Association Copies and Great Provenances Philobiblon

One Thousand Years of Bibliophily from the 11th to the 21st Century

Foscolo’s 'divine Plutarchus'

38. Plutarchus (ca. 45-120)

Plutarchi Chaeronensis quae extant opera, cum Latina interpretatione. Ex vetustis codicibus plurima nunc primùm emendata sunt, vt ex Henr. Stephani annotationibus intelliges: quibus & suam quorundam libellorum interpretationem adiunxit. Aemylii Probi De vita excellentium imperatorum liber. Henri Estienne, 1572.

Seven volumes, 8° (174x105 mm). I. Collation: *8, a-z8, Aa-Cc8. 16, 778, 2 of [6] pages, lacking the blank Cc7 and Cc8, but complete with the blank Cc6. II. Collation: aa-zz8, AA-PP8. [2], 781-1381, 3 of [5] pages, lacking the blank PP8, but complete with the blank PP7. III. Collation: aaa-zzz8, AAA-YYY8. [2], 1389-2101, 3 of [5] pages, lacking the blank YYY8, but complete with the blank YYY7. IV. Collation: a-z8, A-M8, N10; 579, [1] pages. V. Collation: a6, b8, Cc-Zz8, aA-rR8. [2], 583-1213, [3] pages. VI. Collation: Aa-Zz8, Aaa-Vvv8, Xxx10. [2], 1219-1923, [1] pages. VII. Collation: [A]-[M]8, [N]6, [O]-[Z]8, [AA]-[FF]8, [GG]4. 467, [1] pages. Complete with fol. [N]6 blank. The set comprises only the Greek portion of the edition, and therefore does not include the volumes containing the Latin translation of Plutarch's work. For this reason, volume VII includes – as in most of the recorded copies – the Appendix, but not the final Index rerum et verborum. Greek, roman, and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page of the first volume. Woodcut decorated initials and headpieces. Eighteenth-century uniform binding, vellum over pasteboards. Smooth spine, divided into compartments by gilt fillets; title and volume numbering in gold on double green morocco lettering-piece. A set in good condition, leaves uniformly browned, some foxing. A pale spot to the upper margin of the first leaf of text in each volume due to an ownership inscription that was later erased.

Provenance: the Italian poet Ugo Foscolo (1778-1827; white wax-stamp with the initials 'L.F.' on the front pastedown of the first volume; a loose paper slip is inserted in the same volume, bearing the hand written note 'N. 1552 du Catalogue de la Bibliothèque du Monsignor Foscolo vendu par autorité de justice de la Depositeria urbana pas le Ministere de libre Agazzi. La 1ere vente devais avoir lieu le 4 xmbre 1843 mais enfait la vente n'a eu lieu qu'en 1844 et le N. 1552 n'a été vendu qu'à la vacation en date du 22 mars 1844'). In Foscolo's own hand the emendations on fols. Aa2r and Aa8 of the sixth volume, and some underlining in red pencil.

An exceptional set of the first complete edition of Plutarch's works, edited by Henri Estienne “avec correction et elegance” (Renouard), and once owned by the outstanding Italian poet and patriot Ugo Foscolo. The seven-volume set includes only the Greek part of Estienne's publication, supplemented with his Appendix.

Foscolo's interest in the 'divine Plutarchus' was already evident in his famous epistolary novel Le ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis (see no. 258), in which Plutarch's works are the beloved reading of the main character. Foscolo began to write the Discorsi sopra gli uomini illustri di Plutarco at the beginning of the nineteenth century; of this work, only the Proemio or Preface – dated 1 January 1801 – was completed. On 25 July of the same year he was appointed director of an office in Milan created to put into writing the military code of the Cisalpine Republic, which had been established in 1797; on 3 August he was moved to the fourth section of this office and charged with the writing of disciplinary and penal rules. For this purpose, in a letter addressed on 7 August to the Minister of War, Vincenzo Lancetti, Foscolo requested some books, which he considered necessary for his writing, among others “Plutarco. Vite degli uomini illustri”, i.e., Plutarch's Parallel Lives. The missing publication date forbids certain identification of the Plutarch edition which was later supplied by Lancetti, and the subsequent course of Foscolo's private library is very complex. His collection was bought by his friend Quirina Mocenni Magiotti in 1816, when Foscolo decided to self-exile himself in London, and it later came mostly into the possession of the Biblioteca Marucelliana in Florence: among the books recorded in the Florentine library is the Italian-language edition of Vite di Plutarco volgarizzate da Girolamo Pompei, printed in Verona between 1772 and 1773. The volumes of this Italian Plutarch bear the ownership inscription 'Ugo Foscolo Firenze M.DCCC.I'. It is known that Foscolo sejourned in Florence until 25 March 1801; therefore, the Veronese publication cannot be the edition given to Foscolo in Milan after 7 August 1801, the date of his letter to Vincenzo Lancetti. The copy given by him on that occasion may thus actually be the set of volumes described here.

Renouard Estienne 134.2; Schreiber Estienne, 179; Schweiger I, 259; G. Gambarin, Scritti letterari e politici: dal 1796 al 1808, U. Foscolo, Edizione Nazionale, Firenze 1972, vol. VI, pp. LXIII-LXIV; La biblioteca fiorentina del Foscolo nella Biblioteca Marucelliana. Premessa di L. Caretti; introduzione, catalogo, appendice di G. Nicoletti. Firenze [1978]; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 148.

Euclid’s Elementa, from Jean-Baptiste Colbert’s Library, finely bound for Comte Charles-Henry de Hoym

40. Euclides (fl. 3rd century BC)

Elementorum Libri XV. Accessit XVI. De solidorum Regularium comparatione. Omnes perspicuis demonstrationibus, accuratisque scholjis illustrati. Auctore Christophoro Clavio Bambergensi. Societatis Iesu. Vincenzo Accolti, 1574.

Two volumes, 8° (175x118 mm). I. Collation: a-e8, A-Z8, Aa-Ss8, Tt4. [40], 331 of 332 leaves, lacking the last leaf blank. II. Collation: A-Z8, Aa-Oo8, Pp4. 300 leaves. Complete with fol. Pp4 blank. Italic, roman, and Greek type. Title-pages within woodcut architectural frame, text enclosed in plain rule border. Woodcut printer's device on fol. Pp3r of the second volume. Woodcut decorated initials and tailpieces. Numerous woodcut geometrical diagrams in the text. Uniformly bound in eighteenth-century red morocco, over pasteboards. Covers within three gilt fillets, at the centre gilt coat of arms of Charles- Henry Count de Hoym. Spines with five raised bands, richly gilt tooled; title and volume numbering in gilt lettering. Edges marbled and gilt. In a marbled slipcase. A very good copy, a few leaves uniformly browned, re-margining of the outer margin of first four leaves in the first volume, slightly affecting the rule border but without any loss of text.

Provenance: from the library of French politician Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683; ownership inscription on title-pages 'Bibliothecae Colbertinae'); by descent to Jean Baptiste Colbert de Torcy (1665-1746), Jacques Nicolas Colbert, Archbishop of Rouen (1655-1707), and Charles Eléonor Colbert, Comte de Seignelay (d. 1747); see the sale catalogue Bibliotheca Colbertina, seu Catalogus librorum bibliothecae quae fuit primum Ill. V.D. J. B. Colbert, Regni ministri, deinde Ill. D. J. B. Colbert. March. de Seignelay; postea Rev. et ill. D. J. Nic. Colbert, Rothomagensis Archiepiscopi, ac demum D. Caroli- Leonorii Colbert, Comitis de Seignelay, Paris 1728, Pars Tertia, Continens Libros in 8. in 12. &c., lot 16811, “Euclidis Elemento [sic], cum scholiis Christoph. Clavii. Romae, 1574. 2 vol. in 8. mar”; sold for the sum of 4 francs; the French ambassador Charles-Henry de Hoym (1694-1736; armorial binding; see Catalogus librorum bibliothecae Caroli Henrici Comitis de Hoym, olim Regis Poloniae Augusti II. apud Regem Christianissimum Legati extraordinarii, Paris 1738, p. 143, no. 1250, “2. vol. in 8. m.r.”, sold for the sum of 5.3. francs); Jean Furstenberg (1890-1982; ex-libris on the front pastedowns).

Euclid's Elementa edited by the Bamberg Jesuit and professor of mathematics at the Collegium Romanum, Christoph Clavius (1537-1612), and supplemented with his monumental commentary. This Roman publication represents one of the greatest achievements in the history of Renaissance mathematics. “His contemporaries called Clavius 'the Euclid of the 16th century'. The 'Elements', which is not a translation, contains a vast quantity of notes collected from previous commentators and editors, as well as some good criticisms and elucidations of his own” (DSB III, p. 311).

The present copy has a very distinguished provenance, increasing its value. The earliest recorded owner of these volumes was the great book collector Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the chief minister to the King of France Louis XIV from 1661 to 1683. At Colbert's death in 1683, his library, which contained 23,000 printed books and over 5,000 manuscripts, passed by descent to Jean-Baptiste Colbert de Torcy, and then to other members of this outstanding French family. The collection was in large part sold in Paris on 24 May 1728. During the eighteenth century, numerous volumes from the Colbertina came into the possession of one of the greatest bibliophiles of the age, Comte Charles-Henry de Hoym, ambassador to Augustus II of Poland. Hoym commissioned the handsome binding in red morocco bearing his coat of arms on the covers. The leading French binders worked for him: among others, Augustin Du Seuil and Antoine-Michel Padeloup, to whom this binding is possibly to be ascribed. His library was sold in Paris between May and August 1738, and in the preface the bookseller Gabriel Martin points up the presence of numerous volumes ex Thesauro Colbertino in the collection. The volume later passed into the hands of another great collector of fine bindings, Jean Furstenberg.

Adams E-985; STC Italian 238; Steck, pp. 77-78; Denise Bloch, “La bibliothèque de Colbert”, Histoire des bibliothèques françaises, II, pp. 157-179; B. Breslauer, “Contemporary Collectors. XX. Jean Furstenberg”, The Book Collector, 9 (1960), pp. 423-434; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 150.

Cardinal Bourbon’s Cardano

41. Cardano, Girolamo (1501-1576)

In Cl. Ptolemaei de astrorum iudiciis... lib. IIII commentaria... Hic accesserunt... De septem erraticarum stellarum qualitatibus atque viribus... Geniturarum item XII... Cunradi Dasypodii... scholia et resolutiones... in... Apostelesmaticos Cl. Ptolomaei. Heinrich Petri, September 1578.

Folio (320x195 mm). Collation: a8, A-Z8, Aa-Ll8, 2Aa-Ff8, 2Gg10, 3Aa-Bb8, 3Cc6, 3Dd2, 3Ee-Ff8, 3Gg6, 3Hh4, 3Ll10. [16], 510, [2], 602-838 [i.e. 834], [2] pages. Roman, italic, and Greek type. Woodcut printer's device on the verso of the last leaf. Title-page with woodcut portrait of Cardanus within a cartouche. Woodcut animated and decorated initials. Numerous woodcut diagrams in the text. Fine contemporary French olive morocco over pasteboards, executed for Charles Cardinal de Bourbon. Covers within triple gilt fillet border. Smooth spine with the cardinal's arms and his device with the motto 'SVPERAT CANDORE ET ODORE'; title lettered in gilt at the head. Board edges with single fillet, gilt edges. A few old abrasions to the covers, repair to the upper ones, joints a little rubbed, corners lightly bumped. In a modern green cloth solander box. A very fine copy, minor loss to the lower outer corner of the title-page, not affecting text; tears to fol. Aa6, without any loss. On the verso of the rear flyleaf a cutting taken from an unidentified sale catalogue, describing this copy as lot 99, 'folio, olive morocco, gilt leaves, with Arms and Device of Charles de Bourbon (Charles X. of the League) on back'.

