's device on the title-page. Woodcut animated and decorated initials. II. Collation: A4. 7, [1] pages. Roman, and Greek type. Plantin's device on the title-page. Contemporary limp vellum, traces of ties. Smooth spine with inked title. A very good, tall copy.

Provenance: Zaccaria Monti (fl. 16th-17th century; annotations in his own hand in the margin of some pages, and on two leaves bound between Poccianti's Catalogus and the Vita Kyriaci Strozae); 'Moreau Mod. Paris' (old ownersphip inscription on the title-page); Theological Institute of Connecticut, East Windsor Hill (now defunct; blind stamps on the first three and the last three leaves).

The miscellany contains the first edition of Poccianti's famous Catalogus and the Vita Kyriaci Strozae by Zaccaria Monti, nephew of Ciriaco Strozzi and the earliest recorded owner of the present volume. Zaccaria wrote in the margin of Poccianti's entry dedicated to his uncle, annotations and emendations in his own hand. Further, the volume contains two leaves bound between the two printed texts: The first leaf bears some observations on Ciriaco Strozzi, “‘Hoc elogium reponendum est pag. 104 in littera K. Kyriacus Strozza Patritius florentinus, Zachariae filius, Graecarum litterarum cultor exactissimus ac omni disciplinarum genere instructissimus, Aristotelicae philosophiae defensor acerrimus”. The note on the second leaf regards Ciriaco's learned sister, the Dominican nun Lorenza Strozzi (d. 1591): “Hoc elogium reponendum est pag. 105 in litterar L. Laurentia Strozia, Kyriaci Strozae, summi peripatetici soror [...] scripsit in singula totius anni solemnia hymnos [...]”. Both quoted passages are taken from Poccianti's Catalogus scriptorum Florentinorum, a circumstance that might explain why Monti let these two editions be bound together for his library.

The Catalogus scriptorum Florentinorum by the Servite Poccianti, professor of philosophy and theology at the Florentine Studio, was published posthumously by one of his pupils, fra' Luca Ferrini, and dedicated by him to the Grand Duke Ferdinando de' Medici. The work is the first bio-bibliography of Florentine authors to appear in print, and is also considered one of the first bibliographies devoted to a single town and its territory. The Catalogus lists and describes the works of about six hundred authors arranged in alphabetical order, followed by a classification of them as theologians (including philosophers), doctors, lawyers, poets, etc.

The second edition bound here is the extremely rare pamphlet issued from the Parisian Officina Plantiniana, of which apparently only four copies are known. This is the first separate edition of the biography of Greek scholar Ciriaco Strozzi (1504-1565), the first having appeared in the Opera by Aristotle printed in Lyon in 1581.

I. Adams P-1677; Camerini Annali,157; Pettas 644; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 164.

The Statutes of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, bound by Soresini for the Grand Master

102. Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Gli Statuti della Sacra Religione di S. Gio: Gierosolomitano. Tradotti di Latino in Volgare di Iacomo Bosio Agente della medesima Religione nella Corte di Roma. Aggiuntiui li Priuilegij dell’istessa Religione.... Giacomo Tornieri and Giacomo Ruffinello, 1589.

Two parts in one volume, 4° (247x170 mm). Collation: *6, **4, A-Z4, Aa-Nn4, a-g4, h6; A-P4. [20], 280, [76]; 92 of 96 (lacking the leaves M3 and M4, also not present in the other recorded copies), [24] pages. Complete with fols. Nn4 and h6 blanks. Roman and italic type. Separate title-pages for each part, bearing the woodcut coat of arms of Cardinal Hugues Loubens de Verdalle (1531-1595), Grand Master of the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Fols. *5r-*6v, containing the privilege of the Grand Master (dated 20 November 1588), within a woodcut border. Magnificent contemporary Roman brown morocco over pasteboards, executed by Francesco Soresini's workshop. Covers within frames of blind and gilt fillets, narrow frieze all'antica, and small floral tools. At centre cornerpieces, on the top the monogram 'IHS', all in gilt; on the upper cover painted coat of arms of the Grand Master Hugues Loubens de Verdalle, in gilt medallion surmounted by cardinal hat, below the inscription in gilt 'F. VGO DE LOVBENX VERDALA CAR: GRAN MAESTRO'; on the lower cover painted coat of arms of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem painted within gilt oval frame, below the inscription 'DEL CAVAL. F. FRAN. HIER. BERTIO' in gilt, referring to the Knight Francesco Girolamo Berti. Spine with four raised bands, underlined with gilt fillets, compartments decorated with gilt foliate tools, title in gold on lettering-piece. Edges gilt. Joints weakened but still solid, extremities of the spine and corners slightly worn. A very good copy, with only occasional foxing.

Provenance: Grand Master of the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, Hugues Loubens de Verdalle (1531-1595; armorial binding); given by him as a gift to Francesco Girolamo Berti (gilt inscription on the lower cover); to his brother Fabrizio Berti (ownership inscription on the first title-page 'Di Fra Fabritio Bertio Baglio di Pavia 1595').

The rarest issue of the Italian translation of the Statuta of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, first printed in Latin in 1589, presented here in an exceptional copy magnificently bound for the dedicatee and sponsor of the edition, cardinal Hugues Loubens de Verdalle, Grand Master of the Order between 1581 and 1595.

The Statutes were translated from Latin into Italian by Giacomo Bosio, the representative of the Knights at the Roman Curia. The Italian version was examined and approved by a commission in Malta, and was given the same legal status as the original Latin text. The Grand Master decided therefore that the costs of publication were to be sustained by the Order and copies distributed among its members.

