Theology and Philosophy Philobiblon

One Thousand Years of Bibliophily from the 11th to the 21st Century

The Statutes of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, bound by Soresini for the Grand Master

165. Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Gli Statuti della Sacra Religione di S. Gio: Gierosolomitano. Tradotti di Latino in Volgare di Iacomo Bosio Agente della medesima Religione nella Corte di Roma. Aggiuntiui li Priuilegij dell’istessa Religione.... Giacomo Tornieri and Giacomo Ruffinello, 1589.

Two parts in one volume, 4° (247x170 mm). Collation: *6, **4, A-Z4, Aa-Nn4, a-g4, h6; A-P4. [20], 280, [76]; 92 of 96 (lacking the leaves M3 and M4, also not present in the other recorded copies), [24] pages. Complete with fols. Nn4 and h6 blanks. Roman and italic type. Separate title-pages for each part, bearing the woodcut coat of arms of Cardinal Hugues Loubens de Verdalle (1531-1595), Grand Master of the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Fols. *5r-*6v, containing the privilege of the Grand Master (dated 20 November 1588), within a woodcut border. Magnificent contemporary Roman brown morocco over pasteboards, executed by Francesco Soresini's workshop. Covers within frames of blind and gilt fillets, narrow frieze all'antica, and small floral tools. At centre cornerpieces, on the top the monogram 'IHS', all in gilt; on the upper cover painted coat of arms of the Grand Master Hugues Loubens de Verdalle, in gilt medallion surmounted by cardinal hat, below the inscription in gilt 'F. VGO DE LOVBENX VERDALA CAR: GRAN MAESTRO'; on the lower cover painted coat of arms of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem painted within gilt oval frame, below the inscription 'DEL CAVAL. F. FRAN. HIER. BERTIO' in gilt, referring to the Knight Francesco Girolamo Berti. Spine with four raised bands, underlined with gilt fillets, compartments decorated with gilt foliate tools, title in gold on lettering-piece. Edges gilt. Joints weakened but still solid, extremities of the spine and corners slightly worn. A very good copy, with only occasional foxing.

Provenance: Grand Master of the Order of Knights of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, Hugues Loubens de Verdalle (1531-1595; armorial binding); given by him as a gift to Francesco Girolamo Berti (gilt inscription on the lower cover); to his brother Fabrizio Berti (ownership inscription on the first title-page 'Di Fra Fabritio Bertio Baglio di Pavia 1595').

The rarest issue of the Italian translation of the Statuta of the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, first printed in Latin in 1589, presented here in an exceptional copy magnificently bound for the dedicatee and sponsor of the edition, cardinal Hugues Loubens de Verdalle, Grand Master of the Order between 1581 and 1595.

The Statutes were translated from Latin into Italian by Giacomo Bosio, the representative of the Knights at the Roman Curia. The Italian version was examined and approved by a commission in Malta, and was given the same legal status as the original Latin text. The Grand Master decided therefore that the costs of publication were to be sustained by the Order and copies distributed among its members.

The copy presented here is in a handsome binding executed by the leading workshop of Francesco Soresini, appointed Papal binder at the death of Niccolò Franzese in 1575, and the founder of a celebrated dynasty of binders (Francesco, Prospero, and Baldassarre were his heirs). Soresini counted among his clients popes, cardinals, generals of religious orders, and members of the most distinguished Roman families. The binding was commissioned by the Grand Master Hugues Loubens de Verdalle, as attested by his coat of arms and name on the upper cover, and given by him as a gift to Francesco Girolamo Berti, who had entered the Order on 20 September 1567, and whose name is lettered in gilt on the lower cover. The volume then passed down to his brother Fabrizio Berti, who was appointed knight on 4 July 1575 and subsequently became Balio of Pavia, his hometown.

F. de Hellwald, Bibliographie méthodique de l'Ordre Souverain de St. Jean de Jérusalem, Rome 1885, p. 28; G. Vianini Tolomei, Legatura Romana Barocca 1565-1700, Rome 1991, pl. VII (for the tools used here); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 165.

The first book printed by the Medici Oriental Press

168. [Bible. Gospels. Arabic]

Evangelium sanctum Domini Nostri Iesu Christi conscriptum a quatuor Evangelistis sanctis idest, Matthaeo, Marco, Luca, et Iohanne. Medici Oriental Press, 1590 - 1591.

Folio (309x203 mm). Collation: [1-46]4. 386 pages. Text in Arabic. Title-page in Arabic and Latin. Title-page and text within frame of woodcut fillets. 149 large woodcuts (130x100 mm), from sixty-eight blocks, some executed by Leonardo Parasole after Antonio Tempesta. Woodcut head- and tailpieces. Contemporary limp vellum. Title inked in Latin and Arabic by contemporary hands. Losses to the outer lower corners, and to the top of spine. A very good, unsophisticated copy, a few leaves uniformly browned. Some small spots and waterstains to the margins of the title-page, and a heavier waterstain on the last leaf. First and last leaves partially detached.

Provenance: two seventeenth-century ownership inscriptions on the title-page, the first, partially erased, '[...] die 20. Maij. hab. Romae 1668. ex Biblioth. Medicea'; the second one refers to the Franciscan monastery of Trecastagni in Padua ('Pro Conventum S.ti Antonij da Padua Mgr. Trium Castanearum'; inscription repeated with slight variations on the verso of the last leaf).

Rare and finely illustrated first edition of the Gospels printed in Arabic. It is the first book printed by the Typographia Medicea Orientale, established by Gregorius XIII in 1584 specifically for printing in oriental languages, and financially supported by Cardinal and future Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando de' Medici. The Medici Oriental Press was the first printing press in Europe dedicated to printing books in an Arabic font, and the mathematician and orientalist Giovanni Battista Raimondi (1540-1610) was commissioned with its direction. The text of the Gospels was edited by Raimondi himself, and set in the fine types cut by Robert Granjon. The 1590 edition of Arabic Gospels is also highly praised for its exceptional illustrative apparatus, including numerous woodcut vignettes, some of which were executed by the woodblock carver Leonardo Parasole (1570-1630) after the renowned painter and printmaker Antonio Tempesta (1555-1630). The presence of these illustrations – which include the figural representation of the divine – suggests this publishing initiative was intended for a European market, rather than as an effort to convert Muslims, for whom such figural representation is proscribed.

This copy belongs to the issue bearing the title-page set in Arabic as well as in Latin types, and including the date of publication.

Adams B-1822; Mortimer Italian, 64; Tinto, La tipografia medicea orientale, p. 79; Darlow & Moule 1636; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 168.

Bordering on the fringes of heresy and the occult

177. (pseud-) Gioacchino da Fiore

Vaticinia Pontificum. Illustrated manuscript on grey-blue paper, in Italian. Italy, end of the sixteenth century.

266x211 mm. 20 leaves. Complete. Five quires. Collation: 14+1, 24, 34+1, 44,52. Blanks fols. 1/5r and 5/2. Modern pencilled foliation (used here). Written in brown ink, in a unique hand. On the first leaf beneath the title ('Prophetia dello Abbate Ioachino circa li Pontifici & RE'), Christ's monogram 'HIS' within an elaborate cartouche. Thirty-two wash drawings in brown ink heightened in white chalk biacca. On fol. 18r a folding tab pasted to the outer corner bearing the text 'Leo XII. quem Deus sospitem diutissime servet'. Eighteenth-century brown morocco, covers within an elaborate gilt frame, cornerpieces. Smooth spine richly gilt. Marbled edges. Lower joint damaged at the extremities. Preserved in a cloth box with morocco lettering-piece on spine. Manuscript in good condition, the ink has corroded several lines of text, paper eroded in places; all holes have been skilfully repaired.

Illustration

Fol. 1r: title and elaborate cartouche;

fol. 1v: a friar at a lectern – evidently Joachim of Fiore – preaching to his confreres;

fol. 4v: monk with a halo giving books to four monks and four nuns;

fol. 5r: Onorius IV ('Dure fatiche sustinerà del corpo');

fol. 5v: Celestinus IV ('La voce vulpina perderà il principato');

fol. 6r: Alexander V ('La confusione et errore sera uitiato');

fol. 6v: Iohannes XXIII ('Elatione');

fol. 7r: Benedictus XIII ('Li homini forti sara orbati de la Inuidia');

fol. 7v: Clemens V ('Mobile, et immobile se fara, et assai mati guastata');

fol. 8r: Innocentius VII ('Le decime seranno dissipate in la effusione del sangue');

fol. 8v: Gregorius XII ('La penitentia, tenera le vestigie de Simon Mago');

fol. 9r: Niccolo III ('Le stelle congregara accioche luceno nel firmamento del cielo'):

fol. 9v: Martinus IV ('Con le chiaue serara et non aprira');

fol. 10r: Nicolaus IV ('Loriente beuera del Calice de lira de Dio');

fol. 10v: Bonifacius VIII ('Fraudolentemente sei intrato potentemente hai regnato, tu morirai gemendo');

fol. 11r: Iohannes XXII ('Contra la Columba questa imagine brutissima de Chierici pugnata');