Provenance: Cardinal Charles de Bourbon, Archbishop of Rouen (1520-1590; armorial binding); from the library of William Beckford (1760-1844; the pencilled shelfmark '353-31'; see the sale at Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, The Hamilton Palace Libraries. Catalogue of The First Portion of the Beckford Library, removed from Hamilton Palace, London, June 1882, lot 1579, “olive morocco, gilt edges, with arms and device of Charles de Bourbon (Charles X of the League) stamped in gold on back”; lot description is pasted into the front pastedown of this copy); purchased by Dodgson for £55; Henry J. B. Clements (1869-1940; ex-libris on the front pastedown); Edwards (signature on the verso of the front flyleaf 'Edwards June 1895.'); the Paris bookseller Georges Heilbrun (Catalogue 37, 1972, no. 37); Michel Wittock (ex-libris on the front pastedown; see The Michel Wittock Collection. Part I: Important Renaissance Bookbindings, Christie's London 2004, lot 31).

A magnificent copy – bound for the French cardinal Charles de Bourbon – of the third edition of this compilation of astrological works by the renowned physician, natural philosopher, mathematician, and astrologer from Milan Girolamo Cardano. The first part consists of his translation into Latin of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos, along with his commentary. The first edition of Cardano's collection issued from Heinrich Petri's press appeared in 1554; the 1557 publication is the first to be supplemented with commentary by the mathematician Conradus Dasypodius (1532-1600), who suppressed, from the section Genitura exempla devoted to individual horoscopes of great men, the famous horoscope of Jesus Christ and inserted instead a short description of the clock in the cathedral of Strasbourg, which Dasypodius had constructed in collaboration with the Habrecht brothers from Schaffhausen.

The edition is presented here in a splendid copy once owned by Charles de Bourbon, Archbishop of Rouen, who was proclaimed Charles X of France by the Catholic League in 1589 following the assassination of Henry III. For his exquisite library, Charles de Bourbon commissioned bindings of the greatest elegance, executed by renowned binders in the soberer style in vogue in the last decades of the sixteenth century: the covers of this volume are simply tooled with three gilt fillets, and the spine bears his coat of arms, along with the his device with the motto 'SVPERAT CANDORE ET ODORE'.

Most of de Bourbon's library eventually went to the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, with a few books remaining in private hands. In the nineteenth century, this copy was in possession of the great bibliophile and art collector William Beckford, whose impressive library was sold in 1882. “Mr. Beckford's exquisite taste and judgement rendered him a perfect enthusiast in collecting literary bijoux, especially of works exhibiting the bibliopegistic skill of the most eminent binders [...] Mr. Beckford was indefatigable in watching all the great sales in London and Paris, eagerly securing copies of works bearing the arms and devices of eminent collectors [...] His collection is rich in works bearing the arms or devices of Francis I, of Henry II and Diane de Poitiers, Henry III [...] including excessively rare specimens of Cardinal de Bourbon” (The Hamilton Palace Libraries. Catalogue of The First Portion of the Beckford Library, pp. iii-iv).

Adams C-682; STC German 719; Houzeau - Lancaster 4856; Riccardi I, 254.7; Olivier 2617 (tools 2, 3); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 153.

A sixteenth-century Lucca edition printed on blue paper, from the Library of Guglielmo Libri

42. Boccaccio, Giovanni (1313-1375)

La Theseide... Innamoramento piaceuole, & honesto di due Giouani Thebani Arcita & Palemone; D’ottaua Rima nuouamente ridotta In Prosa per Nicolao Granucci di Lucca. Aggiuntoui un breve Dialogo nel principio e fine dell’Opera diliteuole, & vario. Vincenzo Busdraghi for Giulio Guidoboni, 1579.

8o (154x100 mm). Printed on blue paper. Collation: a8, A-S8 (fol. F4 signed G4). 8, 144 leaves. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Woodcut decorated seven-line initials and headpieces. Fine Parisian red morocco over pasteboards, signed by Hippolyte Duru, and executed in 1847. Covers within double blind fillet. Spine with five small raised-bands, emphasized by blind fillets; title lettered in gold. Marbled pastedowns and flyleaves; edges-boards decorated with gilt fillet, inside dentelles. Gilt edges. A good copy; restored upper margin of leaves, some letters of the running titles reconstructed at the time of the binding.

Provenance: Guglielmo Libri (1803-1869; Catalogue de la Bibliothèque de M L****, Paris 1847, lot 2299, “La Theseide, di Gio Boccaccio... Lucca, Vinc. Busdraghi, 1579, in 8. Mar. r. d. Duru. Exemplaire en papier bleu de cette ouvrage curieux”. Sold for 40 francs).

Very rare edition of Boccaccio's Teseida, presented here in a copy exceptionally printed on blue paper, and in a fine binding executed for Guglielmo Libri by the renowned Parisian binder Hippolyte Duru.

Boccaccio composed the Teseida in order to demonstrate that a classical epic could be written in a vernacular language. The text was produced in three redactions, the first beginning in the early 1340s, and the second and third in the late 1340 and early 1350s. On the model of Vergilius' Aeneis, the poem is divided into twelve books, and consists of 1,238 octaves. The Teseida combines elements from the classical epics and the contemporary tradition of love literature, and was first printed in Ferrara in 1475, edited on the basis of a contaminated text assembled by the Ferrarese Pietro Andrea de' Bassi. After the Venetian edition of 1529, the Teseida appeared again in Italy only fifty years later, thanks to Nicolò Granucci, who rewrote the text in prose.

Boccaccio's work had notable popularity in the English literature of the Middle Ages, and served as the primary sources for Geoffrey Chaucer's Knight's Tale, included in his Canterbury Tales. “Several books occupied Chaucer's desk while he was composing The Knight's Tale [...] The most important book on that very crowded desk was the Teseida” (Coleman, The Knight's Tale, p. 87).

STC Italian 112; D. Anderson, Before the Knight's Tale. Imitation of Classical Epic in Boccaccio's “Teseida”, Philadelphia 1988; W. E. Coleman, “The Knight's Tale”, R. M. Correale, M. Hamel. Sources and Analogues of the Canterbury Tales, Cambridge 2005, 2, pp. 87-124; R. Daniels, Boccaccio and the Book, London 2009, p. 57; W. E. Coleman, “Teseida delle nozze d'Emilia”, T. De Robertis, C. M. Monti et al. (eds.), Boccaccio autore e copista, Firenze 2013, pp. 89-99; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 155.

'manu Joachim Camerarii Fil. sunt scripta’ — Gottlieb Christoph Harless

43. Hippocrates (ca. 460-370 BC)

Hippocratis Coi Asclepiadeae gentis sacrae Coryphaei viginti duo commentarii tabulis illustrati: Graecus contextus... emendates. Latina versio Iani Cornarij... correcta... Theod. Zvingeri Bas. studio & conatu.... Eusebius Episcopius and Heirs of Nikolaus Episcopius, 1579.

Folio (320x208 mm). Collation: α6, β8, A-Z6, Aa-Zz6, AA-DD6, EE8, FF-LL6, MM10. [28], 594, [114] pages. Roman, italic and Greek type. Woodcut printer's devices on the title-page and verso of the last leaf. Woodcut animated and decorated initials, on seven lines that on fol. α2r. Contemporary limp vellum, yapp edges. Traces of ties. Smooth spine, with inked title. Red edges. A very good, unsophisticated copy; paper slightly browned, as expected. Small repairs to the gutter of the title-page.

Provenance: the Swiss physician and humanist Theodor Zwinger (1533-1588); given by him as a gift to Joachim Camerarius the Younger (1534-1598; the inscription 'Joachimo J.F. Camerario Donus Autoris [sic]' on the title-page; some annotations and underlining in his own hand); the German scholar Gottlieb Christoph Harless (1738-1815; ownership inscription 'D. Harles 1795' on the title-page; his autograph notes on the flyleaves).

A highly interesting copy of the authoritative bilingual edition of Hippocrates edited by the physician and philologist Theodor Zwinger, celebrated author of the Theatrum vitae humanae (1565), and gifted by him to Joachim Camerarius the Younger, son of the renowned humanist and great editor of classicsJoachim Camerarius the Elder (1500–1574). The edition contains a selection of twenty-two writings from the vast Hippocratic corpus, supplemented with the Latin translation by Janus Cornarius (ca. 1500-1558), and commentary with the help of tables and charts.

Camerarius was born in Nuremberg. After his early studies at Wittenberg and Leipzig, he turned to medical pursuits under the tutelage of Johannes Crato von Krafftheim, physician to the emperors Ferdinand I and Maximillian II, and dedicatee of this edition of Hippocrates. He studied medicine at the University of Padua, and took his doctorate in Bologna in 1562. He subsequently returned to Nuremberg to establish his medical practice. In 1592 the Nuremberg city council founded the Collegium Medicum; Camerarius served as dean of this latter until his death. He corresponded with other pre-eminent physicians and scientists such as Gaspard Bauhin, Carolus Clusius, Thomas Erastus, and Konrad Gessner.

In the present copy, some annotations in Camerarius' own hand are visible – as in the list of Hippocrates' works written on the front flyleaf – thus offering a striking testimony to Camerarius' interest in the ancient medical tradition.

This copy was subsequently held in the library of the classical scholar and bibliographer Gottlieb Christoph Harless. Harless was appointed professor of oriental languages and eloquence at the Gymnasium Casimirianum in Coburg in 1765, and professor of poetry and eloquence at Erlangen in 1770; he also edited a revised, twelve-volume edition of the Bibliotheca Graeca of Johann Albert Fabricius, which appeared in 1790-1809. On the front flyleaf of this Hippocrates, Harless included some notes regarding the rarity of this edition, the import and value of which are increased by the presence of marginalia which – as he here states – 'manu Joachim Camerarii Fil. sunt scripta'.

Adams H-621; VD16 H-3791; Choulant 36; Durling 4805; Wellcome 3252; Hieronymus (ed.), Griechischer Geist aus Basler Pressen, Basel 2003, no. 325; Hoffmann II, 415; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 156.

From the celebrated Pillone Library Vecellio’s drawings on vellum covers

44. Tomai, Tomaso (d. 1593)

Historia di Ravenna... Diuisa in quattro parti. Nella quale oltre le cose notabili di questa Repubblica; breuemente si trattano principalissime guerre di diuerse nationi.... Francesco Tebaldini, 1580.

4° (196x127 mm). Collation: †4, 22, A-Z4, Aa-Dd4. [12], 214 [i.e. 216] pages. Roman and italic type. Woodcut arms of Pope Gregory XIII on the title-page. Woodcut decorated initials. In its original limp vellum binding, covers decorated with ink drawings by Cesare Vecellio (1521-1601): the upper cover depicts the church of Santa Maria della Rotonda in Ravenna, the lower one a part of the city ramparts. Traces of two pairs of ties on the fore-edge. Smooth spine decorated in ink with stylised acanthus leaves; painted edges, on the fore-edge a view of the city, and the inscription 'RAVENA'. Very good copy, lightly stained and spotted, more prominently on the leaves of quires M and T; pale waterstain at the blank outer margin of the first leaves.

Provenance: Odorico Pillone (1503-1593); Sir Thomas Brooke of Armitage Bridge House, Huddersfield (1830-1908; ex-libris on the front pastedown; see A Catalogue of the Manuscripts and Printed Books Collected by Thomas Brooke, F.S.A. Vol. II. M-Z, London 1891, no. 158, “Tomai, Tommaso. Historia di Ravenna. In Ravenna, 1580. 4to. v.”); from Humprey Brooke to Pierre Berès (P. Berès, Un group de livres Pillone. Catalogue no. 67, Paris 1957, no. 158; label on the front pastedown 'Livre no. 158 de la Bibliothèque Pillone Pierre Berès'); Sotheby's London, 25 May 2000, lot 97.