The copy presented here is in a handsome binding executed by the leading workshop of Francesco Soresini, appointed Papal binder at the death of Niccolò Franzese in 1575, and the founder of a celebrated dynasty of binders (Francesco, Prospero, and Baldassarre were his heirs). Soresini counted among his clients popes, cardinals, generals of religious orders, and members of the most distinguished Roman families. The binding was commissioned by the Grand Master Hugues Loubens de Verdalle, as attested by his coat of arms and name on the upper cover, and given by him as a gift to Francesco Girolamo Berti, who had entered the Order on 20 September 1567, and whose name is lettered in gilt on the lower cover. The volume then passed down to his brother Fabrizio Berti, who was appointed knight on 4 July 1575 and subsequently became Balio of Pavia, his hometown.

F. de Hellwald, Bibliographie méthodique de l'Ordre Souverain de St. Jean de Jérusalem, Rome 1885, p. 28; G. Vianini Tolomei, Legatura Romana Barocca 1565-1700, Rome 1991, pl. VII (for the tools used here); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 165.

German Fortresses

103. Speckle, Daniel (1536-1589)

Architectura von Vestungen. Wie die zu unsern zeiten mögen erbawen werden, an Stätten Schlössern, unnd Clussen, zu Wasser, Land, Berg, unnd Thal, mit jren Bollwerken, Cavalieren, Streichen, Gräben und Leuffen.... Bernhardt Jobin, 1589.

Folio (347x235 mm). Collation: )(4, (.:.)4, A-Q4, R2, R-Z4, Aa-Ee4, [χ]1. [8], 112, [i.e. 114, 1-66, [1], 66-112], [1] leaves. The last leaf contains the errata. Gothic and roman type. Title printed in red and black within an engraved architectural border by Matthias Greuter, woodcut coat of arms of the dedicatee Julius Duke of Braunschweig. Twenty-one engravings (twenty double page, sometimes appearing as two single leaves). Numerous woodcut illustrations in the text. Contemporary limp vellum with supralibros and spine label added later. Some darkening and soiling to the covers. Binding slightly smutty. A very good copy, slightly browned, a few marginal waterstains.

Provenance: the English writer and historian Walter Hawken Tregellas (1831-1894; presentation label on the pastedown); Royal Engineers Library (gilt stamp on the binding, ink stamp on the title-page and a few other places); Arthur & Charlotte Vershbow, acquired from Marlborough Rare Books, 1976 (ex-libris on the recto of the front flyeleaf; see The Collection of Arthur & Charlotte Vershbow, Christie's New York 2013, lot 317).

Rare first edition of this famous, and magnificently illustrated treatise on fortification and town-planning by one of the outstanding European specialists in architectura militaris. Speckle worked in his hometown of Strasbourg, and then in Dusseldorf, Regensburg, Vienna and probably also in Hungary. His Architectura von Vestungen (The Architecture of Fortresses) is the first important contribution to the subject in the German-speaking world since Albrecht Dürer's Etliche Underricht zur Befestigung der Stett (1527). It had immediate success, and became the standard reference work on the construction of fortresses until a decisive change occurred in the manner in which wars where fought. Its influence reaches well into the eighteenth century, and the work was published again in 1599, 1608, 1705, and 1756.

“Speckle writes his treatise from a strongly national motivation as is clear from his preface. He wishes to prove that the Germans are not completely without imagination, and that their invention of printing and of a 'grausam Geschütz' ('fearsome artillery') shows them to be the 'the greatest in the world' in these fields. He attacks, above all, the Italian theorists for their academic disputes, declaring their rules to be outmoded and openly ridiculing their approach ('when someone has no Latin, he cannot understand it, and so has no business to talk about it'). He demonstrates the urgency of fortification, as Dürer has done, by reference to the Turkish threat. Speckle claims to be familiar with fifty or sixty types of fortification, but restricts himself to a few only. He writes in German and avoids foreign words, ‘so that every German – such as I too have the honour to call myself – can understand” (H.-W. Kruft, A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present, London-New York 1994, p. 115).

The treatise is accompanied by fine engravings, one of which is signed by the renowned printmaker Matthias Greuter from Strasbourg (1564–1638).

VD16 S-8178; STC German 824; Berlin Katalog 3516; Cockle 789; Millard 123; K. Krüger, “Albrecht Dürer, Daniel Speckle und die Anfänge frühmoderner Städteplanung in Deutschland”, Mitteilungen des Vereins für deutsche Geschichte Nürnbergs, 67 (1980), pp. 79-97; U. Schütte (ed.), Architekt & Ingenieur. Baumeister in Krieg und Frieden, Wolfenbüttel 1984, no. 297; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 166.

The first book printed by the Medici Oriental Press

104. [Bible. Gospels. Arabic]

Evangelium sanctum Domini Nostri Iesu Christi conscriptum a quatuor Evangelistis sanctis idest, Matthaeo, Marco, Luca, et Iohanne. Medici Oriental Press, 1590 - 1591.

Folio (309x203 mm). Collation: [1-46]4. 386 pages. Text in Arabic. Title-page in Arabic and Latin. Title-page and text within frame of woodcut fillets. 149 large woodcuts (130x100 mm), from sixty-eight blocks, some executed by Leonardo Parasole after Antonio Tempesta. Woodcut head- and tailpieces. Contemporary limp vellum. Title inked in Latin and Arabic by contemporary hands. Losses to the outer lower corners, and to the top of spine. A very good, unsophisticated copy, a few leaves uniformly browned. Some small spots and waterstains to the margins of the title-page, and a heavier waterstain on the last leaf. First and last leaves partially detached.

Provenance: two seventeenth-century ownership inscriptions on the title-page, the first, partially erased, '[...] die 20. Maij. hab. Romae 1668. ex Biblioth. Medicea'; the second one refers to the Franciscan monastery of Trecastagni in Padua ('Pro Conventum S.ti Antonij da Padua Mgr. Trium Castanearum'; inscription repeated with slight variations on the verso of the last leaf).