fol. 11v: Benedictus XII ('Sei Planeti lucidata et finalmente uno excedera il fulgore di quelle');

fol. 12r: Clemens VI ('La Stola sua delbara nel sangue de l'agnello');

fol. 12v: Innocentius VI ('Il lupo habitata con lo agnello, et parimente cibaransi');

fol. 13r: Urbanus V ('Questo sole aprira il libro scritto con il dito de Dio viuo');

fol. 13v: Gregorius XI ('Li fiori rossi laqua odorifera distillarano');

fol. 14r: Urbanus VI, the Antichrist ('Tu sei terribile, che fara resistentia a te');

fol. 14v: Bonifacius IX ('Lo occisione del figliolo de Balael seguirano');

fol. 15r: Martinus V ('La incisione hipocresi sera ne labominatione');

fol. 15v: Eugenius IV ('La occisione del figliol de Balael seguirano');

fol. 16r: view of a city ('Sangue');

fol. 16v: a pope with a fox and flagstaffs ('Con bona gratia cessara la Symonia');

fol. 17r: view of a city ('La potestate sera unitate');

fol. 17v: the naked pope ('La bona oratione altramente operatione Thesauro a li poueri sera erogato');

fol. 18r: a pope as a pastor ('Bona intentione');

fol. 18v: a pope being crowned by an angel ('Pro honoratione');

fol. 19r: a pope enthroned and surrounded by angels ('Occisione bona');

fol. 19v: a pope with Nabuchodonosor as a monstrous creature ('Reuerentia').

An interesting manuscript on grey-blue paper containing the earliest translation in Italian vernacular – made by the Dominican Leandro Alberti – of the Vaticinia pontificum, the mystical prophecies traditionally attributed to the Calabrian abbot Joachim of Fiore (ca. 1132-1202). The Vaticinia may have had Byzantine origins, but by the late thirteenth century the prophecies were being disseminated by Joachimite disciples and were associated with his authorship. It is the most important apocalyptic work of the Middle Ages, and the manuscript was widely circulated.

The text of the Vaticinia pontificum was produced in two stages. The older set consists of fifteen prophecies, substantially Latin translations of the Greek Oracles composed by Leo the Wise which had been in circulation since about the time of Pope Benedict XI's death in 1304. In the second half of the fourteenth century, another fifteen similar prophecies were produced. From the early fifteenth century onward these two series, along with their related images, commonly circulated together, the more recent series generally placed before the older one to keep the future predictions further from the present. Each prophecy follows a canonized scheme composed of four elements: an emblematic image of a pope, his name before and after becoming pope, a mystical prophecy, and a motto.

In 1515 the Bolognese Dominican Leandro Alberti (1479-1552) – the well-known author of the popular Descrittione di tutta Italia (see no. 110), which was first published in 1550 – was responsible for one of the earliest printed edition of the Vaticinia pontificum.

Alberti's edition appeared in print in Bologna in July 1515 under the title Ioachimi abbatis Vaticinia circa apostolicos viros et Ecclesiam Romanam, and is his first published work. The booklet was issued from the press of Girolamo Benedetti simultaneously with the Italian vernacular edition of the text (Prophetia dello abbate Ioachino circa li Pontifici et R.C). Both editions had obtained the imprimatur from the Inquisition, despite the nature and content of the prophecies bordering on the fringes of heresy and the occult. The Bolognese edition of the Prophetia dello abbate Ioachino is illustrated with thirty woodcuts which only partially follow the traditional illustrative apparatus found in the manuscript tradition of the Vaticinia as they are lacking the names of the popes depicted in the emblematic images. A second edition of Leandro's translation was published in Venice in 1527 by an anonymous printer employing a different set of woodblocks, including two additional illustrations not belonging to the traditional Vaticinia series.

The present manuscript closely follows the Venetian edition of 1527, containing – like its printer counterpart (we have referenced the copy in the British Library, 730/1609) – thirty-two illustrations in the form of chiaroscuro wash drawings, including the two additional images, along with the identical elaborate cartouche on the title leaf. The first illustration is here painted on the verso of the first leaf and shows a friar at a desk – evidently Joachim of Fiore – preaching to his confreres. The second illustration depicts an unidentified monk with a halo giving a book entitled Vitae Patrum to four monks on his right, as well as an untitled book to four nuns on his left (in contrast, in the Venetian Prophetia both books are entitled Vitae Patrum). The subsequent thirty illustrations belong to the traditional Vaticinia series, but – as in the aforementioned printed editions – the scheme is composed of only three elements: an image of a pope at the centre of the page, a motto at the top, and the mystical prophecy below. In this manuscript, however, the sequence of emblematic illustrations does not always follow that found in the Venetian publication. The mottos and the mystical prophecies accompanying each illustration are substantially identical to those included in the publication of 1527, with a few minor orthographical variants.

The manuscript also includes the dedicatory letter from Leandro Alberti to Giulio de' Medici, the future Pope Clemens VII and, at that time, Apostolic Legate in Bologna (fols. 2r-v), followed by the Vita de Ioachino Abbate de S. Flore, composed likewise by Alberti (fols. 3r-v), and the short address in verse on fol. 4r 'Sopra le Prophetie de lo Abbate Ioachino al Lectore' by Filippo Fasanini (d. 1531), to whom the translation into Italian has been also attributed.

Both printed editions of 1515 of 1527 are of the greatest rarity, and extant copies can be counted on one hand. The Bolognese as well as the Venetian Prophetia dello abbate Ioachino were apparently printed in a limited number of copies, a feature which might explain the enduring manuscript circulation of this prophetical work during the age of printing.

H. Grundman, “Die Papstprophetien des Mittelalters”, Archiv für Kulturgeschichte, 19 (1929), pp. 77-138; M. Reeves, The Influence of Prophecy in the Later Middle Ages. A Study in Joachimism, Oxford 1969; D. L. Drysdall, “Filippo Fasanini and his 'Explanation of Sacred Writing', The Journal of Medieval and Renaissance studies, 13 (1983), pp. 127-155; A. Prosperi, “Intorno a un catechismo figurato del tardo '500”, E. Ullmann (ed.), Von der Macht der Bilder. Beiträge des CIHA- Kolloquiums “Kunst und Reformation”, Leipzig 1983, pp. 99-114; O. Niccoli, “Prophetie di musaico. Figure e scritture gioachimite nella Venezia del Cinquecento”, A. Rotondò (ed.), Forme e destinazione del messaggio religioso: aspetti della propaganda religiosa nel Cinquecento, Firenze 1991, pp. 197-227; H. Millet, Il libro delle immagini dei papi. Storia di un testo profetico medievale, Roma 2002; F. Troncarelli (ed.), Il ricordo del futuro. Giacchino da Fiore e il Gioachimismo attraverso la storia, Bari 2006; A. Damanti, “Bononia docet: Leandro Alberti e l'ambiente umanistico a Bologna. Con qualche nota sulle edizioni albertiane dei Vaticinia Summi Pontificis”, M. Donattini (ed.), L'Italia dell'Inquisitore. Storia e geografia dell'Italia del Cinquecento nella Descrittione di Leandro Alberti, Bologna 2007, pp. 97-116; J.-B. Lebigue, H. Millet et. al. (eds.), Vaticinia Pontificum (ms. A.2448, Biblioteca Comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bolonia). Libro de estudios, Madrid 2008; R. Rusconi, Santo Padre. La santità del papa da san Pietro a Giovanni Paolo I, Roma 2010; A. Prosperi, “Vaticinia Pontificum. Peregrinazioni cinquecentesche di un testo celebre”. M. Donattini (ed.), Tra Rinascimento e Controriforma: Continuità di una ricerca. Atti della giornata di studi per Albano Biondi, Verona 2012, pp. 77-111; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 177.

Giordano Bruno’s philosophical lexicon

183. Bruno, Giordano (1548-1600)

Summa terminorum metaphysicorum... Accessit eiusdem praxis Descensus, seu applicatio Entis ex manuscripto, per Raphaelem Eglinum Jconium Tigurinum. Rudolph Hutwelcker, 1609.

8° (155x95 mm). Collation: A-P8, Q4. [16], 229, [3] pages. Roman and italic type. Woodcut ornament on the title-page; woodcut headpieces and decorated initials. Some diagrams in the text. Contemporary limp vellum; smooth spine with running stitches, and traces of inked title, in a contemporary hand. Traces of ties. Binder's waste from a printed seventeenth-century German almanac. Covers slightly stained, text block detached from the spine. A good, unsophisticated copy. A small section from the outer blank margin of the title-page cut and restored, without any loss. Some spots, a few stains, especially on the first leaves, with marginal foxing. On the recto of the front flyleaf, the inked annotation 'Prima Aprilis', and the number '519', pencilled in red by a more recent hand.

Provenance: given by a certain Reiter to Rev. Leib in 1773 (ownership inscription on the verso of the front flyleaf, ‘Ex libris R.d Leib à R.D. Leibn à R D: Reiter dono oblatus anno 1773', and on the title-page, 'Ex Libris Rd Leib').