A splendid copy of the second edition of this rare work on the history of Ravenna, owned by the well-known bibliophile from Belluno, Odorico Pillone (1503-1593). In 1580, Pillone famously commissioned the painter Cesare Vecellio (1521-1601; see nos. 159 and 169) to decorate, with drawings or painted fore-edges, the bindings of 172 volumes preserved in his Villa Casteldardo in the Dolomites, in which he had established his Studio. Vecellio, a cousin and pupil of Titian who worked in his atelier until his death, thus decorated the fore-edges of the majority of Pillone's library, depicting characters and landscapes relating to the subject of each book. Vecellio is also famously the author of Habiti antichi et moderni, the well-known illustrated history of clothing, in which he mentions the library and other collections of the Pillone family, as well as their exquisite hospitality in their Villa.

The present example represents one of only twenty one volumes that Vecellio adorned with drawings on the covers, and one of the very few with both decorated vellum covers and painted fore-edges: the rich imagery features views of a fairy-tale Ravenna with Santa Maria della Rotunda and a fortification artfully drawn in a Mannerist style. The inked inscription 'RAVENA' embellishes the edge.

In 1874, a Pillone descendant sold the entire collection to English bibliophile Thomas Brooke for 20,000 lire. After the latter's death, Humphrey Brooke, the heir of the collection, entrusted the sale to Alan Keen, who compiled a catalogue of its contents (The Venetian Library Collected at the Close of the Sixteenth Century by Doctor Odorico Pillone and the Sides and Edges Painted by Cesare Vecellio, London 1951). The collection was then purchased in 1957 by the French bookseller Pierre Berès, who immediately put it on sale, publishing a catalogue with the help of Italian art historian Lionello Venturi. The collection, united until then, was thus dispersed.

P. Berès, Bibliothèque Pillone, Paris, 1957, no. 158; T. Conte (ed.), Cesare Vecellio, 1521 c.-1601, Belluno 2001; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 157.

From the celebrated Pillone Library Vecellio’s drawn maps on vellum covers

45. Anania, Gianni Lorenzo da (1545-1609)

L’uniuersale fabrica del mondo, overo Cosmografia... Diuisa in quattro Trattati... Di nuouo ornata con le figure delle quattro parti del Mondo in Rame. Andrea Muschio for Giacomo Aniello De Maria, 1582.

4° (218x157 mm). Collation: †8, ††4, a-d4, A-Z4, Aa- Zz4, Aaa-Bbb4, Ddd6. [56], 402 pages, lacking the last blank leaf. Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. One double-page engraved map of 'ORBIS DESCRIPTIO'; four folding engraved maps depicting Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum over pasteboards, with original drawings in pen and ink executed by Cesare Vecellio, depicting a map of Europe, Asia, and Africa on the front cover, and a map of the Americas (Mondo Novo) on the back. Spine with three raised bands, title 'FABRICHA DEL MONDO' vertically inked in the two central compartments, arabesques in ink at the external compartments. Edges decorated with curving lines. Binding in excellent condition, a little faint staining, two pairs of ties on the fore-edge replaced. A good copy, small repairs to the leaves of the first quire, affecting a few letters, light browning, the first leaves slightly waterstained; a small wormhole at the upper blank margin.

Provenance: Odorico Pillone of Casteldardo (1503-1593); Sir Thomas Brooke of Armitage Bridge House, Huddersfield (1830-1908; ex-libris on the front pastedown; see A Catalogue of the Manuscripts and Printed Books Collected by Thomas Brooke, F.S.A. Vol. II. M-Z, London 1891, no. 100, “Lorenzo d'Anania, Gio. L'Universale Fabrica del Mondo, overo Cosmografia. In Venetia, 1587. 4to. v.”); from Humprey Brooke to Pierre Berès (P. Berès, Un group de livres Pillone. Catalogue no. 67, Paris 1957, no. 132; label on the front pastedown 'Livre no. 132 de la Bibliothèque Pillone Pierre Berès'); John Roland Abbey (1896-1969; ex-libris on the front pastedown; sale Sotheby's 21 June 1967, Catalogue of the Celebrated Library of Major J.R. Abbey. 3rd portion. London 1967, lot 2091); Sotheby's London, 25 May 2000, lot 89.

A rare surviving copy from the celebrated library assembled by the Pillone family in their Villa of Casteldarno in Val Cadore, near Belluno: the third edition of Anania's Cosmografia, an influential and much-cited sixteenth-century guide which first appeared in Naples in 1573, and presented here in a magnificent vellum binding decorated with India ink and wash drawings by Cesare Vecellio (1521-1601; see no. 157), a cousin and pupil of Titian. Vecellio is also famously the author of Habiti antichi et moderni, as well as the Corona delle nobili e virtuose donne, one of the finest cut pattern books for embroidery and lace designs (see no. 169).

The library was formed by the Pillones over several generations, but significantly expanded by Antonio (1464-1533) and his eldest son Odorico (1503-1594). These finely painted bindings were commissioned by Odorico, or possibly by his son Giorgio in the late 1570s-1580s. In all, 172 books were bound and decorated, mainly by Vecellio and a few other artists.

The Pillone Library was larged and varied, and well supplied with geographical books and travel narratives. The present copy of Anania's Universale fabrica del mondo or Cosmografia is one of only twenty-one volumes bound in vellum whose covers were finely decorated by Vecellio with drawings in pen and ink appropriate to the content of the book, which in this case contains – along the double-page engraved map of 'orbis descriptio' – four folding engraved maps of the continents known at the time, depicting Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas. On the upper cover, Vecellio presents a map of Europe, Asia, and Africa, while the lower cover bears a map depicting the Mondo Novo.

“Si elles n'ont pas pour l'amateur d'art le prix inestimable des oeuvres originales de Vecellio, elles offrent pour l'amateur de livres des spécimens également désirables à cause de leur précision iconographique et de l'élegance de leur facture. Les vélins peints [...] ressortissent plus à la gravure qu'au dessin. Leur presence [...] concourt à donner sa physionomie unique à la bibliothèque Pillone. Par le souci réellement artistique qui a présidé à leur décoration et dont on ne connaît aucun exemple, ils doivent être considerés commes des oeuvres artistiques exceptionnelles” (L. Venturi, Cesare Vecellio et la Bibliothèque Pillone, introduction to Bibliothèque Pillone).

STC Italian 26; Bibliothèque Pillone, 132; Sabin 1364; T. Conte (ed.), Cesare Vecellio, 1521 c.-1601, Belluno 2001; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 159.

A sumptous wedding account printed on blue paper, bound for the Vettori Family

47. Rinuccini, Camillo (1564-1649)

Descrizione delle Feste fatte nelle Reali nozze de’ Serenissimo Principi di Toscana D. Cosimo de’ Medici, e Maria Maddalena Archiduchessa d’Austria. Giunta, 1608.

4° (232x158 mm). Printed on blue paper. Collation: [π]2, A-H4, I2, K-L4, M2, N-T4, V2. [4], 149 [i.e. 147, pp. 69-72 omitted], [1] pages. Complete with fol. M2 blank. Roman and italic type. Text partly printed in two columns. Woodcut coat of arms of the Medici and Habsburg families on the title-page. Fine woodcut compass rose on the recto of fol. N4. Woodcut decorated initials, small tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. On both covers, a blind-tooled coat of arms of the Vettori family. Smooth spine with running stitches, title and small decorative motif inked in a contemporary hand, partly faded. Marbled pastedowns. Covers slightly stained, lower corners somewhat bumped. A good copy, printed on strong paper. Some spots, light browning. A few small wormholes, occasionally affecting a few letters.

Provenance: the Florentine Vettori family (armorial binding); James Bindley (1737-1818; the note on the recto of the front flyleaf, 'Jan. 1819 Bindley 2d Sale £ 2.10'; and his sale, Evans, 11 January 1819, A Catalogue of the Curious and Extensive Library of the Late James Bindley, Esq. F.S.A. Part The First, London 1818, p. 37, lot 1043, “on blue paper”); purchased by Richard Heber (1773-1833; small stamp 'BIBLIOTHECA HEBERIANA' on the recto of the front flyleaf; see the sale catalogue Bibliotheca Heberiana. Catalogue of the Library of the Late Richard Heber... Part The Second, Sotheby & Son, London 1836, p. 200, lot 3819, with the note “printed on blue paper,” and sold for the sum of 2 pounds and one shilling); the Italian bibliophile and bookseller Giuseppe Martini (1870-1944; his bibliographical notes on the front flyleaves, including 'Coll. completo G. Martini', and 'Largo margine'); acquired from the English bookseller Percy Mordaunt Barnard in 1916 (see the note on the verso of the flyleaf, 'Barnard, Turnbridge Wells, Inghilt. Agosto 1916').

A marvellous and exceedingly rare copy, printed on blue paper, of one of the most famous festival books of the late Renaissance: the first edition of Camillo Rinuccini's description of the sumptuous ceremonies organised around the wedding of the eighteen-year-old Crown Prince Cosimo II de' Medici to the Archduchess of Austria Maria Magdalena, cousin of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II, celebrated in Florence in 1608. This blue-paper copy was likely offered by the author to a member of the important Florentine Vettori family, whose coat of arms is stamped on the binding.

Florence witnessed an unprecedented series of events in celebration of the union between Cosimo, who would become Grand Duke of Tuscany only a few months after his marriage, and his bride from the powerful Habsburg house: plays, musical intermezzi, giostre, horse ballets, a triumphal procession, banquet, and even a naval battle or naumachia on the Arno river. Camillo Rinuccini narrated all of these magnificent events, and his Descrizione enjoyed wide and immediate success. Especially noteworthy is Lorenzo Franceschi's Ballo et Giostra de' venti (fols. N1r-N4r), a poem in octaves describing a horse ballet illustrated with a fine thirty-two-point compass rose or wind rose (fol. N4r), which was also issued separately from the Giunti press.

At least four other issues from 1608 have been recorded, each with varying numbers of pages and, occasionally, plates. This copy corresponds to the enlarged issue, in which Rinuccini's report is supplemented, in the last quires, with two musical dialogues by Francesco Cini – La notte d'amore (fols. O1r-O4r) and L'Argonauta (fols. P1r-P4r) – as well as I Cavalieri sanesi a valorosi e cortesi professori d'arme (fols. Q1r-V2r).

The number of plates included in the various issues of Rinuccini's Descrizione, depicting different ceremonies or banquets and executed by Matthias Greuter, is uncertain: Watanabe-O' Kelly calls for two plates, but a few copies containing five plates are recorded. The copy on blue paper described here is in its original binding, and apparently never included plates, of which there is no mention in the early nineteenth-century sale catalogues of the exquisite libraries of James Bindley and Richard Heber, respectively, to whom this fine volume later belonged.

“Vinet [...] conjectures that the plates were published separately, each having been dedicated to a separate person [...] in similar cases the author, publisher or the buyer might bring the plates to the printer for inclusion in the bound book” (Pettas, The Giunti of Florence, p. 753). The blue-paper recorded copies do not usually include plates.

STC 17th century, 749; Camerini 318; Pettas 871a; Cicognara 1412;
Lipperheide II, Si 14; Sartori, Libretti italiani a stampa, 7648; Vinet 608;
Watanabe-O'Kelly & Simon 1241; R. Mouren, “Quatre siècles d'histoire
de la Bibliothèque Vettori: entre vénératation et valorisation”, B. Wagner
– M. Reed (eds.), Early Printed Books as Material Objects: Proceeding of
the Conference organized by IFLA Rare Books and Manuscripts Section,
Munich, 19-21 August 2009, Berlin-New York 2010, pp. 241-267.

The ‘lunatiques’ of Aix-en-Provence. A Gift from Peiresc to His Friend Gassendi

49. Bacon, Francis (1561-1626)

De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum, Libri ix. Ad Regem suum. Iuxta Exemplar Londini Impressum. Pierre Mettayer, 1624.