Rare and finely illustrated first edition of the Gospels printed in Arabic. It is the first book printed by the Typographia Medicea Orientale, established by Gregorius XIII in 1584 specifically for printing in oriental languages, and financially supported by Cardinal and future Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando de' Medici. The Medici Oriental Press was the first printing press in Europe dedicated to printing books in an Arabic font, and the mathematician and orientalist Giovanni Battista Raimondi (1540-1610) was commissioned with its direction. The text of the Gospels was edited by Raimondi himself, and set in the fine types cut by Robert Granjon. The 1590 edition of Arabic Gospels is also highly praised for its exceptional illustrative apparatus, including numerous woodcut vignettes, some of which were executed by the woodblock carver Leonardo Parasole (1570-1630) after the renowned painter and printmaker Antonio Tempesta (1555-1630). The presence of these illustrations – which include the figural representation of the divine – suggests this publishing initiative was intended for a European market, rather than as an effort to convert Muslims, for whom such figural representation is proscribed.

This copy belongs to the issue bearing the title-page set in Arabic as well as in Latin types, and including the date of publication.

Adams B-1822; Mortimer Italian, 64; Tinto, La tipografia medicea orientale, p. 79; Darlow & Moule 1636; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 168.

The only surviving copy of the very first edition

105. Vecellio, Cesare (ca. 1521-1601)

Corona delle nobili e virtuose donne. Libro primo [- secondo]. Nel quale si dimostra in varj dissegni tutte le sorti di Mostre di Punti tagliati, Punti in aria, Punti à Reticello, e d’ogni altra sorte... Opera nuova e non più data in luce. Giorgio Angelieri for Cesare Vecellio, [1591].

Two parts in one volume, oblong 4° (140x190 mm). Collation: A4, B2, C-F4, Hhh2; AA-FF4. [24]; [24] leaves. Roman and italic type. Vecellio's woodcut bird device on the title-pages. Forty-five woodcut patterns for embroidery and lace designs (twenty-three plates in the first Book: twenty-two in the second one), mostly on black ground and printed on recto only, with the exception of fol. A4 of the Libro primo, bearing illustrations on both sides. Nineteenth-century red morocco, signed on the rear pastedown by Georges Trautz-Bauzonnet (1808-1879). Spine with five raised bands, title lettered in gilt. Marbled pastedowns and flyleaves, inside dentelles. Green silk bookmark, gilt edges. A very good copy, slightly soiled and foxed in the margin.

Provenance: Edward Arnold (d. ca. 1911; ex-libris on the front pastedown; see A Catalogue of the Library Formed by Edward Arnold, Grove Dorking, privately printed, 1921, no. 691, “[...] crimson morocco extra, edges gilt, by Trautz-Bauzonnet”; by descent to his son Andrew W. Arnold (see his sale at Sotheby's, Catalogue of the Valuable Library Largely of French Literature in Handsome Bindings, Formed by the Late Edward Arnold... of the Grove, Dorking, London 1929); purchased by the London bookseller Bernard Quaritch; sale Libreria Vinciana, 8/9 June 1948, lot 280).

The only known copy of the first edition of the first two books of the most distinctive Venetian embroidery pattern book, published by Cesare Vecellio. He was a cousin and pupil of Titian and became especially well known for having decorated, with drawings or painted fore-edges, the bindings of the 172 volumes preserved in Pillone's Villa Casteldardo, in the Dolomites (see nos. 157 and 159). He also published a very successful compendium of world costume, De gli habiti antichi, et moderni di diuerse parti del mondo (Venice 1590). The printing date of the first edition of the Corona is inferred from the two dedicatory letters addressed by Vecellio to Viena Vendramini Nani, wife of the Procurator of St. Marks, and are dated 20 and 24 January 1591, respectively.

This first edition of the Corona delle nobili e virtuose donne (Crown for noble and virtuous Ladies) includes forty-five woodcut patterns for embroidery and lace designs, the geometrical, curving, and almost fantastical white lines of which stand out against a dark background, offering marvellous patterns of punti tagliati or cutworks, punti in aria, punti a reticello or reticella works. The Corona was reprinted several times (two reprints were issued as early as 1591). A third and fourth books also appeared in 1591 and 1593, under the title of Gioiello della corona.

Lotz lists as the only surviving testimony of Angelieri's first edition of the Libro primo and Libro secondo the copy described here, once belonging to Edward Arnold, whose collection was presented in a catalogue privately published in 1921 by his son Andrew, and later sold at auction in London in 1929. Arnold's library included a great number of early pattern books for lace and embroidery (see lot 673- 691). “Of all the library, I am told, the rarest, are the old Venetian lace books. Altogether, as the catalogue shows, there are eighteen of these lace books. It is difficult to estimate their rarity as there are some that are not to be found in the Catalogue of British Museum, Bibliothèque Nationale, nor in Berlin” (A Catalogue of the Library Formed by Edward Arnold, p. IV).

Purchased by Bernard Quaritch, this copy of the Corona delle nobili e virtuose donne was sold again at auction in Italy in 1948 (Libreria Vinciana, 8/9 June 1948, no. 280). Since then, it has remained in a private collection.

Lotz, Bibliographie der Modelbücher, Stuttgart-London 1933, nos. 116a and 117; Cesare Vecellio, Pattern Book of Renaissance Lace: A Reprint of the 1617 Edition of the 'Corona delle nobili et virtuose donne', New York 1988, pp. VII, 35; T. Conte (ed.), Cesare Vecellio, 1521 c.-1601, Belluno 2001; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 169.