The rare second and definitive edition of this work by the celebrated philosopher from Nola, Giordano Bruno. After several years wandering between Geneva, Paris, London, Prague, and several cities in German-speaking areas, Bruno returned to Venice in August 1591 but was ultimately deemed a heretic and burned at the stake in Rome at Campo de' Fiori in 1600.

Bruno's Summa terminorum metaphisicorum relays a series of lectures given by him in Zurich; he compiled the text in 1591, while still in the Swiss city. The work aims to provide a lexicon of philosophical terms, which have been divided here into fifty-two concepts according to the model of Aristotelian Metaphysics, among other systems of logic.

The book was edited posthumously by the theologian Raphael Egli (1559-1622), who had become acquainted with Bruno in Geneva, and who later attended his lectures in Zurich. Egli had published a first edition of the Summa terminorum metaphysicorum in Zurich in 1595, while the Nolano was imprisoned at the Sant'Uffizio in Rome. This text was produced on the basis of a manuscript owned by Egli himself which contained only the first part of the work, the De Entis descensus. The enlarged edition of 1609 is introduced by the unchanged dedicatory epistle to Friedrich Salis which had previously been appended to the Summa of 1595, but also includes the significant addition of the Praxis descensus seu applicatio Entis. Bruno's texts are followed by the Tractatus de definitionibus – then erroneously attributed to Athanasius – and the Terminorum quorundam explicationes by Rudolf Goclenius, professor of logic and moral philosophy at the University of Marburg.

Of this Marburg edition two versions of the title-page are known, with and without mention of Egli's affiliation and reference to Goclenius's Terminorum quorundam explicationes. The copy presented here is one of only seven copies known to bear the title-page in the shorter form, and is considered in first issue. There are also variants in the tabula of the errata.

For other works by Bruno in this catalogue see nos. 154 and 161.

I. Salvestrini, Bibliografia, no. 210; Sturlese, Bibliografia, no. 29; E. Canone, “Nota” to G. Bruno, Summa terminorum metaphysicorum. Ristampa anastatica dell'edizione Marburgo 1609, Roma 1989, pp. XI-XXII; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 183.

A journey to the City of Truth

184. Del Bene, Bartolomeo (b. 1514)

Civitas veri sive morum... Aristotelis de moribus doctrinam, carmine et picturis complexa, et illustrata commentariis Theodori Marcilii.... Ambroise and Jérôme Drouart, 1609.

Folio (343x214 mm). Collation: A4, 2A-Z4, Aa-Hh4, Ii6. [8], 258, [2] pages. Complete with fol. A4 blank. Roman, italic, and Greek type. Engraved title-page and thirty-three engraved plates by Thomas de Leu, including a double-page plan of the City of Truth. Woodcut initials, head-and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with title in gilt on lettering-piece. Some wear. A fine and tall copy, slightly browned, pale waterstain at the upper margin. A manuscript note in French on the front flyleaf.

Rare first edition of this remarkable utopian work, a poetic meditation in Latin hexameters, based on the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle. The Civitas veri sive morum was written in 1585 by the diplomat and poet Bartolomeo Del Bene, and posthumously edited in 1609 by his nephew Alfonso, bishop of Albi, who dedicated the publication to Henri IV. The text is accompanied by a commentary by Théodore Marcile (1548-1617).

The poem describes a journey to the City of Truth (Civitas veri) which begins at the Palace of Strength and takes us to the Palaces of Moderation and Excess; we then arrive at the Temples of Glory and Generosity, and finally at the Labyrinth of Vices. The Basilica of Magnanimity and Modesty is a dignified structure, and so too is the House of Courtesy. The contrast is quickly apparent: arrogance, falsity, and injustice are present in the forms of buildings. The edifices of Heroism, Abstinence, and Justice, represent the goal of a virtuous life.

The work is divided into thirty days, starting from the canonical description of the five senses, following by a listing the traditional virtues and vices in hierarchical fashion, and culminating in a discussion of the philosopher's wisdom. The edition is supplemented with a marvellous series of engravings, executed by the publisher and print dealer Thomas de Leu (1560–1620), mostly representing allegories and figures on a pilgrimage to the City of Truth. One double-page plate shows a map of this city.

“Like so many Renaissance allegories, the 'Civitas veri' grows from a medieval root. The commentator Marcile points out its indebtedness to St Augustine's 'City of God', and indeed the plan of the City of Truth recalls illustrations in medieval manuscripts of the City of God. The allegorical dream in the architectural setting has a strong hold on the Renaissance imagination, as exemplified by the 'Hypnerotomachia Poliphili' (see nos. 43 and 103), to which work the 'Civitas veri', though of a different temper, has a certain relationship”. (F. A. Yates, The French Academies of the Sixteen Century, p. 112).”

Duportal, Livres à figures du XVIIe siècle, p. 155; French Emblem Books F.212; Landwehr 255; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 184.

The ‘lunatiques’ of Aix-en-Provence. A Gift from Peiresc to His Friend Gassendi

191. Bacon, Francis (1561-1626)

De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum, Libri ix. Ad Regem suum. Iuxta Exemplar Londini Impressum. Pierre Mettayer, 1624.

Small 4° (256x170 mm). Collation: *2, **4, ***2, A-Z8, AA-ZZ8, AAa-XXx4, YYy2. [16], 540 pages (with some errors in numbering). Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Engraved portrait of the author on fol. *1r. Woodcut decorated initials and headpieces. Fine French contemporary binding executed by Simon Corberan. Red morocco, over pasteboards. Covers framed within triple gilt fillet, central gilt monogram of Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc. Spine with three raised bands, compartments decorated with small floral tools, title and imprint in gilt lettering. 'VERVLAMIVS DE SCIENTIAR. DIGNIT. 1624'. Edges slightly speckled red. A few minor stains to the lower cover. In a modern red morocco box, at foot of the spine 'EXEMPLAIRE DE PEIRESC DONNÉ EN CADEAU À GASSENDI'. A good copy, light offset turn-ins of the binding on the first and last leaves; restored wormhole in the blank outer margin of some leaves, without any loss. Pencilled modern note about the provenance on the recto of the front flyleaf.

Provenance: from the library of Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637), who on 26 March 1636 gave the volume to Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655; ownership inscription on the title-page: 'donum optimi d[omi]ni de Peiresc, ideo acceptum, quòd aliud exe[m]plar in folio hab[ea]t. 26 mart. M.DC.XXXVI. Gassendi.').

Extraordinary association copy of the second Latin edition of this famous treatise by the English philosopher and stateman Francis Bacon, his manifesto for the progress of learning. The volume belonged to the renowned savant, naturalist, antiquarian, book collector and great patron and amateur of sciences and art Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637), who offered it as a gift to one of his closest friends, the famous philosopher and astronomer Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), one of the earliest French admirer of Bacon's experimental philosophy. This exceptional provenance is attested by the inscription on the title-page, in the hand of Gassendi himself. United in the present volume are thus three of the principal scientists and advocates of the New Science: Bacon, Gassendi and the savant for whom the volume was handsomely bound, Peiresc.

Although in his will Peiresc left books – along with mathematical and astronomical instruments – to Gassendi, his nephew refused to let the philosopher have them upon his death on 24 June 1637. The library was thereby dispersed, and a manuscript catalogue now survives in the Bibliothèque Inguimbertine at Carpentras. This copy is thus of especial interest as it rescues a volume from Peiresc's library, and offering documentary evidence of Bacon's ideas and work in the French intellectual circles of the 1620s and the following decades.

Indeed, Peiresc himself was directly involved in the publishing of the 1624 edition of the De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum, edited by Bacon's secretary William Rawley, which first appeared in 1623 in London as an enlarged version of the earlier On the Proficience and Advancement of Learning (1605).

In November 1623 Peiresc had received a letter from the Italian scholar and antiquarian Cassiano del Pozzo, containing a notice of the publication in London of the De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum. In the opinion of Peiresc, the circumstances were also favorable for proposing in France an edition of this work juxta exemplar Londini. Unlike the London folio-edition, for the volume printed by the typographus regius Pierre Mettayer a quarto format was chosen, and copies hot off the press were sent by Peiresc to many correspondents. Peiresc thereby played a pivotal role in the diffusion of Bacon across continental Europe.

In March 1636 a copy of this Parisian edition was still preserved in the large library amassed by Peiresc in Aix-en-Provence, elegantly yet plainly bound in red morocco by the binder Simon Corberan, who moved from Paris to Aix-en-Provence in 1625, and stamped with Peiresc's Greek cipher, two sets of his initials, Ν Κ Φ. And precisely at the beginning of March 1636 his great friend and intellectual interlocutor Pierre Gassendi arrived in Peiresc's residence, as his letter to the Genevan Elie Diodati, dated Aix-en-Provence 8 April 1636, attests.

In the De rebus coelestibus commentarij (1658) Gassendi presents a large number of observations recorded over decades, among them those carried out at Aix in March 1636 together with his friend Peiresc, who had studied astronomy at the Jesuit College in Tournon, and met Galileo at Padua in 1599. Peiresc took an active interest in Galileo's telescopic discoveries, so much so that immediately after the publication in 1610 of the Sidereus Nuncius, he had an observatory built in his Hôtel de Callas in Aix; he spent years recording the times of planetary events and calculating terrestrial longitudes, discovered the first nebula in the constellation Orion, and commissioned the first mapping of the moon.