Small 4° (256x170 mm). Collation: *2, **4, ***2, A-Z8, AA-ZZ8, AAa-XXx4, YYy2. [16], 540 pages (with some errors in numbering). Roman and italic type. Woodcut printer's device on the title-page. Engraved portrait of the author on fol. *1r. Woodcut decorated initials and headpieces. Fine French contemporary binding executed by Simon Corberan. Red morocco, over pasteboards. Covers framed within triple gilt fillet, central gilt monogram of Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc. Spine with three raised bands, compartments decorated with small floral tools, title and imprint in gilt lettering. 'VERVLAMIVS DE SCIENTIAR. DIGNIT. 1624'. Edges slightly speckled red. A few minor stains to the lower cover. In a modern red morocco box, at foot of the spine 'EXEMPLAIRE DE PEIRESC DONNÉ EN CADEAU À GASSENDI'. A good copy, light offset turn-ins of the binding on the first and last leaves; restored wormhole in the blank outer margin of some leaves, without any loss. Pencilled modern note about the provenance on the recto of the front flyleaf.

Provenance: from the library of Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637), who on 26 March 1636 gave the volume to Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655; ownership inscription on the title-page: 'donum optimi d[omi]ni de Peiresc, ideo acceptum, quòd aliud exe[m]plar in folio hab[ea]t. 26 mart. M.DC.XXXVI. Gassendi.').

Extraordinary association copy of the second Latin edition of this famous treatise by the English philosopher and stateman Francis Bacon, his manifesto for the progress of learning. The volume belonged to the renowned savant, naturalist, antiquarian, book collector and great patron and amateur of sciences and art Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637), who offered it as a gift to one of his closest friends, the famous philosopher and astronomer Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), one of the earliest French admirer of Bacon's experimental philosophy. This exceptional provenance is attested by the inscription on the title-page, in the hand of Gassendi himself. United in the present volume are thus three of the principal scientists and advocates of the New Science: Bacon, Gassendi and the savant for whom the volume was handsomely bound, Peiresc.

Although in his will Peiresc left books – along with mathematical and astronomical instruments – to Gassendi, his nephew refused to let the philosopher have them upon his death on 24 June 1637. The library was thereby dispersed, and a manuscript catalogue now survives in the Bibliothèque Inguimbertine at Carpentras. This copy is thus of especial interest as it rescues a volume from Peiresc's library, and offering documentary evidence of Bacon's ideas and work in the French intellectual circles of the 1620s and the following decades.

Indeed, Peiresc himself was directly involved in the publishing of the 1624 edition of the De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum, edited by Bacon's secretary William Rawley, which first appeared in 1623 in London as an enlarged version of the earlier On the Proficience and Advancement of Learning (1605).

In November 1623 Peiresc had received a letter from the Italian scholar and antiquarian Cassiano del Pozzo, containing a notice of the publication in London of the De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum. In the opinion of Peiresc, the circumstances were also favorable for proposing in France an edition of this work juxta exemplar Londini. Unlike the London folio-edition, for the volume printed by the typographus regius Pierre Mettayer a quarto format was chosen, and copies hot off the press were sent by Peiresc to many correspondents. Peiresc thereby played a pivotal role in the diffusion of Bacon across continental Europe.

In March 1636 a copy of this Parisian edition was still preserved in the large library amassed by Peiresc in Aix-en-Provence, elegantly yet plainly bound in red morocco by the binder Simon Corberan, who moved from Paris to Aix-en-Provence in 1625, and stamped with Peiresc's Greek cipher, two sets of his initials, Ν Κ Φ. And precisely at the beginning of March 1636 his great friend and intellectual interlocutor Pierre Gassendi arrived in Peiresc's residence, as his letter to the Genevan Elie Diodati, dated Aix-en-Provence 8 April 1636, attests.

In the De rebus coelestibus commentarij (1658) Gassendi presents a large number of observations recorded over decades, among them those carried out at Aix in March 1636 together with his friend Peiresc, who had studied astronomy at the Jesuit College in Tournon, and met Galileo at Padua in 1599. Peiresc took an active interest in Galileo's telescopic discoveries, so much so that immediately after the publication in 1610 of the Sidereus Nuncius, he had an observatory built in his Hôtel de Callas in Aix; he spent years recording the times of planetary events and calculating terrestrial longitudes, discovered the first nebula in the constellation Orion, and commissioned the first mapping of the moon.

The 'story' of the present copy of Bacon's De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum has another protagonist, albeit less famous than Peiresc and Gassendi: the binder Simon Corberan, who in March 1636 assisted the two 'lunatiques' of Aix-en-Provence in their astronomic observations. Pereisc had in fact trained his servants also to be astronomers. Corberan began to observe the celestial bodies on 7 November 1631, on the occasion of the transit of Mercury, accurately predicted by Johann Kepler. He also sketched a cahier d'observation, and we have records of Gassendi and Corberan observing an eclipse of the sun in 1639. Corberan represents the “exemple le plus magistral de domestique parvenu au statut de curieux [...]: embauché initialement comme relieur, il devint, sous la direction de Peiresc, un fervent curieux d'astronomie et acquit d'incontestables talents d'observateur” (C. Dauvergne, Un moteur de la révolution scientifique, p. 465).

The gift, on 26 March 1636, of this precious copy of Bacon's De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum – from his library and bound by the relieur-astronome Corberan – to his dearest friend seems to encapsulate the revival of Bacon's philosophy, with its dual emphasis on friendship and the advancement of science. A collaborative venture which reflects Bacon's convinction that the true progress of knowledge can be achieved only through a collective enterprise.

R. W. Gibson, Francis Bacon. A Bibliography of His Works and of Baconiana, Oxford 1950, no. 130; P. Tamizey de Larroque, “Une lettre inédite de Peiresc à son relieur Corberan”, Annuaire-bulletin de la Société de l'histoire de France, 26 (1890), pp. 121-126; P. Humbert, “Un relieur astronome”, Mélanges de Philosophie, d'Histoire, et de Littérature, 1934, pp. 209-214; I. de Conihout, “Du nouveau sur la bibliothèque de Peiresc”, M. Fumaroli (ed.), Peiresc et l'Italie, Paris 2009, pp. 243-264; C. Zittel, “Die Lunatiker von Aix-en-Provence”, U. Feist - M. Rath (eds.), Et in imagine Ego. Facetten von Bildakt und Verkörperung. Festgabe für Horst Bredekamp, Berlin 2012, pp. 277-299; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 191.

The Colbert-Heber-Beckford copy

51. Maccio, Paolo (1576-1638)

Emblemata. Clemente Ferroni, April 1628.

4° (203x140 mm). Collation: A-Z4, AA-TT4. 331, [5] pages. Roman and italic type. Engraved title-page within typographical border; dedicatory plate showing the Madonna and Child in a landscape; eighty-one emblematic engravings. Eighteenth-century calf, over pasteboards. Covers within a triple gilt fillet. Spine with five raised bands, title in gold on morocco lettering-piece. Marbled flyleaves, gilt edges. Joints and top of spine partially restored. A very good copy, small repair to the lower margin of fol. Q1r, without any loss.

Provenance: from the library of French politician Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683; ownership inscription on the title-page 'Bibliothecae Colbertinae'); by descent to Jean-Baptiste Colbert de Torcy (1665-1746), Jacques Nicolas Colbert, Archbishop of Rouen (1655-1707), and Charles Eléonor Colbert, Comte de Seignelay (d. 1747; see the sale catalogue Bibliotheca Colbertina, seu Catalogus librorum bibliothecae quae fuit primum Ill. V.D. J. B. Colbert, Regni ministri, deinde Ill. D. J. B. Colbert. March. de Seignelay; postea Rev. et ill. D. J. Nic. Colbert, Rothomagensis Archiepiscopi, ac demum D. Caroli-Leonorii Colbert, Comitis de Seignelay, Paris 1728, Pars Secunda, Continens Libros in 4.); the English book collector Richard Heber (1773-1833; his stamp on the front flyleaf); the English writer and patron of the arts William Beckford (1760-1844); his younger daughter, the Duchess of Hamilton (pencil note on the front flyleaf, dated 20 December 1882; see the sale at Sotheby, Wilkinson & Hodge, The Hamilton Palace Libraries. Catalogue of the Second Portion of the Beckford Library, Removed from Hamilton Palace, London 11-23 December 1882).

First edition of this lively and richly illustrated emblem book by the Modenese Paolo Maccio (Macchi, or Mazzi), which presents an interesting iconography of contemporary life in Bologna.

The engravings were executed by various artists who were active in Bologna. Oliviero Gatti (1598-1646), a disciple of Giovanni Luigi Valesio, drew and engraved the dedication plate and fifty-two emblematic plates. Giovanni Battista Coriolano (1590-1649) was responsible for engraving twenty-six emblematic plates, while the remaining three engravings are the work of Agostino Parisini (fl. 1625-1636) after drawings by Florio Maccio, a disciple of Lodovico Carracci.

A further point of interest in this copy lies in its provenance, as it once belonged to the great book collector Jean-Baptiste Colbert, chief minister to the King of France Louis XIV from 1661 to 1683 (for another book from the Colbertina see no. 150). The notable library assembled by Colbert passed by descent to other members of this French family, and was largely sold in Paris on 24 May 1728. Later the book came into the possession of one of the most refined English bibliophiles, Richard Heber, founder of the Roxburghe Club of bibliophiles, whose collection of 105,000 volumes was sold by auction in London in 1835. On this occasion, the copy from the Colbertina was purchased by another outstanding English book collector, William Beckford, and until 1882 was preserved in his family's great library at Hamilton Palace.

Cicognara 1913; Frati 7447; Landwehr 496; A. Sorbelli, Storia della stampa in Bologna, Bologna 1929, p. 140; L. Bolzoni - B. Allegranti, Con parola brieve e con figura: libri antichi di imprese e emblemi, Lucca 2004, p. 48; D. Bloch, “La bibliothèque de Colbert”, Histoire des bibliothèques françaises, II, pp. 157-179; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 195.

Eustachio Divini’s copy

54. Manzini, Carlo Antonio (1599-1677)

L’Occhiale all’Occhio. Dioptrica practica... Doue si tratta della Luce; della Reffratione dei Raggi; dell’Occhio; della Vista; e degli aiuti, che dare si possono à gli Occhi per vedere quasi l’impossibile.... Vittorio Benacci's Heirs, 1660.

4° (207x148 mm). Collation: ☩6 (fol. ☩3 signed ☩2), A-Z4, A-Ll4. [12], 268, [4] pages, lacking the engraved portrait of Eustachio Divini. Roman and italic type. Woodcut vignette on the title-page showing a telescope, with the inscription 'REFERT INGENTI FOENORE' in a cartouche. Numerous woodcut illustrations and diagrams in the text, one full-page woodcut on fol. P4v depicting a 'Moletta Forfice'. Woodcut decorated initials and tailpieces. Eighteenth-century cardboard 'alla rustica', recased. Nineteenth-century paper label on the spine, bearing an early shelfmark. A few small stains on the covers. A very fine copy, slightly spotted, more heavily to the blank outer margin of the first quires.

Provenance: from the library of the celebrated telescope maker Eustachio Divini (1610-1685; his ownership inscription on the title-page 'Eustachio Diuini'); monogram combining the letters O and K at the bottom of the title-page; Giorgio Tabarroni (1921-2001; ex-libris on the front pastedown).

An exceptional copy – owned by the well-known optical instrument manufacturer Eustachio Divini – of the first edition of the first comprehensive work on telescope and lens making.