Their splendour cannot be described, and anyone who did not see it could not believe it — J. M. Saslow

107. Scarabelli, Orazio (fl. 1580-1600) - D’Alfani, Epifanio (fl. 1586-1615)

Festival prints relating to the wedding of the Grand Duke Ferdinando I de’ Medici to the Princess Christine de Lorraine. Filippo Suchielli, [after 1592].

An album with fifteen double-page etchings and engravings, each leaf approximately 315x418 mm, tipped onto stubs. Eighteenth-century écaille calf, covers within gilt triple-fillet border, at the centre of the upper cover the initials 'P. A.' and, below, 'PIATTI' stamped in gold. Smooth spine decorated with gilt floral tools, title printed in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Marbled pastedowns and flyleaves; light-blue silk bookmark. Red edges. A very good copy, small loss of paper to plate [1], skilfully repaired; some occasional waterstaining and spotting throughout, mainly to the versos and margins.

Provenance: P. A.; Piatti (both lettered on the binding).

An extremely rare collection of these fine prints – all with wide margins – depicting the architectural ornamentation, scenic designs, and jousts relating to the event which mobilized, and combined the intellectual and artistic forces of Tuscany at the zenith of its prestige: the wedding of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando I de' Medici, to the French princess, Christine de Lorraine, which took place in 1589.

While the pair had already married in 1586, the marriage was not celebrated until Christine's arrival into Florence on 30 April 1589. The festivities required ten months of preparations, and lasted all throughout the month of May until 8 June 1589. They consisted of pageants, balls, games, cavalcades, processions, a naumachia or naval battle in the inner courtyard of Palazzo Pitti, and other performances – including a demonstrative soccer match in front of the Basilica di Santa Croce on 9 May – all glorifying the couple. Especially noteworthy are the so-called intermedi typical of the Florentine theatre tradition, i.e., short performances of songs, music, and dances inserted between the acts of the comedies being presented.

Owing to the magnificence of the events depicted, it may well be the only festival book to have received a monograph expressly devoted to it: James Saslow's The Medici Wedding of 1589.

While more common examples of these prints can be found loose as single sheets, this copy, like the most comprehensive surviving set (held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and including twenty-nine plates), is bound in a haphazard order featuring a more complete body of work that helps evoke something of the grandeur of these formidable proceedings. The Getty Museum similarly has a composite album, although theirs is lacking our plate [12], Stage setting, intermedio 4.

This comprehensive collection includes fifteen plates, as follows:

Plate [1]: Sixth entry arch, Canto degli Antellesi (platemark 241x322 mm). Unsigned. [Getty no. 17; Saslow no. 6].

Plate [2]: First entry arch, Porta al Prato (platemark 242x340 mm). Signed 'Oraz S.' in the lower right corner. [Getty no. 3; Saslow no. 1].

Plate [3]: Second entry arch, Ponte alla Carraia (platemark 251x337 mm). Signed 'Oraz S.' in the lower right corner. [Getty no. 15; Saslow no. 2].

Plate [4]: Fourth entry arch, Duomo facade (platemark 244x340 mm). Signed 'Oraz S.' in the lower right corner. [Getty no. 14; Saslow no. 4].

Plate [5]: Seventh entry arch, Palazzo Vecchio facade (platemark 265x344 mm). Signed 'filippo suchielli for in Siena' in the lower right corner. [Getty no. 1; Saslow no. 7].

Plate [6]: Fifth entry arch, Canto de' Bischeri (platemark 246x338 mm). Signed 'Oraz S.' in the lower right corner. [Getty no. 2; Saslow no. 5].

Plate [7]: Third entry arch, canto dei Carnesecchi (plate mark 247x337 mm). Signed 'Oraz S.' in the lower right corner. [Getty no. 18; Saslow no. 3].

Plate [8]: Naumachia, Pitti courtyard (platemark 245x350 mm). Signed 'Oraz S.' in the lower right corner; in the middle of the upper margin 'filippo suchielli for Siena'. [Getty no. 6; Saslow no. 87].

Plate [9]: Pitti Palace courtyard equipped for foot-combat (platemark 234x324 mm). Unsigned. [Getty no. 5; Saslow no. 71].

Plate [10]: Stage perspective (platemark 234x342 mm). Signed 'Orazio Schari. Fiorentino' in the lower right corner. [Getty no. 4; Saslow no. 68].

Plate [11]: Joust in Piazza Santa Croce (platemark 241x337 mm). Signed 'Orazio Sccarabelli Fior. no. Fec' in the lower right corner; at the lower left margin 'filippo suchielli for Siena'. [Getty no. 12; Saslow no. 70].

Plate [12]: Stage setting, intermedio 4 (platemark 257x359 mm). Signed on chariot wheel 'D. Epiphanio. d. Alf. M. Vall. Incid.'; at the lower left corner 'filippo suchielli for Siena'. Lacking from Getty Album; [Saslow no. 52].

Plate [13]: Chariot procession of Neptune (platemark 246x335 mm). Signed 'D. Epiph. fec.' in the lower right corner; at the lower left corner 'filippo suchielli for Siena'. [Getty no. 9; Saslow no. 88].

Plate [14]: Stage design, Intermedio 2 (platemark 243x336 mm). Signed and dated 'D. Epif:o d'Alfiano Mon:co Vallombrosano f. 1592' in the lower right corner. At the centre of the lower margin 'filippo suchielli for Siena'. [Getty no. 11; Saslow no. 27].

Plate [15]: Stage scene, Intermedio 5 (platemark 248x355 mm). Unsigned. At the lower left corner 'filippo suchielli for Siena'. [Getty no. 8; Saslow no. 55].