The 'story' of the present copy of Bacon's De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum has another protagonist, albeit less famous than Peiresc and Gassendi: the binder Simon Corberan, who in March 1636 assisted the two 'lunatiques' of Aix-en-Provence in their astronomic observations. Pereisc had in fact trained his servants also to be astronomers. Corberan began to observe the celestial bodies on 7 November 1631, on the occasion of the transit of Mercury, accurately predicted by Johann Kepler. He also sketched a cahier d'observation, and we have records of Gassendi and Corberan observing an eclipse of the sun in 1639. Corberan represents the “exemple le plus magistral de domestique parvenu au statut de curieux [...]: embauché initialement comme relieur, il devint, sous la direction de Peiresc, un fervent curieux d'astronomie et acquit d'incontestables talents d'observateur” (C. Dauvergne, Un moteur de la révolution scientifique, p. 465).

The gift, on 26 March 1636, of this precious copy of Bacon's De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum – from his library and bound by the relieur-astronome Corberan – to his dearest friend seems to encapsulate the revival of Bacon's philosophy, with its dual emphasis on friendship and the advancement of science. A collaborative venture which reflects Bacon's convinction that the true progress of knowledge can be achieved only through a collective enterprise.

R. W. Gibson, Francis Bacon. A Bibliography of His Works and of Baconiana, Oxford 1950, no. 130; P. Tamizey de Larroque, “Une lettre inédite de Peiresc à son relieur Corberan”, Annuaire-bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France, 26 (1890), pp. 121-126; P. Humbert, “Un relieur astronome”, Mélanges de Philosophie, d'Histoire, et de Littérature, 1934, pp. 209-214; I. de Conihout, “Du nouveau sur la bibliothèque de Peiresc”, M. Fumaroli (ed.), Peiresc et l'Italie, Paris 2009, pp. 243-264; C. Zittel, “Die Lunatiker von Aix-en-Provence”, U. Feist - M. Rath (eds.), Et in imagine Ego. Facetten von Bildakt und Verkörperung. Festgabe für Horst Bredekamp, Berlin 2012, pp. 277-299; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 191.

The festival of Saint Rosalia, the ‘little Saint’ of Palermo

204. Paruta, Filippo (1552-1629)

Relatione delle feste fatte in Palermo nel 1625 per lo trionfo delle gloriose reliquie. Di S. Rosalia vergine palermitana. Scritta dal dottor don Onofrio Paruta, canonico della chiesa metropolitana di Palermo, figlio di Filippo. E poi perfettionata da don Simplicio Paruta monaco cassinese.... Pietro Coppola, 1651.

4° (200x145 mm). Collation: [π]2, †4, A-T4, V2, X4, Y2, Z4, [χ]2. [12], 176, [4] pages. Roman, and italic type. Fols. [π]1 and [π]2 with half-title and engraved frontispiece, respectively. Four folding plates engraved by Francesco Nigro and Francesco La Barbera, after Gerardo Astorino and Vincenzo La Barbera. Modern morocco, richly gilt tooled. Original edges speckled. A good copy, minor repairs to the outer margin of the first leaves and small worm-track to the gutter of a few leaves, in both cases without any loss. Tears repaired along the fold of one plate.

Extremely rare edition of this festival account attributed to Filippo Paruta, but edited by his son Simplicio – who is also responsible for signing the dedication to the Senate of Palermo – and published posthumously under the name of his other son, Onofrio.

In the note to the reader Onofrio provides a detailed list of the works (orations, occasional writings, inscriptions for ephemeral architecture, etc.) of his father, Filippo, who was secretary of the Palermo Senate and chiefly responsible for the iconographic program realized on the occasion of the 1625 festivities.

At the beginning of the 1620s the viceroy Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy rebuilt the Accademia dei Riaccesi, which gathered in the Royal Palace, and entrusted the scholar and mathematician Carlo Maria Ventimiglia with the direction of the academy. Around his figure gravitated many of the artists and scholars who designed the program and the solemn procession of the relics of St. Rosalia, held in June of 1625 as a sign of gratitude for deliverance from the plague. Among them were the painters and architects Gerardo Astorino and Vincenzo La Barbera; the engraver Francesco Negro; the scholar Martino La Farina, who conceived the allegorical arch of the Genoese nation; and, above all, Filippo Paruta, who was also linked to Ventimiglia through a common passion for numismatics and antiquities. Paruta was involved in all literary activities related to celebratory events since the end of the sixteenth century. In 1625 he inspired the triumphal arch that the Senate erected in Piazza Villena and was responsible for the account of the festivities, which in the end was only published after his death in 1651.

The constitution of such a large and complex team to be entrusted with the creation of the apparatuses testifies to the importance of this event which officially marked the beginning of the cult of St. Rosalia. The solemnity of 1625 had no immediate follow-up and it was only in 1649 that the feast of St. Rosalia was formalized with all those peculiarities that would characterize the following decades (see no. 222). In 1625, in addition to the impressive processions and solemn ceremonies in which all local communities, religious and civil, took part, two magnificent horse rides were organized; one, in particular, took place at the conclusion of the festivities, after the solemn mass in the cathedral. It was followed by fireworks, organized by the German nation, along with tournaments and jousts. At the very end the nobility walked in gala dress along the Via Colonna.

Michel VI, p. 80; Biblioteca centrale della Regione siciliana “Alberto Bombace”, Sanctae Rosaliae Dicata, Bibliografia cronologica su Santa Rosalia, September 2004, pp. 12-13 (accessed January 2018); V. Petrarca, Genesi di una tradizione urbana. Il culto di S. Rosalia a Palermo in età spagnola, Palermo, 1986, p. 82; M. Sofia di Fede, La festa barocca a Palermo: città, architetture, istituzioni, “Espacio, Tiempo y Forma”, series VII, 18-19 (2005-2006), pp. 49-75; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 204.

A tribute to the new experimental sciences

209. Bérigard, Claude Guillermet de (ca. 1590-1663)

Circulus Pisanus... De veteri et peripatetica philosophia in Aristotelis libros octo Physicorum. Quatuor de coelo. Duos de ortu & interitu. Quatuor de meteoris, & tres de anima... Opus in hac secunda editione auctius & retractatius. Paolo Frambotto, 1660 - 1661.

Six parts in one volume, 4° (220x160 mm). Collation: ✢6, ✢✢4, A-H4; a4; I-Z4, Aa4, Bb6; ²a4, Cc-Xx4; ³a4, Yy-Zz4, Aaa-Xxx4; 4a2, Yyy-Zzz4, Aaaa-Bbbb4, Cccc6; 5a4, Dddd-Zzzz4, Aaaaa4, Bbbbb1 (singleton). [20], 64; 6 of [8], 65-203, [1]; [8], 205-353, [3]; 6 of [8], 357-538, [2]; [4], 541-583, [1]; 6 of [8], 585-729, [25] pages. Complete with the blanks a1, 2a1, Xx4, and Xxx4; lacking blanks 3a4 and 5a4. At the beginning of the volume are twelve unsigned leaves of index which do not belong to this edition. Roman and italic type. Each part opens with a separate title-page bearing the printer's device. The second, third, and fourth parts are dated 1660, while the first, fifth, and sixth ones are dated 1661. Author's portrait on fol. ✢4v, engraved by Giovanni Giorgi; numerous diagrams in the text. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Early nineteenth-century half calf, richly gilt-tooled spine, title in gilt on red morocco lettering-piece. A very good copy. A few quires browned, some marginal foxing, slightly spotted in places.

Provenance: 'Hic liber est Ippoliti de [?]' (partly erased contemporary ownership inscription on the verso of the second front flyleaf).

Second revised, and significantly expanded edition of this remarkably interesting treatise containing an encomium for the new Copernican and Galileian science as well as its discoveries.

The Circulus Pisanus first appeared in Udine in 1642-1643. Its author, Bérigard (or Berigardo), was born in Moulin (France) and moved to Tuscany in 1625, possibly summoned there by Christine de Lorraine. He taught in Pisa from 1627 to 1638 and then at the University of Padua from 1639 until the end of his life in 1663.

The Circulus Pisanus is based on the 'disputationes circulares' held at the University of Pisa, which played such an important role in his teaching there. The work is cast in the form of a dialogue between Charilaus, a follower of Aristotelian philosophy, and Aristaeus, who upholds pre-Socratic philosophy, especially the atomism of such Ionian philosophers as Anaximander, Empedocles and Anaxagoras. Because atomism, like the new astronomical discoveries, had been condemned, Bérigard was very cautious about how he recovered ancient doctrines and dealt with the new philosophy. Even though he officially remained safely within the limits of traditional thought, he was also clearly familiar with the particulate (probably Cartesian) and experimental (Galileian) forms of the new philosophy. He describes many experiments in his book, including those pertaining to vacuums and the fall of bodies.