Manzini's magnum opus, the Occhiale all'Occhio, deals with all aspects of optics, from ocular anatomy to the characteristics of light and its refraction, focusing especially on techniques for manufacturing all kinds of telescopes and microscopes. The author, a Bolognese nobleman, was the pupil of the renowned astronomer Giovanni Antonio Magini, and was acquainted with numerous scientists of the day, such as Bonaventura Cavalieri, Ovidio Montalbani, and Giovanni Battista Riccioli. Among his technological accomplishments counts “a further improvement on a lathe for polishing and grinding lenses”, and the treatise of 1660 has been deemed “one of the most important early works on the subject of practical optics and lens making” (S. A. Bedini, “The Aerial Telescope”, p. 397).

In the Proemio al Lettore, Manzini celebrates Eustachio Divini as the first experimenter to have perfected the art of telescope making. Born in San Severino delle Marche (Ancona), Divini was active in Rome as of 1646 as a maker of clocks, lenses, microscopes and long-focus telescopes. Indeed, Manzini even defines the science of dioptrica as a 'divine art', a play on Divini's own name (fols. ☩5r-v).

His close relationship with Divini is demonstrated by two of the latter's works, which take the form of letters addressed to Manzini: the Lettera all'Ill.mo Conte Carl'Antonio Manzini. Si ragguaglia di un nuovo lavoro, e componimento di lenti, che servono à Occhialoni (Rome 1633), and the Lettera intorno alle macchie novamente scoperte nel mese di Luglio 1665 nel pianeta di Giove con suoi cannocchiali all'Illustriss. Sig. Conte Carlo Antonio Manzini (Rome 1666). There Divini describes the construction of his new 'occhialone' of fifty-two spans and the astronomical discoveries made possible by his telescopes, also recalling Manzini's Dioptrica of 1660.

The copy presented here may have been sent to Divini by Manzini shortly before its effective publication; this would explain why Divini's portrait is missing, as it was printed on different paper and bound after the printing in the standard copies. This copy contains textual corrections, emending misprints or inserting words omitted by the compositor (see fols. B1v, E4v, M1r, S1v, Y2v, Ff1v, Hh2v and Hh4v). These emendations are certainly authorial and added in the printing house.

STC 17th Century, 530; NLM/Krivatsy 7389; Riccardi II, p. 96; Wellcome II, p. 48; S. A. Bedini, “The Aerial Telescope”, Technology and Culture, 8 (1967), p. 367; M. L. Righini Bonelli - A. Van Helden, Divini and Campani: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of the Accademia del Cimento, Firenze 1981; V. Ilardi, Reinassance Vision from Spectacles to Telescope, Philadelphia 2007, p. 229; R. Bellé, “L'occhiale all'occhio. Un testo del XVII secolo sulla costruzione dei telescopi”, Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi, 64 (2009), pp. 453-480; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 208.

A stunning presentation copy of Kircher’s Ars Magna Sciendi

55. Kircher, Athanasius (1602-1680)

Ars Magna Sciendi, In XII Libros Digesta, qua Nova & Universali Methodo Per Artificiosum Combinationum contextum de omni re proposita plurimis & prope infinitis rationibus disputari, omniumque summaria quaedam cognitio comparari potest.... Johann Jansson van Waesberghe and the Widow of Elizeus Weyerstraet, 1669.

Two parts in one volume, large folio (447x282 mm). The two parts with running collation and foliation. Collation: *4, **4, A-Z4, Aa-Hh4, Kk-Zz4, Aaa-Ooo4, Ppp6. [16], 482, [10] pages. Roman and italic type. Text in two columns. Separate engraved title-pages to both parts, the second one bearing a woodcut printer's device. Between fols. *2 and *3, an engraved portrait of Emperor Leopold, one engraved plate between fols. Ii1 and Ii2 depicting the 'Arbor Philosophica Universae cognitionis Typus'. Four double-page letter-press tables, one folding; engraved diagrams in the text, those on fols. B3r and Y3r with volvelles. Numerous woodcut illustrations, decorated initials, and large tailpieces. Contemporary Amsterdam binding, red morocco over pasteboards. Covers profusely gilt with massed floral and arabesque tools, partly au pointillé. Spine with seven raised bands, similarly gilt; title lettered in gilt 'A. KIRCHE. ARS COMBINAT.'. Comb-marbled pastedowns; board edges decorated with gilt frieze; inside dentelles. Edges speckled red and blue. Binding in very fine condition, especially for a volume of this size; extremities of the spine slightly repaired. A good copy, some browning and foxing, sometimes heavy, as expected. On the title-page, two early inked shelfmarks.

Provenance: Giovanni Paolo Oliva (1600-1681; contemporary ownership inscription on the title-page 'Bibl. P[raepositi] Olivae'); Martin Breslauer, Fine Books and Manuscripts in Fine Bindings. Catalogue 110, New York 1992, no. 107 (his bibliographical notes, dated 22 July 1990, on the front flyleaf); Joost R. Ritman, Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica (bookplate on the front pastedown).

A splendid, large-paper copy of the first edition of the Ars magna sciendi, in a stunning morocco binding executed on behalf of Athanasius Kircher for presentation to Giovanni Paolo Oliva (1600-1681), eleventh general of the Jesuits, whose name appears printed on the approbation leaf in this edition. Oliva was a very close friend of Kircher, demonstrated great interest in his polyhedric research and studies, and gave several formal permissions to print his works.

The Ars magna sciendi is one of the most influential works by the well-known German Jesuit, who was an eclectic scholar, inventor, collector, and founder of the Museum Kircherianum in the Roman College (see no. 226). In this monumental work, which is dedicated to Emperor Leopold I, Kircher builds an exhaustive scientific system based on logical combinations and symbolic logic formulae capable of expressing each truth; it thus represents one of the most celebrated seventeenth-century attempts at creating a universal language for scientists and philosophers to describe and circumscribe all knowledge into a unified system.

In 1661, Kircher – who never left Rome after settling there in 1633 – came into epistolary contact with the Dutch publisher Joannes Jansson van Waesberghe (Janssonius). Jansson was active in Amsterdam from 1651 to 1681; in his later years he entered into partnership with his son-in-law, Elizaeus Weyerstraet. Of Kircher's thirty-four books printed during his lifetime, fourteen were published by Janssonius. As Kircher wrote in his Vita, “It was my wish then that all the books I had previously published should be dedicated by posterity to the magnanimous emperor Ferdinand III and those that appeared after his death to his son the emperor Leopold. All those who read these in later times will admire their splendid production by the Amsterdam bookseller Johannes Janssonius, who has assumed responsibility for the publication and printing of all my books” (The Life of the Reverend Father Athanasius Kircher of the Society of Jesus, p. 495). The Archives of the Jesuit Gregorian University in Rome preserves Jansson's draft contract, written in Amsterdam and dated 29 July 1661, establishing the sum of 2,200 scudi for 'tutti li suoi libri', that is, for publishing all Kircher's books (PUG 563, fol. 244). Kircher also commissioned Jansson to produce luxury bindings for presentation copies, which were to be executed on his behalf by the most renowned binders active in Amsterdam. Among the various craftsmen active in the city at that time, Mirjam Foot has been able to identify a group of 'Kircher-binders' based on the fact that four of the eight luxury bindings she has seen from this group contained works by Athanasius Kircher. This includes the Latium printed by Jansson in 1671, which was perhaps bound for Pope Clemens X and is now preserved in Copenhagen's Koninklijke Bibliotheek.

Father Oliva's presentation copy of the Ars magna sciendi is housed in a sumptuous binding which bears comparison with those executed by Albert Magnus (1642-1689), the most important Dutch bookbinder of the age. Anthony Hobson has attributed to Magnus a very similar binding found on the famous Landau Hely-Hutchinson copy of the same work, held at the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York (PLM 49213; see the Sotheby's sales of 13 July 1948 and 13 March 1956). According to Foot, however, the Morgan binding was in fact not executed by Albert Magnus, but represents rather the only work of an Amsterdam bookbinder of the same professional stature who also belonged to the group of the 'Kircher binders'.

It is very likely this individual used tools based directly on those employed by Magnus, and was probably active in Jansson's printing house.

“One of the binders commissioned was Magnus, another Dr. Foot's 'Kircher Binder' of which she knew eight bindings, four on Kircher's works. Are the two presentation bindings on the 'Ars Magna' the only survivers of a shortlived attempt by Janssonius to establish a bindery of his own, for which he had special tools cut and for which he temporarily employed one of Magnus' craftsmen?” (Breslauer, Catalogue 107, p. 188).

Merrill 22; Caillet II, 360.5771; Clendening 10.17; J. E. Fletcher - E. Fletcher, Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, ‘Germanus Incredibilis'. With a Selection of his Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of his Autobiography, Leiden-Boston 2011; H. de la Fontaine Verwey, “The Binder Albert Magnus and the Collectors of his Age”, Quaerendo, 1 (1971), pp. 158-178; M. M. Foot, Studies in the History of Bookbinding, London 1979; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 212.

Ex dono Auctoris

57. Meyer, Cornelius (1629-1701)

Nuovi ritrovamenti divisi in due parti con trè Tavole in lingua Latina, Francese, & Ollandese. Parte prima. Delli ordegni per cavar pali. Armature della calamita. Del modo di levare i sassi sott’acqua, e trovar la lega dell’oro, e dell’argento... Rome, Giovanni Giacomo Komarek, 1696. (bound with:) Idem. Alla Santità di N.S. Papa Innocentio XI. Beatissimo Padre. [Rome, Giacomo Antonio de Lazzeri Varese, 1679]. (bound with:) Idem. Nuovi ritrovamenti dati in luce dall’Ingegneiro [sic] Cornelio Meyer per eccitare l’ingegno de’ virtuosi ad aumentarli, ò aggiungervi maggior perfettione... Rome, Giovanni Giacomo Komarek, 1689. (together with:) Idem. L’Arte di restituire à Roma la tralasciata Navigatione del suo Tevere. Divisa in tre parti.... Giacomo Antonio de Lazzari Varese, 1685.

Two volumes containing four works, in near uniform bindings.

First volume. Three works bound together, folio (411x261 mm). I. [28] unsigned leaves, including title-page with a large engraved vignette showing a dragon with the caption 'Drago come viveva il primo di Decembre 1691 nelle paludi fuori di Roma'; dedication to the Grand Duke of Tuscany Cosimo III dated Rome, 22 June 1696; 22 leaves consisting of plates with letter-press explanatory text, all of them half-page (except two full-page and three double-page); 4 leaves of indices in Latin, French, and Dutch. Roman and italic type. II. Collation: A14. [14] leaves. Issued without title-page, opening with dedicatory epistle to Innocent XI. Twelve numbered half-page engravings accompanied by explanatory text below, printed on recto only. Roman and italic type. The plates are partly dated between 1677 and 1679, engraved by Giovanni Battista Falda and Jacques Blondeau, after Meyer. III. Collation: [π]2-1, A-D2, 2D2, E2-1. [12] leaves. Roman and italic type. Typographical ornament on the title-page. Fifteen engravings in the text, two of which are double page. Most of the plates signed by Meyer as designer, and sometimes as both designer and engraver. The double-page astronomical engraving is signed by Ioannes Baptista Honoratus Polustinus.

Contemporary limp vellum. Extremities of the spine damaged. Fine, unsophisticated copy. Worm-tracks on the upper margin of several leaves not affecting the text, some leaves somewhat loose.

Second volume. Three parts, folio (401x265 mm). [92] leaves, 15, [1] pages. All leaves are unsigned, except for fols. [9-10] signed A-A2 and the final 8 leaves signed A-D2. The edition includes: two additional titles with dedication to Innocent XI and a large allegorical engraving present here in two states (one variant has the caption title 'Fluminis Fluctus Letificant Civitatem' written on a cartouche on top of the engraving, while the second version has 'D.O.M.' instead); a letter-press title with a woodcut ornament; sixty-eight engraved illustrations and maps (six double-page, one full-page and the rest half-page). The final 15 pages contain the relations of the Sacra Congregatio riparum Tyberis, and end with the colophon 'Romae, ex Typographia Rev. Cam. Apost., 1685'. The first illustration of part two, a double-page map showing the Delineatione del stagno di Maccarese, is captioned: 'In Roma, nella stamperia di Nicol'Angelo Tinassi, 1681'. The comet plate referred to in the list of plates is absent, in keeping with all other copies. At the bottom of the figura quarta in Part one are two contemporary ink drawings of technical structures. Roman and italic type. Woodcut head- and tailpieces.