In the present album, plates nos. [1], [2], [5], [7], [8], [11]-[15] are in the second state, after being reworked by the printer and typographer Filippo Succhielli from Siena. Succhielli added his address to plate nos. [5], [8], [11]-[15], and changed some details in plate [1] (adding the inscription 'principes Religione et Iustitia dii fivnt' and two coats of arms at the base of the external columns); in plate [2] by replacing the Medici-Lorena coat of arms; in plate [7] by replacing the Medici-Lorena coat of arms; in plate [14] by adding a cardinal's coat of arms surmounting Apollo's head; in plate [15] by replacing the peacock emblem in the cartouche held by Amphitrite with the cardinal's arm which had previously appeared in plate [15]. Saslow apparently only knows of variants for this plate (in “three states”), ignoring the reworkings found on other plates listed above.

J. M. Saslow, The Medici Wedding of 1589: Florentine Festival as Theatrum Mundi, New Haven, CT 1996; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 171.

The first printed book on plastic surgery

108. Tagliacozzi, Gaspare (1545-1599)

De Curtorum Chirurgia per insitionem, libri duo. In quibus ea omnia, quae ad huius Chirurgia, Narium scilicet, Aurium, ac labiorum per insitionem restaurandorum cum Theoricen, tum Practicen pertinere videbantur.... Gaspare Bindoni, 1597.

Two parts in one volume, folio (322x215 mm). Printed on large paper. Collation: †6, χ2, ††8, A-H6, Aa-Hh6; Aaa-Ddd6, a-b6, c4. [32], 94, [2], 95, [1]; 47, [33] pages. Roman and italic type. Engraved architectural frontispiece attributed to Oliviero Gatti (1579–1648), including on the sides the standing figures of Hippocrates and Galen, on the upper panel the arms of the dedicatee Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, and on the lower one Bindoni's device. A different printer's device on the following printed title-page. Woodcut illustrations in the text, including twenty-two full-page woodcuts with keys on opposite pages. Woodcut decorated initials. Contemporary limp vellum, traces of ties. Smooth spine. A good, wide-margined copy, with engraved frontispiece almost untrimmed. A few leaves uniformly browned, pale waterstain to the lower margin of the first leaves, light foxing in places. Slip of paper with a note dated 1616 pasted onto the verso of the title-page.

Provenance: Cardinal Carlo Oppizzoni (1769-1855; ex-libris on the front pastedown), from 1802 Archbishop of Bologna.

A landmark in the history of surgery: the first edition – presented here in its first issue, without the license to print dated 9 October 1596 on the verso of the title-page – of the first book devoted exclusively to plastic surgery and reconstruction, written by Gaspare Tagliacozzi, a pupil of Girolamo Cardano and professor of surgery and anatomy at Bologna.

The treatise describes in detail surgical operations to repair the ears, nose and lips, employing skin grafts taken from the upper arm of the patient. The De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem (On the Surgical Restoration of Defects by Grafting) is considered one of the most important medical books of the sixteenth century. It enjoyed wide and enduring popularity, owing to the fact that plastic surgery and reconstruction – and most especially rhinoplasty – were much in demand in the age, particularly as remedies for both the injuries resulting from duels and from the deformities caused by syphilis. It was pirated by the Venetian printer Roberto Meietti in the same year, and in 1598 it was reprinted in a smaller size in Frankfurt.

“Tagliacozzi's most important innovation was the development of a means of replacing the missing nose, for a person without nose is bound to be 'unhappy' and his unhappiness could well make him or her ill. It also marked that person as not only deseased but also infectious, whether or not actual 'infection' as we know it, was present. The stigma was real enough. The noseless were poluted and polluting. Here the problem of the relationship of reconstructive surgery to aestetic surgery appears at the very 'origin' of aestetic surgery. It seems self-evident, that anyone without a nose will be unhappy, and the reconstruction of the nose will make that person happier and therefore healthier. Tagliacozzi recognized this” (S. L. Gilman, Making the Body Beautiful, pp. 67-68).

This Venetian edition is also famous for its illustrative apparatus, with twenty-two full-page woodcuts depicting surgical instruments as well as textual explanations of various surgical procedures. These woodcuts were skilfully executed by an anonymous designer, perhaps one of numerous artists in the circle patronized by Duke of Mantua Vincenzo Gonzaga, the financial backer and dedicatee of Tagliacozzi's work.

This copy of the De curtorum chirurgia belongs to a limited issue printed by the Venetian publisher Bindoni on large and thick paper. “There are two issues of De curtorum chirurgia. The majority of copies, printed on ordinary paper, have an imprimatur on the verso of the title-page. Other copies, which lack the imprimatur, are printed on large and thick paper that can be distinguished by its watermarks. These copies were undoubtedly intended as presentation copies” (Norman).

Adams T-59; Mortimer Italian, 488; Cushing T-16; Durling 4310; Garrison-Morton 5734; Heirs of Hippocrates 379; Norman 2048; Waller 9541; Wellcome 6210; The Illustrated Bartsch, 41, p. 76; M.T. Gnudi - J. P. Webster, The Life and Times of Gaspare Tagliacozzi, New York 1950, pp. 183-216; S. L. Gilman, Making the Body Beautiful. A Cultural History of Aestetic Surgery, Princeton 1999, pp. 66-73; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 172.

A new discovery in the print tradition of the Songes Drolatiques Allemands

109. [Custos, Dominicus, attributed to]

Songes Drolatiques Allemands. Set of twenty-six engravings. [Augsburg, after 1597].

A complete suite of twenty-six plates (108-121x77-90 mm), in the second state of three. Each plate with 4-9-mm margins on all four sides. Plates numbered I-XXVI, at the bottom centre of each plate. Plate XII is signed with the unidentified monogram 'SBR' in reverse, and with the letter 'A' on the left side of the Roman number. Good impressions, very fresh.

Exceptionally rare and complete suite of engravings attributed to the Flemish printer and engraver Dominicus Custos (1560-1612), active in Augsburg from 1590, here in their second, previously unrecorded state. A precious survey of the ornamental grotesque in late sixteenth-century-German graphic art, and an unusually playful testimony to the charm of some of the most imaginative and remarkable 'translations' of sixteenth-century French illustration.