Many contemporary scientists – including, among others, Kenelm Digby, William Harvey, Evangelista Torricelli, Vincenzo Viviani, and Giovanni Alfonso Borelli – are mentioned with admiration in the work. The Circulus Pisanus also includes an encomium of Galileo (fol. Aaaa4, with the shoulder note Galilaei encomium). Bérigard, who must have known Galileo personally, always praised Galileo, although he remained firmly convinced of the earth's immobility.

Though Bérigard seems reluctant to fully cross the borders of the old philosophy, the Circulus Pisanus is undeniably a tribute to the new experimental sciences: beside the aforementioned encomium on Galileo, the Copernican hypothesis is mentioned and somewhat 'accepted'; the experiments of Torricelli are used to deny the vacuum only on the basis that God is everywhere and therefore a void cannot exist; and his praise for the telescope and the commentary on De Luna became an exposition of Copernicus' and Galileo's doctrines.

STC 17th Century, 97-98; Bruni-Evans 644; Carli-Favaro, 277; Hirsch I, p. 348; A. Favaro, “Oppositori di Galileo, iv. Claudio Berigardo”, Atti Istituto Veneto Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 79 (1919-1920), II, pp. 39-92; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 209.

A stunning presentation copy of Kircher’s Ars Magna Sciendi

212. Kircher, Athanasius (1602-1680)

Ars Magna Sciendi, In XII Libros Digesta, qua Nova & Universali Methodo Per Artificiosum Combinationum contextum de omni re proposita plurimis & prope infinitis rationibus disputari, omniumque summaria quaedam cognitio comparari potest.... Johann Jansson van Waesberghe and the Widow of Elizeus Weyerstraet, 1669.

Two parts in one volume, large folio (447x282 mm). The two parts with running collation and foliation. Collation: *4, **4, A-Z4, Aa-Hh4, Kk-Zz4, Aaa-Ooo4, Ppp6. [16], 482, [10] pages. Roman and italic type. Text in two columns. Separate engraved title-pages to both parts, the second one bearing a woodcut printer's device. Between fols. *2 and *3, an engraved portrait of Emperor Leopold, one engraved plate between fols. Ii1 and Ii2 depicting the 'Arbor Philosophica Universae cognitionis Typus'. Four double-page letter-press tables, one folding; engraved diagrams in the text, those on fols. B3r and Y3r with volvelles. Numerous woodcut illustrations, decorated initials, and large tailpieces. Contemporary Amsterdam binding, red morocco over pasteboards. Covers profusely gilt with massed floral and arabesque tools, partly au pointillé. Spine with seven raised bands, similarly gilt; title lettered in gilt 'A. KIRCHE. ARS COMBINAT.'. Comb-marbled pastedowns; board edges decorated with gilt frieze; inside dentelles. Edges speckled red and blue. Binding in very fine condition, especially for a volume of this size; extremities of the spine slightly repaired. A good copy, some browning and foxing, sometimes heavy, as expected. On the title-page, two early inked shelfmarks.

Provenance: Giovanni Paolo Oliva (1600-1681; contemporary ownership inscription on the title-page 'Bibl. P[raepositi] Olivae'); Martin Breslauer, Fine Books and Manuscripts in Fine Bindings. Catalogue 110, New York 1992, no. 107 (his bibliographical notes, dated 22 July 1990, on the front flyleaf); Joost R. Ritman, Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica (bookplate on the front pastedown).

A splendid, large-paper copy of the first edition of the Ars magna sciendi, in a stunning morocco binding executed on behalf of Athanasius Kircher for presentation to Giovanni Paolo Oliva (1600-1681), eleventh general of the Jesuits, whose name appears printed on the approbation leaf in this edition. Oliva was a very close friend of Kircher, demonstrated great interest in his polyhedric research and studies, and gave several formal permissions to print his works.

The Ars magna sciendi is one of the most influential works by the well-known German Jesuit, who was an eclectic scholar, inventor, collector, and founder of the Museum Kircherianum in the Roman College (see no. 226). In this monumental work, which is dedicated to Emperor Leopold I, Kircher builds an exhaustive scientific system based on logical combinations and symbolic logic formulae capable of expressing each truth; it thus represents one of the most celebrated seventeenth-century attempts at creating a universal language for scientists and philosophers to describe and circumscribe all knowledge into a unified system.

In 1661, Kircher – who never left Rome after settling there in 1633 – came into epistolary contact with the Dutch publisher Joannes Jansson van Waesberghe (Janssonius). Jansson was active in Amsterdam from 1651 to 1681; in his later years he entered into partnership with his son-in-law, Elizaeus Weyerstraet. Of Kircher's thirty-four books printed during his lifetime, fourteen were published by Janssonius. As Kircher wrote in his Vita, “It was my wish then that all the books I had previously published should be dedicated by posterity to the magnanimous emperor Ferdinand III and those that appeared after his death to his son the emperor Leopold. All those who read these in later times will admire their splendid production by the Amsterdam bookseller Johannes Janssonius, who has assumed responsibility for the publication and printing of all my books” (The Life of the Reverend Father Athanasius Kircher of the Society of Jesus, p. 495). The Archives of the Jesuit Gregorian University in Rome preserves Jansson's draft contract, written in Amsterdam and dated 29 July 1661, establishing the sum of 2,200 scudi for 'tutti li suoi libri', that is, for publishing all Kircher's books (PUG 563, fol. 244). Kircher also commissioned Jansson to produce luxury bindings for presentation copies, which were to be executed on his behalf by the most renowned binders active in Amsterdam. Among the various craftsmen active in the city at that time, Mirjam Foot has been able to identify a group of 'Kircher-binders' based on the fact that four of the eight luxury bindings she has seen from this group contained works by Athanasius Kircher. This includes the Latium printed by Jansson in 1671, which was perhaps bound for Pope Clemens X and is now preserved in Copenhagen's Koninklijke Bibliotheek.

Father Oliva's presentation copy of the Ars magna sciendi is housed in a sumptuous binding which bears comparison with those executed by Albert Magnus (1642-1689), the most important Dutch bookbinder of the age. Anthony Hobson has attributed to Magnus a very similar binding found on the famous Landau Hely-Hutchinson copy of the same work, held at the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York (PLM 49213; see the Sotheby's sales of 13 July 1948 and 13 March 1956). According to Foot, however, the Morgan binding was in fact not executed by Albert Magnus, but represents rather the only work of an Amsterdam bookbinder of the same professional stature who also belonged to the group of the 'Kircher binders'.

It is very likely this individual used tools based directly on those employed by Magnus, and was probably active in Jansson's printing house.

“One of the binders commissioned was Magnus, another Dr. Foot's 'Kircher Binder' of which she knew eight bindings, four on Kircher's works. Are the two presentation bindings on the 'Ars Magna' the only survivers of a shortlived attempt by Janssonius to establish a bindery of his own, for which he had special tools cut and for which he temporarily employed one of Magnus' craftsmen?” (Breslauer, Catalogue 107, p. 188).

Merrill 22; Caillet II, 360.5771; Clendening 10.17; J. E. Fletcher - E. Fletcher, Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, ‘Germanus Incredibilis'. With a Selection of his Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of his Autobiography, Leiden-Boston 2011; H. de la Fontaine Verwey, “The Binder Albert Magnus and the Collectors of his Age”, Quaerendo, 1 (1971), pp. 158-178; M. M. Foot, Studies in the History of Bookbinding, London 1979; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 212.

Festival culture in Baroque Palermo

222. Vio, Ignazio de (1659-1749)

L’Emporio delle glorie palermitane, o vero il compendio di molti pregi della Città di Palermo, consecrato a S. Rosalia Vergine Palermitana, nella solennità di quest’anno 1704.... Domenico Cortese, 1704.

4° (183x129 mm). [4], 138, [2] pages. Four engraved folding plates, signed 'D. Paulus Amato Ingignerius inventor'. Decorated woodcut initials and tailpieces. Modern gilt-tooled morocco. A good copy, some foxing and staining. Upper margin slightly trimmed but not affecting the text. Some marginal repairs, small restored hole on fol. D8, with loss of a few letters.

First edition of this work describing the magnificent religious festival held in Palermo in 1704 in honour of the city's patron saint, St. Rosalia, who, according to local tradition, had saved the city from the plague (see no. 204). The text is attributed in the dedicatory epistle to the Jesuit Ignazio de Vio, teacher of theology, mathematics, and Hebrew. Between 1693 and 1704 he published several works on the festival of Santa Rosalia, which, initiated in 1625, began on 12 July and lasted four days. The cult of the patron saint was strongly supported by the Jesuits, who were directly involved – as this publication testifies – in the organisation of processions and other festivities.

The volume is supplemented with four fine plates, which are signed by the leading architect, engineer, and painter Paolo Amato (1634-1714), the designer and inventor of all the spectacular ephemeral structures or apparati. Amato was in charge of the fabulous decorations for almost all festivities commissioned by the Senate of Palermo between the 1680s and 1714, the year of his death. One of the folding plates is especially impressive: it measures 1098 mm in length, and shows a procession of chariots looking like galleons. The other plates are also of great interest, depicting various ephemeral structures used in the festival, such as an incredible firework machine built as a castle on an island surrounded by boats and elaborate church apparati.