Contemporary vellum, over thin boards. Spine with inked title, partly damaged and with a few losses. A genuine copy, with good margins. Some browning and foxing, double-page map of Delinatione del stagno di Maccarese heavily browned.

Provenance: I. Meyer's own inscription 'Ex dono Auctoris' on the verso of the front flyleaf; on the front pastedown nineteenth-century armorial ex-libris of the Odescalchi family, bearing the motto 'per servire s'acquista servi quando poi', and engraved by Michelassi. II. Meyer's own inscription 'Ex dono Auctoris' on the verso of the front flyleaf.

Two-volume set containing four rare first editions by Cornelius Meyer (Cornelis Meijer), both volumes bearing the author's inscription 'Ex dono Auctoris'. Dedication copies of these already rare works are extremely hard to come by separately, and even more so bound together, and in copies complete with all their parts. This is the case of this set, in which the first volume also bears the ex-libris of the Odescalchi family, and it is especially noteworthy that Pope Innocent XI Odescalchi was the patron of Meyer as well as the dedicatee of the second edition bound in this volume.

I. The first work bound – Nuovi ritrovamenti divisi in due parti... Parte prima – though printed seven years later, in 1696, forms the first section of a two-part work, which gathers some of the author's technical inventions and scientific experiments. The second part, Nuovi ritrovamenti dati in luce, was issued first, in 1689, but both texts are clearly related insofar as the index to both parts is printed at the end of the Part one.

The plates show inventions and experiments undertaken by Meyer in Rome and other places like Livorno and Civitavecchia: among others, the large magnet of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, instruments and technical tools to raise cannons and poles from below the sea and to break stones underwater, methods for melting metals, canalization and other hydraulic works, a plan of the harbor of Livorno, fortification works, spectacles, games and curiosities including how to break a glass with a musical instrument, the eclipse of Jupiter's first satellite, a map of the mouth of Po river, chariots, the design of a room, the orbit of a comet, and fountains. One of the plates included here shows the Civitavecchia harbor, where the author recovered the hull of a sunken vessel.

The third work included in the first volume – the one bound in the middle – is the rarest of all three. It was issued without a title-page and opens with a dedication to Innocent XI Odescalchi. Meyer's name appears at the end of the dedication, while the imprint is at the bottom of the last two leaves. As stated in the notice to the reader, with this publication Meyer intended to show to the general public how he so brilliantly completed the first task assigned to him by Clement X upon his arrival in Rome.

Born in Amsterdam, Cornelius Meyer left his country in 1674 for Venice, then a popular destination for Dutch engineers seeking employment. He moved to Rome one year later. Pope Clement X put Meyer in charge of a major project aimed at protecting the Via Flaminia against the flooding of the Tiber. Meyer, whose plans were less expensive than those proposed by the project's former head engineer, Carlo Fontana, constructed a passonata, i.e., a row of piles, in the Tiber, which deflected the river's current away from the Via Flaminia.

II. First edition of Meyer's important work on the restoration of the Tiber River for navigation, L'arte di restituire a Roma la tralasciata navigatione del suo Tevere, which is considered his masterpiece, and is presented here in its second issue (the first issue is dated 1683 on the title-page).

After this first successful work on the Tiber, Clement X and his successor Innocent XI hired Meyer to improve navigation on the river with the purpose of increasing commerce. Meyer came up with revolutionary solutions to expedite travel along the river and in 1683, with the help of artist Gaspar van Wittel, he published his projects in L'arte di restituire a Roma la tralasciata navigatione del suo Tevere. The book, which is divided into three parts, was both a record of Meyer's engineering skills as well as a form of self-promotion for seeking further commissions. It includes a beautiful series of etchings by Meyer himself as well as by Giovanni Battista Falda, Gaspar van Wittel, Jacques Blondeau, Barend de Bailliu, Balthasar Denner, Gomar Wouters, Johannes Collin, and Ioannes Baptista Honoratus Polustinus. It was with his designs in L'arte di restituire that Meyer consolidated his reputation among the artistic and scientific elite of Rome.

Michel & Michel V, p. 161; Cicognara 3791-3792; Olschki 17589; Poggendorff II, 134; Rossetti 7022-7023c; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 219.

A fine association copy, gifted by the author to the Italian historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio

58. Vallisneri, Antonio (1661-1730)

Opere diverse... cioe: I. Istoria del Camaleonte Affricano, e di varj Animali d’Italia. II. Lezione Accademica intorno all’Origine delle Fontane. III. Raccolta di varj Trattati accresciuti con Annotazioni, e con Giunte. Giovanni Gabriele Hertz, 1715.

Three parts in one volume, 4° (231x156mm). [12, including frontispiece], 200; [8], 87, [1]; [4], 261, [3] pages; complete with the last blank leaf. Engraved author's portrait as a frontispiece. Thirty engraved folding plates. Contemporary vellum, ink title on the spine. Marbled edges. A very good copy, pale waterstains to the lower outer margin, small wormholes to the gutter of a few leaves, without any loss.

Provenance: Antonio Vallisneri, given as a gift by him to the Italian scholar and historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio (1695-1756; see Vallisneri's dedication on the recto of the first leaf, 'All'Illmo P.R.D. Francesco Xauerio Quadrio della Comp.a di Gesù L'Authore in segno de riuerentiss.ma Stima, e di eterne obbligazioni').

First edition of this collection of Vallisneri's writings on natural history, offered here in a fine copy gifted by him to the renowned Italian historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio, who is especially well-known for his Della storia e della ragione di ogni poesia, a voluminous history of poetry, theatre, and music.

Antonio Vallisneri was born at Trassilico, in Garfagnana, on 3 May 1661. His education initially followed the traditional path of the Jesuit schools – a path reserved for the sons of the 'best' families of the day. In 1682, he started attending Bologna University, where he became one of Malpighi's students. In 1685, he was awarded a degree from the College of Reggio (Emilia), after which he extended his practical knowledge and experience in Venice, Padua and Parma. He subsequently returned to his homeland, where he practised his profession and simultaneously initiated an extremely intense period of natural history studies. Vallisneri's works and observations evince an original interpretation of the themes and perspectives of the Galileian medical tradition followed by Malpighi and Redi and were positioned along the most advanced front of the debates between natural history and life science that were then under way in Europe. Vallisneri was inclined to set his scientific hypotheses within a general theoretical framework although maintained a Baconian respect for empirical data, and he committed himself to overcoming the limits of Cartesian dualism and mechanism, first with reference to Malebranchian thought and then to that of Leibniz. His teachings were based on his meticulous observations of natural science, particularly in the fields of entomology and comparative anatomy; he was convinced that scientific knowledge is best acquired through experience and reasoning, and this principle was followed in his anatomical dissections and carefully drawn descriptions of insects.

Vallisneri's research into reproduction demonstrated the non-existence of spontaneous generation and anticipated evolutionist theory.

In the collection presented here the Lezione Accademica intorno all'Origine delle Fontane is especially noteworthy. The lucidity of Vallisneri's experimental approach makes it a perfect example of the Galileian method.

Garrison-Morton, 302; Pritzel 9675; M. Sabia, Le opere di Antonio Vallisneri medico e naturalista reggiano (1661-1730). Bibliografia ragionata, Rimini 1996, pp. 106-120; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 224.

The Soranzo-Smith copy, printed on large blue paper

59. Svetonius Tranquillus, Gaius (70-126)

Le vite de’ dodici Cesari... Tradotte in volgar Fiorentino da F. Paolo Del Rosso Cavalier Gerosolomitano. Nuova edizione con le vere effigie de’ Cesari Ed altre illustrazioni.... Francesco Piacentini, 1738.

Folio (296x215 mm). Printed on blue paper. [2], XIX, [1], 377, [3] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Title-page printed in red and black. Half-title within a frame executed and signed by John Baptist Jackson (1701-ca.1780). Woodcut vignette on the title-page, fine cul-de-lampe. Each Vita is introduced by a large woodcut medallion portrait, from the series executed by the Flemish artist Hubert Goltzius (1526-1583). Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with five raised bands, double morocco lettering-piece, title and imprint lettered in gilt. Gilt edges. A very fine, wide-margined copy, printed on strong paper, partly uncut.

Provenance: the Venetian senator Giacomo Soranzo (1686-1761; ownership inscription on the recto of the front flyleaf, '1743 Di Giano Soranzo'); the British Consul in Venice Joseph Smith (1682-1770; large ex-libris on the front pastedown; his sale Bibliotheca Smithiana, Venice 1755, p. CCCLVIII, “la stessa, tradotta dal suddetto, con le vere Effigie de' Cesari (cavate da Goltzio) ed altre illustrazioni. Ven. per Francesco Piasentini [sic] 1738. 4. c. gr. turchina. leg. Oll.”). On the rear pastedown a cutting taken from an unidentified sale catalogue 'Splendida copia, una delle poche stampate in carta grigia. Leg. orig. in piena perg. taglio dorato, Con un belliss. Ex-libris di Joseph' Smith, Britisch Consul, ad venice'.

A superb copy, printed on strong blue paper, of this famous historical work, divided into eight books and containing the biographies of twelve Roman emperors, from Julius Caesar to Domitianus.

The well-known artist John Baptist Jackson (1701- ca.1780) is responsible for the fine border framing the half-title. The portraits of Roman Emperors, or “le vere effigie dei Cesari” – as the Venetian printer Piacentini states in his preliminary address – are by anonymous designers and engravers, and closely reproduce the outline of Hubert Goltzius' series of medallions, originally executed in chiaroscuro, which first appeared in the volume Vivae omnium Imperatorum Imagines, published in Antwerp in 1557.

The volume has a very distinguished provenance, having once belonged to Joseph Smith, refined lover of paintings and books, and Canaletto's patron (see no. 232). He spent his life in Venice, and in 1740 was named British Consul of the city. Smith's library was sold at auction in 1755, while his celebrated art collection was purchased by King George III in 1762.

Previously this fine copy of the Le vite de' dodici Cesari had been in the possession of the Venetian patrician and senator of the Serenissima Giacomo Soranzo, one of the greatest collectors of books printed on blue paper.

Brunet v, p. 584; Gamba 1669; Morazzoni, Il libro illustrato veneziano del Settecento, p. 255 (listing only the octavo edition); J. Kainen, J. B. Jackson, 18th Century Master of the Color Woodcut, Washington, D.C.1962, p. 29; F. Vivian, The Consul Smith Collections, Munich 1986; M S. Morrison, “Records of a Bibliophile. The Catalogues of Consul Joseph Smith and some Aspects of his Collecting”, The Book Collector, 43 (1994), pp. 27-54; M. Zorzi, “La stampa, la circolazione del libro”, P. del Negro – P. Preto (eds.), Storia di Venezia, dalle origini alla caduta della Serenissima, VIII, Roma 1998, pp. 801-860; L. Hellinga, “Il Console Joseph Smith Collezionista a Venezia per Il Mercato Inglese”, La Bibliofilia, 102 (2000), pp. 109-121.

Vend. Pinelli, Unico in Carta turchina — Gamba —

60. Tacitus, Caius Cornelius (ca. 55 – ca. 120)

Opere... con la traduzione in Volgar Fiorentino del Signor Bernardo Davanzati Posta rincontro al Testo Latino. Con le Postille del medesimo e la Dichiarazione d’alcune voci meno intese... Novella Edizione, purgata dagl’innumerabili errori di tutte le precedenti.... Giuseppe Comino; Giovanni Antonio Volpi and Gaetano Volpi, 30 August 1755.