Until the discovery of this second-state set, only one copy of the first state (Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Cabinet des Estampes, Res. Tf-1-Fold, Marolles N° 222), and only an incomplete copy of what is now considered to be the third state (held at the Schloss Wolffegg, Kupferstichkabinett, but possibly now lost) were known.

The Parisian, first-state edition of the Songes Drolatiques Allemands contains a proper printed title-page – Les Songes Drolatiques de Pantagruel ou sont continues plusieurs figures de l'invention de Maistre Francois Rabelais... Imprimé en Augustae Vindelicorum par Iean Pretoir, en despens du Dominique Custodis. M.D.XCVII – based on which art historians have attributed the role of the publication's engraver, or at least its financial backer, to the Flemish artist and printer Dominicus Custos.

Apart from the printed title-page, this first state consists of fifteen single oblong sheets (measuring 154-169x105-121 mm) and mounted by Abbé Marolles (Michel de Marolles, 1600-1681) in a large album, including also a copy of Lucini's Caramogi (see no. 193). Of these, nine sheets contain only one horizontally oriented copperplate, while the remaining six each contain two vertically oriented engravings. The first five plates bear Arabic numerals on the left sides (only the number '4' is still visible in the second state, pl. XI); the subsequent plates 6-9 bear respectively the Arabic numbering 1-4 (with only the numbers '1' and '2' still visible in the second state, pls. V and IV, respectively). These nine engravings of the first state are evidently a new invention by the artist, whereas the remaining six sheets, with two engravings each, are unnumbered, and inspired by the woodcuts included in the Songes drolatiques de Pantagruel, a work attributed to Jean Rabelais and published in 1565 by François Desprez (see the woodcuts on fols. E4r, C4v, D4v, A4v, B7v, C5r, B8r, D8v, C7v, C8r, A5r, and D5r, corresponding to plates XV-XXVI of the second state). These new plates show brilliant combinations of fantastical elements, demonstrating the influence of themes of the so-called 'world upside down' (die verkehrte Welt), and the iconographical tradition known as Schnacken (dragonflies).

For the second state, presented here, the printmaker re-used the first eight copperplates from the first state, each of which contained two figures and was horizontally oriented; he divided these approximately into halves, making an effort to respect the entirety of a given engraving's two figures. He did not use the two small, off-centre images on the fifth and eighth plates, nor that on the ninth, owing to the fact that this was integral to – and thus 'inseparable' from – the original composition. In this way, the printer was able to obtain fourteen vertically oriented, single-figure copperplates. He then used all twelve of the vertically oriented single-figure copperplates from the first state (which had been printed in twos), to arrive, finally, at the total twenty-six single plates.

Each of the second and third state 'vertical' copperplates are set within newly engraved line-border, and are numbered at the bottom with Roman numerals (I to XXVI) which do not correspond to their 'original' placement in the first state.

In the third state – the sole surviving copy of which contains only plates I-II and IV-XXVI – each plate is supplemented by a German moralising quatrain variously engraved in the spaces left empty by the figures.

This newly discovered second-state set is a true testament to the wit and imagination of the Songes drolatiques as well as a critical piece for understanding the evolution of its legacy following the initial Rabelais publication. In this way, it is also a powerful lens into the creative process, offering tangible evidence of the way artists engage with art and its dynamic, multi-layered history.

J. Porcher, “L'auteur des Songes drolatiques de Pantagruel”, Mélanges offert à A. Lanfranc, Paris 1936, pp. 229, 232; Idem, Les songes drolatiques de Pantagruel et l'imagerie en France au XVIe siècle, Paris 1959; J. Baltrusaitis, Réveil et prodiges. Le gothique fantastique, Paris 1960, pp. 348-351 ; E.-M. Schenck, Das Bilderrätsel, Hildesheim 1973, pp. 86, 303; C.-P. Warncke Die ornamental Groteske in Deutschland, 1500-1650, Berlin 1979, I, pp. 71-4, and pls. 628-52; S. Laube, “Songes drolatiques and die Realität der Dinge bei Rabelais and Bruegel”, H. Bredekamp et al. (eds.), Imagination und Rapräsentation, Paderborn 2010, pp. 259-276; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 173.

The first Italian translation, by the author himself

110. Possevino, Antonio (1533-1611)

Coltura de gl’ingegni... Nella quale con molta dottrina, & giuditio si mostrano li doni che ne gl’ingegni dell’huomo ha posto Iddio, la uarietà, & inclinatione loro, e di doue nasce, & come si conosca, li modi, e mezi d’essercitarli per le discipline, li rimedij a gl’impedimenti, li coleggi, & università, l’uso de’ buoni libri, e la corretione de’ cattiui. Giorgio Greco, 1598.

4° (207x147 mm). Collation: a-b4, A-N4, O6. [16], 115, [1] pages. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Traces of ties to the fore-edges. Smooth spine with remains of two paper labels. A good copy, a few leaves uniformly browned; fols. O3 and O4 partly loose. Short tears to the lower outer corners of fols. L2-L4 and M1, not affecting text. Early shelfmark on the front pastedown.

Provenance: Theological Institute of Connecticut, East Windsor Hill (now defunct; blind stamps on the first and last quires, and fol. b1); the well-known Italian librarian and bibliographer from Parma Luigi Balsamo (1926-2012; ex-libris on the front pastedown).

First Italian translation of the first twelve chapters of Possevino's ambitious bibliographical treatise, Bibliotheca selecta, which had appeared in Rome in 1593. The present copy comes from the library of Italian scholar Luigi Balsamo, author of the two-volume work La Biblioteca selecta di Antonio Possevino S.I. ovvero l'enciclopedia cattolica della Controriforma (Firenze 1999).