“Con la llegada de la dinastia Borbón al solio español, el festino se enriquecerà con nuovos tipos de decoración; en los palacios públicos y privados, arcos triumfales, etc. Así los vemos en las últimas celebraciones del Palermo español, entre 1701 y 1713 [...] En 1704 el carro de la santa fue sostituido por un simulacro del Bucintoro de Venecia y la máquina de fuegos se presentó come un castillo sobre una isla, rodeado de barcos” (La fiesta barroca, p. 123).

Melzi I, 355; Biblioteca centrale della Regione siciliana “Alberto Bombace”, Sanctae Rosaliae Dicata, Bibliografia cronologica su Santa Rosalia, September 2004, p. 58; S. di Fede, “La festa barocca a Palermo: città, architetture, istituzioni”, Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, series VII, 18-19 (2005-2006), p. 65; M. Cornelles, V. Manuel et al. (eds.), La fiesta barroca. Los reinos de Nápoles y Sicilia (1535-1713), Palermo 2014, pp. 111-123; F. Checa Cremades - L. Férnandez-González, Festival Culture in the World of the Spanish Habsburgs, Farnham 2015, pp. 229-231; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 222.

The vehicle by which the concept of historical development at last entered the thought of Western Europe — PMM

229. Giambattista Vico (1668-1744)

Principj di una scienza nuova intorno alla natura delle nazioni per la quale si ritrovano i principj di altro sistema del diritto naturale delle genti. All’Eminentiss. Principe Lorenzo Corsini amplissimo Cardinale dedicati. Felice Mosca, 1725.

12° (147x78 mm). 270, [12] pages. Small woodcut ornament on the title-page. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, with yapp edges. Traces of ties, title inked on the spine, renewed flyleaves. A good, clean copy. Small, almost invisible tears in the text, skilfully repaired.

The first edition of the most influential work by the great Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico, whose name appears in the dedication to Cardinal Lorenzo Corsini (the future Pope Clement XII) dated 8 May 1725. Here Vico develops the theory that human history is cyclical. As such, he may be considered the intellectual predecessor of modern philosophers of history such as Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee; his theories on history and religion were also used by James Joyce. “Vico inherited the conception of a cyclical pattern in history, an idea revived in our own day by Spengler and Toynbee [...] it was only in the 19th century that he was rediscovered and his influence has greatly increased since [...] Benedetto Croce has done much to spread the knowledge of Vico's contribution to historical scholarship [...]. The 'Principles of a New Science regarding the Character of Nations' [is] the vehicle by which the concept of historical development at last entered the thought of Western Europe” (PMM).

The 1725 edition was issued in about 1,000 copies on normal paper, and a dozen others were printed on special paper with wide margins. After the dedicatee, Lorenzo Corsini, declined to cover the publication expenses, the philosopher was forced to pay the costs himself; he attempted to condense the text as much as possible but still ended up having to sell a five-carat diamond ring to raise enough money. Vico was also directly involved in the distribution of the book. He personally gave copies of the first edition of the Scienza nuova to friends, and – as we know from his correspondence – he sent copies to pre-eminent European contemporaries, such as Jean Leclerc in Amsterdam, Johann Burckhard Mencke in Leipzig, Charles-Louis Montesquieu in Paris, and Isaac Newton in London.

The edition was sold out immediately, and in 1729 copies were sold for two gold scudi. As Vico states in his Vita “dentro tre anni dalla sua stampa si era fatta rarissima per l'Italia, e se alcuna se ne ne ritruovava, comperavasi a carissimo prezzo” (G. B. Vico, Opere filosofiche, Firenze 1971, p. 47).

Several copies of this edition bear manuscript corrections in the hands of the printer, close collaborators, or Vico himself, as the latter went through as many copies as he could to offer the most correct version of the text.

The present copy contains textual emendations in Italian, which are certainly authorial, added on Vico's behalf in the printing house, emending misprints or inserting words omitted by the compositor: this is the case of the corrections indicated in the margins of fols. C6r, C6v, C7r, H3r, L5r, and M2r. Similar corrections are visible in other recorded copies of the 1725 edition, but in variable numbers, and the list of authorial emendations given in 1931 by Fausto Nicolini as an appendix to the edition of the Scienza nuova is merely partial; it does not include, for example, the corrections indicated, in this copy, in the margins of fols. C6v, C7r and M2r.

This copy contains another extremely uncommon feature, found in only a handful of copies that were generally sent as gifts to distinguished figures or patrons: on the verso of the last leaf of text (fol. M8v) the printer Mosca has skilfully pasted – always on Vico's behalf – a paper slip covering lines 11-13 which contained numerous misprints; the three lines, recomposed, were reprinted on the slip.

B. Croce - F. Nicolini, Bibliografia vichiana, Napoli 1947, pp. 34-41; PMM 184; G. B. Vico, La scienza nuova prima, ed. F. Nicolini, Bari 1931, pp. 325-336; Idem, Principj di una scienza nuova intorno alla natura delle nazioni. Ristampa anastatica dell'edizione 1725, ed. T. Gregory, Roma 1979, pp. 10-15; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 229.

A eulogy for Newton, printed on blue paper

235. Arrighi Landini, Orazio (1718-1755)

Il Tempio della Filosofia. Poema... di Orazio Arrighi Landini fra gli Agiati, Dorinio (i) In cui con accrescimenti, e osservazioni del medesimo Autore s’illustra. (2) il Sepolcro d’Isacco Newton. Con gli Argomenti di Leontippo Accad. Agiato. Marco Carnioni, 1755.

Small 4° (213x142 mm). Printed on blue paper. XVI, 142, [2] pages. Engraved frontispiece signed by Francesco Bartolozzi (1727-1815), bearing two medallions, the first portraying the author, the second showing an allegory of 'LABORE'. Title-page printed in red and black, with engraved vignette depicting an armillary sphere. A folding plate, with an outline of the different philosophical schools and the names of their proponents. Fine engraved decorated initials, head- and tailpieces, the headpiece on fol. *2r including coat of arms of the dedicatee, the Bergamo nobleman Giovanni Battista Gallizioli (1733-1806). Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with five small raised bands, marbled pastedowns and flyleaves. A very good copy, printed on strong paper. Pale waterstain to the lower gutter of the first leaves, frontispiece slightly browned. On the verso of the front flyleaf the note '4214 B 3.2' in an early hand. A nineteenth-century hand has annotated '955. I.m.7' on the recto of the rear flyleaf.

Provenance: Gottlieb Schweyer, a Venetian merchant of German origin also known as Amadeus Svajer (1727-1791; his ex-libris on the front pastedown); modern ex-libris, with the initials 'S.B.' on the front pastedown.

A fine copy, printed on blue paper, of this verse and prose work by Arrighi Landini, a member of the Accademia degli Agiati in Rovereto, where he came to adopt the nickname 'Dorinio'.

Divided into three books, the Tempio della filosofia is essentially a panegyric, supplemented with lengthy philosophical observations, of the 'new' physics of Isaac Newton (1643-1727). As an introduction the work contains a short biography of Newton, and the text is replete with references to such scientists and philosophers as Nicolas Malebranche, John Locke, Voltaire (see no. 238), Francesco Algarotti, and Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, among others, whose works had been included in the Index of Forbidden Books. The Tempio della filosofia is dedicated to the philosopher and orientalist Giovanni Battista Gallizioli, and also clearly reveals the influence of Giambattista Vico (see no. 229).

This handsome copy was once owned by the German merchant Gottlieb Schweyer – also known as Amadeus Svajer – who was active in Venice, where he assembled a notable library. After his death in 1791 the library was partially confiscated by the Inquisition, including his collection of manuscripts relating to Venetian politics.

Morazzoni, Il libro illustrato veneziano del Settecento, p. 214; S. Ferrari, “Amadeo Svaier (1727-1791): un mercante erudito nella Venezia del Settecento,” M. Bonazza (ed.), 'I buoni ingegni della Patria'. L'Accademia, la cultura e la città nelle biografie di alcuni Agiati tra Settecento e Novecento, Rovereto 2002, pp. 51-85; A. Battistini, “Tra Newton e Vico: Il tempio della Filosofia di Orazio Arrighi Landini”, G. Cantarutti – S. Ferrari (eds.), L'Accademia degli Agiati nel Settecento europeo. Irradiazioni culturali, Milano 2007, pp. 11-34; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 235.

Le meilleur des mondes possibles — PMM

238. Voltaire [François Marie Arouet de] (1694-1778)

Candide, ou l’Optimisme. [Geneva], [Gabriel Cramer], 1759.

12° (161x95 mm). 299, [3] pages. Complete with the penultimate blank leaf, fol. N7 but the final fol. N8 (instructions to the binder) being only a stub. Woodcut ornament to the title-page, and tailpieces. Contemporary Italian mottled sheep-backed boards, gilt spine with title on red morocco lettering-piece. A very good copy. Some light foxing and browning, mostly to the upper margins.