Two parts in one volume, large 4° (245x174 mm). Printed on blue paper. lxxx, 343; [5], 344- 669, [1] pages. Complete with the last blank leaf. Text in two columns. Engraved Comino printer's device at the end. Engraved medallion portrait of Davanzati on the title-page, with the inscription 'BERNARDO DAVANZATI GENTILUOMO FIORENTINO.' Decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Smooth spine, with inked title and printing date. Pastedowns and flyleaves in blue paper. Gilt and gauffered edges. A very fine copy. On the front pastedown the inked number '966'; on the recto of the front flyleaf the stamped shelfmark 'D 327'.

Provenance: Giovanni Antonio Gotti from Ceneda, near Treviso (the ownership inscription 'Die 27 February 1777 Joh:is Antonj Gotti Cenetensis, Vicarj Pretorj Paduae cum Px:mo Antonio Gajnerio - Costò £ 26.-' on the front pastedown); Giovanni Giacomo Trivulzio (1774-1831; ex-libris); Biblioteca Trivulziana, Milan (small stamps on the recto of the front flyleaf and on a few leaves of the volume; copy sold as a duplicate).

The Cominiana edition of Tacitus' Annales and Decades, offered here in the only copy known to have been printed on blue paper. This elegant Italian translation by the Florentine Bernardo Davanzati (1529-1606) successfully captures Tacitus' brevity while illuminating his obscurity. It first appeared posthumously in Florence in 1637, where it was printed on behalf of the Accademia della Crusca, which had inherited Davanzati's manuscripts. This translation represents a significant chapter in the history of the great Roman historian's reception in early modern Europe. During his lifetime Davanzati had only published a version of the first book of the Annales which appeared in Venice in 1596.

Tacitus was considered a master of political thought, and a sceptical analyst of political reality; his works could thus offer an interpretation of contemporary political events and the problems of monarchies through discussions of ancient civil wars and the unlimited power of Roman emperors. “The condemnation of Machiavelli's works by the Catholic Church (1559) had left an empty space which Tacitus could easily fill. What could be not be said in the name of Catholic Machiavelli could be said in the name of pagan Tacitus” (A. Momigliano, The Classical Foundations of Modern Historiography, Berkeley 1990, p. 123). This explains the popularity of Davanzati's translation, and more generally the vernacular translation of Tacitus, which was indeed a European phenomenon.

This marvellous copy was once held in the exquisite library collected by Giovanni Giacomo Trivulzio and is mentioned by Gamba with regard to the Paduan Tacitus of 1755. The Milanese bibliophile may have purchased the volume at the sale of the Bibliotheca Pinelliana (see no. 250).

Gamba 940; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 236.

Bound by Georg Friedrich Krauss for Duke Albrecht Kasimir August von Sachsen-Teschen

61. Bayardi, Ottavio Antonio (1695-1764)

Catalogo degli antichi monumenti dissotterrati dalla discoperta città di Ercolano... Naples, Regia Stamperia, 1755. (uniformly bound with:) Le antichità di Ercolano, esposte. Regia Stamperia, 1757 - 1792.

Nine volumes, large folio (510x390 mm). Complete, with 609 plates (the extra plate no. 610 recorded in RIBA, is usually not included in the known copies). The first six volumes of the Antichità feature a frontispiece with medallion portrait of Charles III, King of Spain and the Indies, engraved by Filippo Morghen (1730-1807) after a drawing by Camillo Paderni (this frontispiece is lacking in the seventh volume); the frontispiece of the eighth volume bears a medallion portrait of Charles III's successor, his son Ferdinand IV. Contemporary Viennese bindings executed by Georg Friedrich Krauss (fl. 1791-1824) for Duke Albrecht von Sachsen-Teschen. The fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh volumes of the Antichità bound in red gilt-tooled full-morocco, while the boards of the first, second, third, and eighth ones, and those of Bayardi's Catalogo are covered with red painted paper. All nine volumes feature uniform red morocco spines with seven raised bands, with double green morocco lettering-pieces, the other compartments decorated with gilt floral tools, and the gilt monogram 'AST'. Marbled pastedowns and flyleaves, inside dentelles in the volumes bound in full morocco. A very fine, wide-margined set, printed on strong paper. Minor wear to the head of the spine of the first volume.

Provenance: Herzog Albrecht Kasimir August von Sachsen-Teschen (1738-1822; armorial bindings; see no. 253); Giorgio Fanan (ex-libris on the front pastedown of the first volume).

A splendid set of large volumes containing the first edition of this monumental work devoted to archaeological discoveries at the ancient Roman town of Herculaneum, printed on thick paper and magnificently bound for the well-known bibliophile Albert of Sachsen-Teschen, founder of the eponymous Albertina in Vienna. The set is complete with the Catalogo degli antichi monumenti dissotterrati per ordine della maestà di Carlo re delle due Sicilie by the archaeologist from Parma Ottavio Antonio Bayardi or Baiardi (1695-1764). The Catalogo briefly describes more than two thousand monuments and works unearthed in the discovered town. It was printed in 1755 and is often lacking in the recorded sets.

The Antichità di Ercolano represents the most important source for the development of neo-classical art. It was printed by the Regia Stamperia, the royal publishing house founded by the Bourbons in 1750, and edited by the Royal Herculaneum Academy. The vast project involved several scholars, and the reports were supplemented with magnificent illustrations by prominent artists of the time, including Camillo Paderni, director of the Royal Herculaneum Museum at Portici, and court artists who had obtained permits to draw the objects, including Anton Raphael Mengs, Luigi Vanvitelli, and Giovanni Battista Casanova.

The frontispiece of the first six volumes of the Antichità di Ercolano features a fine engraved portrait of Charles III (1716-1788), Duke of Bourbon, with symbols of the excavations carried out while he was King of Naples: some papyrus scrolls, a bust of Epicurus, vessels and coins, a pick and a shovel. It also depicts the inscription found in the theatre, including the word 'Herculanenses', which enabled excavators to identify the town brought to light as Herculaneum. The frontispiece of the eighth volume – appeared in 1792, i.e., thirty-five years after the publication of the first volume – bears instead the medallion portrait of Charles III's successor, his son Ferdinand IV (1751-1828). It is rare to find a such numbers of engraved portraits in the volumes of the Antichità. In fact, the copies known are often found lacking many of the frontespieces.

Albrecht von Sachsen-Teschen assembled one of the most complete and finely illustrated books from the presses of leading printers. Although unsigned, the present binding can confidently be attributed to the outstanding Viennese binder Georg Friedrich Krauss (fl. 1791-1824), one of von Sachsen-Teschen's principal binders (see no. 253). “Les exemplaires sont tous d'exception, imprimés sur grand papier, les gravures soit avant la lettre, soit en différents états; mais ce qui rend la collection tout à fait unique ce sont les superbes reliures de l'époque, la pluspart avec les dos mosaïqués et ornés du chiffre du duc Albert de Saxe, d'une fraicheur et d'un état de conservation parfaits” (Catalogue de beaux livres ayant appartenu au duc Albert de Saxe-Teschen, p. VIII).

Cicognara 2645; Ebert 711; RIBA 112 and 224; Kissner 199; Blackmer 678; Catalogue de beaux livres ayant appartenu au duc Albert de Saxe-Teschen, Milan 1930; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 237.

Finely bound for Antoine-Augustin Renouard

62. Lucianus Samosatensis (125–182)

Opera Graece et Latine ad editionem Tiberii Hemsterhusii et Ioannis Frederici Reitzii accurate expressa cum varietate et annotationibus.... Societas Bipontina, 1789 - 1793.

A set of ten volumes, large 8° (210x117 mm). I. [4], CXVI, 492 pages. II. [4], 552 pages. III. [4], 596 pages. IV. [4], 603, [1] pages. V. [4], 604 pages. VI. [4], 605, [3] pages. VII. [4], 583, [1] pages. VIII. [4], 598, [2] pages. IX. [4], 605, [3] pages. X. [4], 367, [313] pages. Engraved vignette on the title-page of each volume. Uniformly bound in blue morocco by Pierre-Joseph Bisiaux, active between 1777 and 1801; the binding of the tenth and last volume uses slightly different leather and tooling, and was probably executed by another binder, possibly after Bisiaux's death. Covers framed within large gilt frame. The owner's name 'renouard' is tooled in gilt on the upper cover of each volume, apart from the tenth. Spines with five double raised bands, underlined by a narrow gilt frieze on red ground and decorated with gilt stars, diagonals of dotted fillets, and small central tools. Title, imprint, and volume numbering lettered in gilt. Rose-pink silk pastedowns; flyleaves either in rose-pink silk and in vellum. Board edges tooled with gilt fillets, inside dentelles. Rose-pink silk bookmarks, gilt edges. In the first nine volumes, the original blue colour of the spines changes to dark olive. Spines occasionally repaired at extremities; upper headbands of the first and seventh volumes restored, and covered with marbled paper. A set in very fine condition, insignificant browning in places.

Provenance: the renowned French bibliographer and outstanding book collector Antoine-Augustin Renouard (1765-1853).

A fine set, uniformly bound for Antoine-Augustin Renouard by the leading Parisian binder Pierre-Joseph Bisiaux: the monumental edition of Lucianus' works, published in the Bipontine series of classical texts and edited by Johann Frederik Reiz (1695-1778) and Tiberius Hemsterhuis (1685-1766). The texts included are mainly based on the three-volume edition of Lucianus that appeared in Amsterdam in 1743.

The Societas Bipontina was established in Zweibrücken (lat. Bipontum) in 1778, and its production centered on Greek and Latin classics. Its publishing activity is famous for the elegance of its layouts and philological accuracy. The first volume opens with the Sylloge de aetate, vita scriptisque Luciani by Reitz, whereas the tenth and last volume contains philological notes on textual variants by Jacques-Nicolas Belin de Ballu, along with a series of detailed indices.

The volumes were bound for the celebrated bibliographer and great book collector Antoine-Augustin Renoaurd, who was particularly passionate about books that were elegantly bound in morocco, richly gilt tooled, and further enriched with vellum or silk – especially rose-pink – pastedowns and flyleaves, as the marvellous set presented here well testifies. The most famous binders during the transition from the Monarchy to the Directory executed bindings for his exquisite library; this included, among others, Pierre-Joseph Bisiaux, who was active in Paris between 1777 and 1801, a rival of Nicolas-Denis Derome (1731-1790), and his heir Bradel.

For an identical binding see the Renouard copy of Athenagoras' work Della risurrettione de' morti (Venice 1556), a volume which later came into the possession of Henry Davis, one of the greatest collectors of magnificent bindings, and held now in the British Library (Davis 570).

G. Burkard, Bibliographie der Editiones Bipontinae, Zweibrücken 1990, pp. 94-101; J. Schoendorf, Zweibrücker Buchdruck zur Fürstenzeit. Das Buch-und Zeitungswesen einer Wittelsbacher Residenz 1488-1794, Zweibrücken 1995, pp. 161-179; M. Baubach, Lukian in Deutschland. Eine Forschungs- und Rezeptionsgeschichtliche Analyse vom Humanismus bis zur Gegenwart, München 2002, pp. 100, 118, 266. For similar bindings see S. de Ricci, French Signed Bindings, no. 124; M. Foot, Les reliures françaises, pl. 8; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 251.

In original printed boards

67. Fröbel, Friedrich Wilhelm August (1782-1852)

Die Menschenerziehung, die Erziehungs-, Unterrichts- und Lehrkunst, angestrebt in der allgemeinen deutschen Erziehungsanstalt zu Keilhau.... Keilhau, Verlag der allgemeinen deutschen Erziehungsanstalt; Leipzig, A. Wienbrack, 1826.