The translation was made by Possevino himself and is divided into fifty-six chapters, each given an individual title to facilitate reading and the finding of various topics. The Jesuit had passed the manuscript on to Mariano Lauretti, who published the work with a dedicatory epistle to Baron Oswald Trapp.

In his Coltura de gl'ingegni ('Cultivation of the Intellectual Faculties') Possevino offers a detailed curriculum, describing several European universities and brilliantly illustrating the teaching in the Collegio Romano, while also discussing printing, book selling, and censorship.

M. Cristofari, “La tipografia vicentina nel secolo XVI”, Miscellanea di scritti di bibliografia ed erudizione in memoria di Luigi Ferrari, Firenze 1952, no. 233; A. Anichini - P. Giorgi, 100 immagini di libri di scuola. Il fondo antiquario del Museo Nazionale della Scuola di Firenze, secoli XVI-XVIII, Firenze 2013, pp. 58, 183; L. Balsamo, “Venezia e l'attività editoriale di Antonio Possevino (1553-1606)”, La Bibliofilia, 93 (1991), pp. 65-66; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 175.

Bordering on the fringes of heresy and the occult

111. (pseud-) Gioacchino da Fiore

Vaticinia Pontificum. Illustrated manuscript on grey-blue paper, in Italian. Italy, end of the sixteenth century.

266x211 mm. 20 leaves. Complete. Five quires. Collation: 14+1, 24, 34+1, 44,52. Blanks fols. 1/5r and 5/2. Modern pencilled foliation (used here). Written in brown ink, in a unique hand. On the first leaf beneath the title ('Prophetia dello Abbate Ioachino circa li Pontifici & RE'), Christ's monogram 'HIS' within an elaborate cartouche. Thirty-two wash drawings in brown ink heightened in white chalk biacca. On fol. 18r a folding tab pasted to the outer corner bearing the text 'Leo XII. quem Deus sospitem diutissime servet'. Eighteenth-century brown morocco, covers within an elaborate gilt frame, cornerpieces. Smooth spine richly gilt. Marbled edges. Lower joint damaged at the extremities. Preserved in a cloth box with morocco lettering-piece on spine. Manuscript in good condition, the ink has corroded several lines of text, paper eroded in places; all holes have been skilfully repaired.

Illustration

Fol. 1r: title and elaborate cartouche;

fol. 1v: a friar at a lectern – evidently Joachim of Fiore – preaching to his confreres;

fol. 4v: monk with a halo giving books to four monks and four nuns;

fol. 5r: Onorius IV ('Dure fatiche sustinerà del corpo');

fol. 5v: Celestinus IV ('La voce vulpina perderà il principato');

fol. 6r: Alexander V ('La confusione et errore sera uitiato');

fol. 6v: Iohannes XXIII ('Elatione');

fol. 7r: Benedictus XIII ('Li homini forti sara orbati de la Inuidia');

fol. 7v: Clemens V ('Mobile, et immobile se fara, et assai mati guastata');

fol. 8r: Innocentius VII ('Le decime seranno dissipate in la effusione del sangue');

fol. 8v: Gregorius XII ('La penitentia, tenera le vestigie de Simon Mago');

fol. 9r: Niccolo III ('Le stelle congregara accioche luceno nel firmamento del cielo'):

fol. 9v: Martinus IV ('Con le chiaue serara et non aprira');

fol. 10r: Nicolaus IV ('Loriente beuera del Calice de lira de Dio');

fol. 10v: Bonifacius VIII ('Fraudolentemente sei intrato potentemente hai regnato, tu morirai gemendo');

fol. 11r: Iohannes XXII ('Contra la Columba questa imagine brutissima de Chierici pugnata');

fol. 11v: Benedictus XII ('Sei Planeti lucidata et finalmente uno excedera il fulgore di quelle');

fol. 12r: Clemens VI ('La Stola sua delbara nel sangue de l'agnello');

fol. 12v: Innocentius VI ('Il lupo habitata con lo agnello, et parimente cibaransi');

fol. 13r: Urbanus V ('Questo sole aprira il libro scritto con il dito de Dio viuo');

fol. 13v: Gregorius XI ('Li fiori rossi laqua odorifera distillarano');

fol. 14r: Urbanus VI, the Antichrist ('Tu sei terribile, che fara resistentia a te');

fol. 14v: Bonifacius IX ('Lo occisione del figliolo de Balael seguirano');

fol. 15r: Martinus V ('La incisione hipocresi sera ne labominatione');

fol. 15v: Eugenius IV ('La occisione del figliol de Balael seguirano');

fol. 16r: view of a city ('Sangue');

fol. 16v: a pope with a fox and flagstaffs ('Con bona gratia cessara la Symonia');

fol. 17r: view of a city ('La potestate sera unitate');

fol. 17v: the naked pope ('La bona oratione altramente operatione Thesauro a li poueri sera erogato');

fol. 18r: a pope as a pastor ('Bona intentione');

fol. 18v: a pope being crowned by an angel ('Pro honoratione');

fol. 19r: a pope enthroned and surrounded by angels ('Occisione bona');

fol. 19v: a pope with Nabuchodonosor as a monstrous creature ('Reuerentia').

An interesting manuscript on grey-blue paper containing the earliest translation in Italian vernacular – made by the Dominican Leandro Alberti – of the Vaticinia pontificum, the mystical prophecies traditionally attributed to the Calabrian abbot Joachim of Fiore (ca. 1132-1202). The Vaticinia may have had Byzantine origins, but by the late thirteenth century the prophecies were being disseminated by Joachimite disciples and were associated with his authorship. It is the most important apocalyptic work of the Middle Ages, and the manuscript was widely circulated.