A fine copy of the true first edition, with the following issue points: the title ornament of spray, fruit and flowers is repeated at pp. 193 and 266; p. 103, line 4, has the misprint 'que ce ce fut' (corrected to ‘que ce fut' in later editions); p. 125, line 4, has 'précisément' (corrected to 'précipitamment' in later editions); with Voltaire's revisions on p. 31 eliminating an unnecessary paragraph break, and on p. 41 the rewriting of several short sentences on the Lisbon earthquake. This first edition does not preserve the cancelled paragraph critical of German poets on p. 242 (beginning “Candide était affligé”).

The bibliographical history of this book has been extremely complex and confused, not least because before handing over a final manuscript to the Genevan publisher Gabriel Cramer, Voltaire went behind his back and sent a slightly different version of the manuscript to John Nourse, a printer in London, who may well have dispatched copies to other publishers. The result was that within weeks of the first edition of Candide appearing in Geneva, sixteen other editions appeared in Paris, London, and Amsterdam. The identification of the present issue as the true editio princeps, already supposed by Bengesco and Gagnebin, was recently confirmed by the cumulative analyses of Ira Wade, Giles Barber, and Stephen Weissman: the Genevan printing must be considered earlier than the other three editions containing 299 pages published in 1759, as well as the thirteen other editions of different sizes printed in Europe in the same year. Around 1754 Voltaire “fled [from Berlin] to Geneva where he found and bought the ideal refuge, Ferney, four miles from the city. Here, just on French soil, he could enjoy the political liberty of Geneva with the social liberty of France. Here Candide, the most perfect of the light-weight parables which were his especial and peculiar forte, was written. Typically, it was published anonymously, and many times printed and pirated in its early years” (PMM).

Drawing on the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 for inspiration, this conte philosophique became an almost instant best-seller with about 20,000 copies sold in the first year alone, despite its initial censorship.

Barber 299G; Bengesco 1434; Morize 59a; PMM 204; I. O. Wade, Voltaire and Candide: A Study in the Fusion of History, Art and Philosophy, Princeton, NJ 1959; S. Weismann (ed.), Voltaire: the Martin J. Gross collection in the New York Public Library, New York 2008; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 238.

If a government needs censorship, it comes from the weakness of its constitution — Cesare Beccaria

240. Beccaria, Cesare (1734-1794)

Dei delitti e delle pene.... [Livorno, Marco Coltellini for Giuseppe Aubert], 1764.

4° (197x143 mm). 104, [2] pages. Complete, including the final leaf with the errata, often lacking in recorded copies. Woodcut headpiece on fol. A2r. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, divided into compartments by gilt fillets, and decorated with small floral tools. Title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Pastedowns covered with floral patterned paper. A very fine copy. Leaves somewhat browned, as usual.

Provenance: Walter Ashburner (1864-1936; small and partly erased stamps on fol. N4v and on the verso of the last leaf); gifted to him by the jurist Ferdinando Bosi in 1925 (autograph note on the title-page, 'W. Ashburner Dedit mihi v.cl. Ferd. Bosi IC 1925'); the Italian scholar Luigi Firpo (1915-1989; ex-libris on the front pastedown).

The first edition of one of the most important works of the Italian Enlightenment. A manifesto on legal reform, and one of the best interpretations of the ideas circulating around France in the second half of the eighteenth century.

The young Milanese nobleman Cesare Beccaria Bonesana composed this work between March 1763 and January 1764, while he was an active member of the intellectual circle known as the Accademia dei pugni, founded in Milan in 1762 by the brothers Alessandro and Pietro Verri, and Beccaria himself, among others. The central theme of the work is the reform of criminal justice, in a context in which punishment was still both brutal and arbitrary. Beccaria advocates an egalitarian justice system, and traces a new metric for punishment and laws rooted in the concept of public happiness. “One of the most influential books in the whole history of criminology [...] Beccaria maintained that the gravity of the crime should be measured by its injury to society and that the penalties should be related to this. The prevention of the crime he held to be of greater importance than its punishment [...] his ideas have now become so commonplace that it is difficult to appreciate their revolutionary impact at the time” (PMM).

The work enjoyed wide and immediate success, and its influence was enormous. Voltaire, d'Alembert, Helvétius, Holbach, Hume and Hegel all counted among its enthusiastic readers; Beccaria's ideas also inspired justice reforms introduced by Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, Emperor Joseph II, and Catherine II of Russia, and its influence on constitutionalism broadly, especially the Declarations des droits de l'homme of 1789, is likewise evident.

The Dei delitti e delle pene was published in Livorno (Tuscany) – then one of the most advanced cities in Italy – on 12 April 1764, anonymous and without indication of place, for fear of repercussions owing to its strong egalitarianism. The printer Coltellini had already published, in 1763, the Meditazioni sulla felicità by Pietro Verri, Beccaria's closest friend. The 'innovative' feature of the reform proposed by Beccaria was, however, perceived by the Roman censorship, and in 1766 Dei delitti e delle pene was included in the Index of Forbidden Books. A good sign, as Beccaria admonishes: if a government needs censorship, it comes from the weakness of its constitution.

The work was translated into English in 1767, and On Crimes and Punishments “significantly shaped the views of American revolutionaries and lawmakers. The first four U.S. Presidents – George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison – were inspired by Beccaria's treatise and, in some cases, read it in the original Italian. On Crimes and Punishments helped to catalyze the American Revolution, and Beccaria's anti-death penalty views materially shaped American thought on capital punishment, torture and cruelty.” (J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution”, p. 1).

The first edition also appeared with an errata leaf containing twenty-one corrections, likely printed as a separate sheet, and thus now scarcely found. Exceptionally, the present copy contains this errata leaf. Another feature of interest lies in the provenance of the volume, as it was gifted by Ferdinando Bosi, lawyer for the British writer Osbert Sitwell, to the great collector and co-founder of the British Institute in Florence, Walter Ashburner.

Einaudi 3362; PMM 209; B. E. Harcourt, Beccaria's 'On Crimes and Punishments': A Mirror on the History of the Foundations of Modern Criminal Law, Chicago 2013; M. Palumbo – E. Sidoli (eds.), The Books that Made Europe, Bruxelles 2016, pp. 248-249; J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence on American Law”, Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 37.1 (2017; accessed January 2018); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 240.

241. Beccaria, Cesare (1734-1794)

Dei delitti e delle pene.... [Livorno, Marco Coltellini for Giuseppe Aubert], 1764.

4° (204x150 mm). 104 pages. Lacking the final leaf with the errata. Woodcut headpiece on fol. A2r. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. A very good, wide-margined copy. Minor, and sporadic foxing to the first and last leaves.

The first edition of one of the most important works of the Italian Enlightenment. A manifesto on legal reform, and one of the best interpretations of the ideas circulating around France in the second half of the eighteenth century.

The young Milanese nobleman Cesare Beccaria Bonesana composed this work between March 1763 and January 1764, while he was an active member of the intellectual circle known as the Accademia dei pugni, founded in Milan in 1762 by the brothers Alessandro and Pietro Verri, and Beccaria himself, among others. The central theme of the work is the reform of criminal justice, in a context in which punishment was still both brutal and arbitrary. Beccaria advocates an egalitarian justice system, and traces a new metric for punishment and laws rooted in the concept of public happiness. “One of the most influential books in the whole history of criminology [...] Beccaria maintained that the gravity of the crime should be measured by its injury to society and that the penalties should be related to this. The prevention of the crime he held to be of greater importance than its punishment [...] his ideas have now become so commonplace that it is difficult to appreciate their revolutionary impact at the time” (PMM).

The work enjoyed wide and immediate success, and its influence was enormous. Voltaire, d'Alembert, Helvétius, Holbach, Hume and Hegel all counted among its enthusiastic readers; Beccaria's ideas also inspired justice reforms introduced by Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, Emperor Joseph II, and Catherine II of Russia, and its influence on constitutionalism broadly, especially the Declarations des droits de l'homme of 1789, is likewise evident.

The Dei delitti e delle pene was published in Livorno (Tuscany) – then one of the most advanced cities in Italy – on 12 April 1764, anonymous and without indication of place, for fear of repercussions owing to its strong egalitarianism. The printer Coltellini had already published, in 1763, the Meditazioni sulla felicità by Pietro Verri, Beccaria's closest friend. The 'innovative' feature of the reform proposed by Beccaria was, however, perceived by the Roman censorship, and in 1766 Dei delitti e delle pene was included in the Index of Forbidden Books. A good sign, as Beccaria admonishes: if a government needs censorship, it comes from the weakness of its constitution.

The work was translated into English in 1767, and On Crimes and Punishments “significantly shaped the views of American revolutionaries and lawmakers. The first four U.S. Presidents – George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison – were inspired by Beccaria's treatise and, in some cases, read it in the original Italian. On Crimes and Punishments helped to catalyze the American Revolution, and Beccaria's anti-death penalty views materially shaped American thought on capital punishment, torture and cruelty.” (J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution”, p. 1).

The first edition also appeared with an errata leaf containing twenty-one corrections, likely printed as a separate sheet, and thus now scarcely found; as with most copies, the errata leaf is missing in the present copy.

Einaudi 3362; PMM 209; B. E. Harcourt, Beccaria's 'On Crimes and Punishments': A Mirror on the History of the Foundations of Modern Criminal Law, Chicago 2013; M. Palumbo – E. Sidoli (eds.), The Books that Made Europe, Bruxelles 2016, pp. 248-249; J. D. Bessler, “The Italian Enlightenment and the American Revolution: Cesare Beccaria's Forgotten Influence on American Law”, Hamline Journal of Public Law and Policy, 37.1 (2017; accessed January 2018); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 241.

Finely bound for Antoine-Augustin Renouard

251. Lucianus Samosatensis (125–182)

Opera Graece et Latine ad editionem Tiberii Hemsterhusii et Ioannis Frederici Reitzii accurate expressa cum varietate et annotationibus.... Societas Bipontina, 1789 - 1793.

A set of ten volumes, large 8° (210x117 mm). I. [4], CXVI, 492 pages. II. [4], 552 pages. III. [4], 596 pages. IV. [4], 603, [1] pages. V. [4], 604 pages. VI. [4], 605, [3] pages. VII. [4], 583, [1] pages. VIII. [4], 598, [2] pages. IX. [4], 605, [3] pages. X. [4], 367, [313] pages. Engraved vignette on the title-page of each volume. Uniformly bound in blue morocco by Pierre-Joseph Bisiaux, active between 1777 and 1801; the binding of the tenth and last volume uses slightly different leather and tooling, and was probably executed by another binder, possibly after Bisiaux's death. Covers framed within large gilt frame. The owner's name 'renouard' is tooled in gilt on the upper cover of each volume, apart from the tenth. Spines with five double raised bands, underlined by a narrow gilt frieze on red ground and decorated with gilt stars, diagonals of dotted fillets, and small central tools. Title, imprint, and volume numbering lettered in gilt. Rose-pink silk pastedowns; flyleaves either in rose-pink silk and in vellum. Board edges tooled with gilt fillets, inside dentelles. Rose-pink silk bookmarks, gilt edges. In the first nine volumes, the original blue colour of the spines changes to dark olive. Spines occasionally repaired at extremities; upper headbands of the first and seventh volumes restored, and covered with marbled paper. A set in very fine condition, insignificant browning in places.

Provenance: the renowned French bibliographer and outstanding book collector Antoine-Augustin Renouard (1765-1853).

A fine set, uniformly bound for Antoine-Augustin Renouard by the leading Parisian binder Pierre-Joseph Bisiaux: the monumental edition of Lucianus' works, published in the Bipontine series of classical texts and edited by Johann Frederik Reiz (1695-1778) and Tiberius Hemsterhuis (1685-1766). The texts included are mainly based on the three-volume edition of Lucianus that appeared in Amsterdam in 1743.

The Societas Bipontina was established in Zweibrücken (lat. Bipontum) in 1778, and its production centered on Greek and Latin classics. Its publishing activity is famous for the elegance of its layouts and philological accuracy. The first volume opens with the Sylloge de aetate, vita scriptisque Luciani by Reitz, whereas the tenth and last volume contains philological notes on textual variants by Jacques-Nicolas Belin de Ballu, along with a series of detailed indices.

The volumes were bound for the celebrated bibliographer and great book collector Antoine-Augustin Renoaurd, who was particularly passionate about books that were elegantly bound in morocco, richly gilt tooled, and further enriched with vellum or silk – especially rose-pink – pastedowns and flyleaves, as the marvellous set presented here well testifies. The most famous binders during the transition from the Monarchy to the Directory executed bindings for his exquisite library; this included, among others, Pierre-Joseph Bisiaux, who was active in Paris between 1777 and 1801, a rival of Nicolas-Denis Derome (1731-1790), and his heir Bradel.

For an identical binding see the Renouard copy of Athenagoras' work Della risurrettione de' morti (Venice 1556), a volume which later came into the possession of Henry Davis, one of the greatest collectors of magnificent bindings, and held now in the British Library (Davis 570).

G. Burkard, Bibliographie der Editiones Bipontinae, Zweibrücken 1990, pp. 94-101; J. Schoendorf, Zweibrücker Buchdruck zur Fürstenzeit. Das Buch-und Zeitungswesen einer Wittelsbacher Residenz 1488-1794, Zweibrücken 1995, pp. 161-179; M. Baubach, Lukian in Deutschland. Eine Forschungs- und Rezeptionsgeschichtliche Analyse vom Humanismus bis zur Gegenwart, München 2002, pp. 100, 118, 266. For similar bindings see S. de Ricci, French Signed Bindings, no. 124; M. Foot, Les reliures françaises, pl. 8; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 251.

Printed on blue paper, and bound for Cardinal Salviati

254. Cecire, Antonio Maria (fl. 2. half of the 18th century)

La dottrina della Chiesa sulle Indulgenze esposta e difesa... per dimostrare il valore delle Indulgenze contenute nella Bolla-Crociata pe’ regno delle due Sicilie. nella Stamperia Simoniana, 1791.

Large 8° (214x135 mm). Printed on blue paper. 360 pages. Woodcut ornament on the title-page. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Fine contemporary honey calf, over pasteboards. Covers within elaborate gilt frame of neoclassical decorative elements, at each inner corner a small amphora-shaped tool. At the centre a large coat of arms of Cardinal Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati. Spine with five small raised bands, richly gilt tooled with larger amphora-shaped tools. Title in gold on brown morocco lettering-piece. Board edges decorated with diagonal gilt fillets. Marbled pastedowns, gilt edges. Flyleaves renewed, lower corners restored. A very fine, wide-margined copy. Insignificant paper flaws to the lower margin of fol. Y1 and outer lower corner of fol. Q3, in both cases not affecting the text.

Provenance: Cardinal Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati, Duke of Giuliano (1727-1794, armorial binding).

A fine copy – printed on 'carta turchina' – of this striking testament to the lively debate that had arisen in the late eighteenth-century Kingdom of the Two Sicilies concerning indulgences and the abuses of their practice.

Cecire's treatise aims to offer a sort of 'guide' for preachers, parish priests, and catechists on the issue of indulgences, a topic which has consistently sparked much extensive and heated controversy throughout ecclesiastical history. Here the Franciscan author deals especially with the so-called 'Bolle della Crociata', or Crusade-Bulls, issued in the 1790s by Pope Pius VI for Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, which foresaw special indulgences for punishment due to sins. The Bolla della Crociata had first been promulgated in 1509 by Julius II in favour of the Spanish monarchy, granting indulgences to those who would take part in the crusades against infidels. Obviously, at the end of the eighteenth century the Bull had lost its original function; instead, it was periodically issued for financing the construction or repair of churches and monasteries among other pious initiatives, but the money was also often used for other purposes, thus provoking criticism and polemics.

This copy, housed in a fine armorial binding and printed on blue paper, was indeed commissioned by the author for a distinguished recipient or patron: Cardinal Gregorio Antonio Maria Salviati.

V. Pinchera, Lusso e decoro. Vita quotidiana e spese dei Salviati di Firenze nel Sei e Settecento, Pisa 1999; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 254.

On Sailors’ education

259. Scotti, Marcello Eusebio (1742-1800)

Catechismo Nautico o vero de’ particolari doveri della gente marittima. Tratti principalmente dalla S. Bibbia, e dalle massime fondamentali della Religione... Parte prima. Doveri in generale di tutti gli abitatori delle Città marittime. Di Simone, 1788.

8° (182x110 mm). XLIV, 281, [3] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, title and imprint on double morocco lettering-piece. Covers and spine somewhat worn and rubbed. A good, genuine copy; some staining and foxing due to the quality of the paper.

Extremely rare first edition of this catechism written – as signalled by its title, Nautical Catechism – for the education of seamen. The work was originally conceived in three parts, but only the first part, containing the Doveri in generale di tutti gli abitatori delle Città marittime, was published. The second and the third parts were lost – as were all Scotti's papers – during the raid of his house in Procida.

Scotti was born in Naples, into a family originally from the island of Procida. He received his early education at the Chinese College. The abilities he demonstrated in his studies, even at a very early age, were quickly recognized by his teachers who deemed him worthy of becoming their colleague. He chose a religious path to more easily devote himself to his studies. In 1779 he was called to the Academy of Science and Letters in Naples and was later sent to preach in Ischia, Aversa, and Procida. His fame as a preacher grew rapidly, but he was soon accused of spreading 'dangerous' principles of faith. No longer allowed to preach from the pulpit, Scotti undertook the writing of his Nautical Catechism.

The text focuses on the duties of seamen, insisting on the importance of being educated in navigation and commerce, practicing the duties of hospitality, assisting with shipwrecks, and taking care of the education of their wives and daughters, who were so exposed to the dangers of seduction during the long absences of their husbands and fathers. Of particular interest, for the surprisingly liberal views of the author, are the chapters on women's rights and duties.

Originally intended only for the education of sailors on the island of Procida, the work had a broader diffusion and ended up reaching the fishermen of Santa Lucia and the coral divers of Torre del Greco as well.

R. Salvemini, “Introduzione” to M. E. Scotti, Catechismo nautico, Procida 2001; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 259.

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