The text of the Vaticinia pontificum was produced in two stages. The older set consists of fifteen prophecies, substantially Latin translations of the Greek Oracles composed by Leo the Wise which had been in circulation since about the time of Pope Benedict XI's death in 1304. In the second half of the fourteenth century, another fifteen similar prophecies were produced. From the early fifteenth century onward these two series, along with their related images, commonly circulated together, the more recent series generally placed before the older one to keep the future predictions further from the present. Each prophecy follows a canonized scheme composed of four elements: an emblematic image of a pope, his name before and after becoming pope, a mystical prophecy, and a motto.

In 1515 the Bolognese Dominican Leandro Alberti (1479-1552) – the well-known author of the popular Descrittione di tutta Italia (see no. 110), which was first published in 1550 – was responsible for one of the earliest printed edition of the Vaticinia pontificum.

Alberti's edition appeared in print in Bologna in July 1515 under the title Ioachimi abbatis Vaticinia circa apostolicos viros et Ecclesiam Romanam, and is his first published work. The booklet was issued from the press of Girolamo Benedetti simultaneously with the Italian vernacular edition of the text (Prophetia dello abbate Ioachino circa li Pontifici et R.C). Both editions had obtained the imprimatur from the Inquisition, despite the nature and content of the prophecies bordering on the fringes of heresy and the occult. The Bolognese edition of the Prophetia dello abbate Ioachino is illustrated with thirty woodcuts which only partially follow the traditional illustrative apparatus found in the manuscript tradition of the Vaticinia as they are lacking the names of the popes depicted in the emblematic images. A second edition of Leandro's translation was published in Venice in 1527 by an anonymous printer employing a different set of woodblocks, including two additional illustrations not belonging to the traditional Vaticinia series.

The present manuscript closely follows the Venetian edition of 1527, containing – like its printer counterpart (we have referenced the copy in the British Library, 730/1609) – thirty-two illustrations in the form of chiaroscuro wash drawings, including the two additional images, along with the identical elaborate cartouche on the title leaf. The first illustration is here painted on the verso of the first leaf and shows a friar at a desk – evidently Joachim of Fiore – preaching to his confreres. The second illustration depicts an unidentified monk with a halo giving a book entitled Vitae Patrum to four monks on his right, as well as an untitled book to four nuns on his left (in contrast, in the Venetian Prophetia both books are entitled Vitae Patrum). The subsequent thirty illustrations belong to the traditional Vaticinia series, but – as in the aforementioned printed editions – the scheme is composed of only three elements: an image of a pope at the centre of the page, a motto at the top, and the mystical prophecy below. In this manuscript, however, the sequence of emblematic illustrations does not always follow that found in the Venetian publication. The mottos and the mystical prophecies accompanying each illustration are substantially identical to those included in the publication of 1527, with a few minor orthographical variants.

The manuscript also includes the dedicatory letter from Leandro Alberti to Giulio de' Medici, the future Pope Clemens VII and, at that time, Apostolic Legate in Bologna (fols. 2r-v), followed by the Vita de Ioachino Abbate de S. Flore, composed likewise by Alberti (fols. 3r-v), and the short address in verse on fol. 4r 'Sopra le Prophetie de lo Abbate Ioachino al Lectore' by Filippo Fasanini (d. 1531), to whom the translation into Italian has been also attributed.

Both printed editions of 1515 of 1527 are of the greatest rarity, and extant copies can be counted on one hand. The Bolognese as well as the Venetian Prophetia dello abbate Ioachino were apparently printed in a limited number of copies, a feature which might explain the enduring manuscript circulation of this prophetical work during the age of printing.

H. Grundman, “Die Papstprophetien des Mittelalters”, Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, 19 (1929), pp. 77-138; M. Reeves, The Influence of Prophecy in the Later Middle Ages. A Study in Joachimism, Oxford 1969; D. L. Drysdall, “Filippo Fasanini and his 'Explanation of Sacred Writing', The Journal of Medieval and Renaissance studies, 13 (1983), pp. 127-155; A. Prosperi, “Intorno a un catechismo figurato del tardo '500”, E. Ullmann (ed.), Von der Macht der Bilder. Beiträge des CIHA- Kolloquiums “Kunst und Reformation”, Leipzig 1983, pp. 99-114; O. Niccoli, “Prophetie di musaico. Figure e scritture gioachimite nella Venezia del Cinquecento”, A. Rotondò (ed.), Forme e destinazione del messaggio religioso: aspetti della propaganda religiosa nel Cinquecento, Firenze 1991, pp. 197-227; H. Millet, Il libro delle immagini dei papi. Storia di un testo profetico medievale, Roma 2002; F. Troncarelli (ed.), Il ricordo del futuro. Giacchino da Fiore e il Gioachimismo attraverso la storia, Bari 2006; A. Damanti, “Bononia docet: Leandro Alberti e l'ambiente umanistico a Bologna. Con qualche nota sulle edizioni albertiane dei Vaticinia Summi Pontificis”, M. Donattini (ed.), L'Italia dell'Inquisitore. Storia e geografia dell'Italia del Cinquecento nella Descrittione di Leandro Alberti, Bologna 2007, pp. 97-116; J.-B. Lebigue, H. Millet et. al. (eds.), Vaticinia Pontificum (ms. A.2448, Biblioteca Comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bolonia). Libro de estudios, Madrid 2008; R. Rusconi, Santo Padre. La santità del papa da san Pietro a Giovanni Paolo I, Roma 2010; A. Prosperi, “Vaticinia Pontificum. Peregrinazioni cinquecentesche di un testo celebre”. M. Donattini (ed.), Tra Rinascimento e Controriforma: Continuità di una ricerca. Atti della giornata di studi per Albano Biondi, Verona 2012, pp. 77-111; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 177.

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