8° (208x127 mm). [4], 497, [1] pages, plus one final leaf bearing a list of Fröbel's writing up to that date. Original printed boards. The explanatory notes of the two vignettes – 'Die Lilie im Garten' and 'Jesus im Tempel' – at the centre of the covers are pasted on the front and rear flyleaves. A very good copy, only slightly browned.

Provenance: Fröbel's friend and collaborator at Keilhau, Johann Heinrich Langethal (1792-1879; ownership inscription on the verso of the front flyleaf).

Rare first edition of Fröbel's first major work. Perhaps even more than Wie Gertrud ihre Kinder lehrte (1801) by Pestalozzi, who deeply influenced Fröbel, Die Menschenerziehung represents a milestone of modern pedagogical thought, and had an enormous impact on such later educators as Peter Petersen, Hermann Lietz, Maria Montessori, and John Dewey.

In 1816 Fröbel started his first school in the small village of Griesheim (in Hesse, Germany). A year later, the school moved a few miles away to another village, Keilhau, where his friends Wilhelm Middendorff and Johann Heinrich Langethal – the owner of the present copy – joined him to work as teachers. The number of pupils at the school soon grew, and more teachers were recruited. While at Keilhau, Fröbel had begun to publish his ideas in a weekly journal called Die erziehenden Familien, and in 1826 he privately published his Die Menschenerziehung.

The work outlines Fröbel's teaching methods and embodies a theory of education based on the principles of 'wholeness' (a child must be in harmony with nature and society), and 'activity' (in the sense that thinking and doing through play, learning, and work are the basis for a fully conscious and happy life for the individual and for society). The Prussian authorities were not enthusiastic about this eccentric man and his 'dangerous' ideas, and decided to investigate the practices at the school. Parents started removing their children; when finally only six students remained, the school had to be closed down. This, however, was not the end of Fröbel's career as school director; on the contrary, it marked only its beginning.

The present copy had once belonged to Johann Heinrich Langethal, one of Fröbel's closest collaborators at Keilhau. Born in Berlin, he first met Fröbel in 1813, and in 1817 he was among the founders of the Keilhau School.

H. Heiland, Bibliographie Friedrich Fröbel, Hildesheim-Zürich-New York, 1990, no. 0023; S. Hebenstreit, Friedrich Fröbel - Menschenbild, Kindergartenpädagogik, Spielförderung, Jena 2003; M. Berger, “Langethal, Johann Heinrich”, F. Marwinski (ed.), Lebenswege in Thüringen, Fünfte Sammlung, Jena 2015, pp. 171-176; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 267.

69. Rothschild, Charlotte Baroness de (1825-1899)

Italie. Souvenir d’un voyage de Nice à Génes par la Corniche. Vingt-trois de mes Dessins. Eaux-fortes. 1869.

Oblong folio (435x600 mm overall; 250x430 mm platemark). Title-page printed in red and black. Twenty-three mounted etchings. Contemporary dark brown shagreen, covers double-ruled. Spine with six raised bands, title lettered in gilt. Minor abrasions to covers, spine partially cracked. Generally the etchings are superb impressions.

Provenance: Baroness Charlotte de Rothschild (ex-libris 'Abaye des Vaux de Cernay. Nathaniel de Rothschild' on the front pastedown).

Extremely rare and charming series of etched views of areas between Côte d'Azur and Genoa, designed by the accomplished painter, amateur printmaker, and art collector Baroness Charlotte de Rothschild. A visual record of one of the great Romantic voyages pittoresques, the journey began in Nice and concluded in Genoa, with stops in Menton, San Remo, etc. From the Parisian branch of this immensely wealthy and cultured family, Charlotte studied watercolours under Eugène Lami, with whom she founded the Society of French Watercolour Painters. Her Parisian salon included such luminaries as Corot, Manet, and Chopin. Published in a small number of copies, strictly for distribution as gifts to family and friends, we have only located two institutional copies: at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Cabinet des Estampes, and at the Bibliothèque de Cessole in Nice.

The copy presented here has a very appropriate provenance, bearing her ex-libris on the front pastedown, with the inscription 'Abaye des Vaux de Cernay. Nathaniel de Rothschild'. The Baroness had bought the Abbaye des Vaux de Cernay, located in the Chevreuse valley, in 1873, after the death of her husband, her English cousin Nathaniel Rothschild (1812-1870).

Most of the plates, as the title indicates, show harbours and coastlines from the viewpoint of the shore, although four are townscapes. The outlines of cities appear in some of the harbour plates as well; the emphasis falls on the romantic celebration of nature, with picturesque elements (fishermen, washer women) providing a sense of scale and enlivening the scenes. Unusually, the place names of the locales depicted are etched in the plate. Proximity is indicated by densely etched areas of black in the foreground, distance by a lighter and lighter line. The pitch-black areas are reminiscent of Manet, who most influenced the artist.

The album represents a quite unknown document, and a significant addition to the corpus of engraving by female artists.

Astengo-Fiaschini, nos. 55, 99, 122, 123, 132, 147, and 160; La route de Gènes. La riviera da Nizza a Genova nelle stampe romantiche francesi, nos. 58-59; M. Hall, “The English Rothschilds”, G. Heuberger (ed.), The Rothschilds: Essays on the History of a European Family, Rochester, NY 1994, pp. 265-286; P. Prévost-Marcilhacy, “Charlotte de Rothschild: artiste, collectionneur et mécène”, Histoires d'art, (2008), pp. 252-265; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 274.

The foundation of Criminology. A dedication copy to the Italian Psychiatric Society

70. Lombroso, Cesare (1835-1909)

L’uomo delinquente studiato in rapporto alla antropologia, alla medicina legale ed alle discipline carcerarie. Ulrico Hoepli, 1876.

8° (225x160 mm). [4], 255, [1] pages. With four illustrations in the text, one of which is pasted on page 65 and reproduces the photograph that three murders made of themselves, as a memory, while miming the crime that they had just committed. Contemporary half-cloth with gilt title on spine. Spine repaired at the extremities. A very good copy, gutter of the first quire reinforced.

Provenance: gifted by Cesare Lombroso to the Società Freniatrica Italiana, i.e., the Italian Psychiatric Society (large paper strip on the half-title, bearing Lombroso's autograph dedication 'per i soci della Freniatrica Italiana / tutti voi / C. Lombroso / Pavia 6 Dic 1883'); the medical-legal physician Angiolo Filippi (1836-1905; pencilled ownership inscription on the half-title leaf).

Rare first edition – in a precious association copy – of the work that marks the birth of criminal anthropology. The book went through five editions in Italian and was published in various European languages, including English in 1900.

Born in Verona to a wealthy Jewish family, Lombroso studied literature, linguistics, and archaeology at the universities of Padua, Vienna and Paris, before becoming an army surgeon in 1859. In 1866 he was appointed visiting lecturer at Pavia and in 1871 he took charge of the mental asylum at Pesaro. He became Professor of Forensic Medicine and Hygiene at Turin in 1878. Later he was appointed as Professor of Psychiatry (1896) and Criminal Anthropology (1906) at the same university.

The Criminal Man, immediately welcomed as extremely innovative in the psychiatric and medical world of the time, is also addressed to judges and lawyers. It illustrates Lombroso's theories on the correlation between somatic and mental deformities with reference to specific factors as atavism, degeneration, and epilepsy. Lombroso also deals with the legal implications of his theories, particularly in relation to the issue of 'moral insanity', understood as a serious disturbance of social behavior. Lombroso was convinced of the pathological nature of the 'born criminal', and is considered the founder of criminology.

“Lombroso [...] maintained that criminals are more often found to suffer from physical, nervous and mental abnormalities than non-criminals, and that these abnormalities are either inherited or the result of physical degeneration [...] 'Criminal Man' was a revolutionary work which not only caused a considerable stir when it first came out but had a practical effect which was wholly beneficial. The division which it indicated between the congenital criminal and those who were tempted to crime by circumstances has had a lasting effect on penal theory. Again, by connecting the treatment of crime with the treatment of insanity, Lombroso initiated a branch of psychiatric research which has cast new light on problems, such as criminal responsibility, which lie at the root of human society” (PMM).

This copy bears Lombroso's autograph address to the Società Freniatrica Italiana, dated 'Pavia, 6 Dic 1883'. The Società Freniatrica Italiana – the Italian Psychiatric Society – was established in 1873, and Lombroso was among its founders. Its fourth congress took place in Voghera, near Pavia, on 16-22 September 1883. Later the volume came into possession of Angiolo Filippi, who was the leading medical-legal authority in Italy at that time. Filippi published the first Italian treatises on forensic medicine – the Principii di medicina legale per gli studenti di legge ed i giurisperiti (Firenze 1889) and the Manuale di medicina legale conforme al nuovo codice penale per medici e giuristi (Milano 1889) - in which some sections are devoted to criminal anthropology. Filippi was in correspondence with Lombroso, with respect to whom he often had differing opinions. Some notes in the present volume, written in his own hand, confirm the critical approach he had towards Lombroso's work, offerring striking testimony to the Italian debate on criminology.

CLIO, Catalogo dei libri italiani dell'Ottocento (1801-1900), IV, p. 2667 (MI185); Garrison-Morton 174; Norman 1384; PMM 394; H. Mannheim, Pioneers in Criminology, Chicago 1960, pp. 168-227; M. Gibson, Born to Crime: Cesare Lombroso and the Italian origins of Biological Criminology, Westport 2002; G. Seppilli - L. Bianchi (eds.), Atti del IV Congresso della Società Freniatrica Italiana tenuto in Voghera dal 16 al 22 settembre 1883, Milano 1883; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 275.

The Leonardo of our time — Pablo Picasso

71. Munari, Bruno (1907-1998)

Le macchine. Einaudi, 1942.

4° (283x210 mm). [32] pages. Fifteen full-page coloured plates showing 'useless machines'. Editor's illustrated cardboard, spine covered in black cloth, black-and-white author's portrait on the front pastedown. A very good copy.

Provenance: given by the author to the Italian architect Carlo Paccagnini (see Munari's autograph dedication to on the front pastedown: “Caro Paccagnini, ti regalo l'apparecchio per sostenere la testa del cane stanco, puoi fartene pure uno di ferro (da Crespi) e tenerlo in casa tua. Ciao. Munari” ('Dear Paccagnini, I give you as a present a device to sustain the head of the tired dog, you can also have it made in iron (by Crespi) and keep it at home. Bye. Munari').

First edition of Munari's most important artist book, a brilliant re-use of those 'useless machines' invented by the American cartoonist Rube Goldberg (1883-1970). The definition 'useless machines' indicates machines, made up of various movable parts, which are unable to produce expendable goods and do not increase resources. Munari, inspired by Goldberg's comics, began to draw these humorous machines during his student period to make his friends laugh. Some of these 'useless machines' are: a Machine to tame alarm clocks, a Mechanism to smell artificial flowers, an automatic Gauge of cooking time of boiled eggs, a Device to foresee the aurora, and an Apparatus to make hiccup music.

Bruno Munari is one of the most successful and prolific twentieth century Italian artists and designers. With his fundamental contributions to the visual arts in painting, sculpture, film, and industrial and graphic design (in modernism, futurism, and concrete art), as well as to non-visual arts with his ground-breaking research into games, didactic methods, tactile and kinaesthetic learning, and creativity, Munari became known worldwide as a true design legend. Called by Picasso 'the Leonardo of our time', Munari considered the book the best medium to communicate his visual ideas, showcase his art, and convey his creative spirit: he produced over sixty publications, ranging from design manuals and manifestos to visionary tactile children's books.

Munari's Le macchine appeared in the Einaudis' series “Libri per l'infanzia e la gioventù”, the press run for which is unknown. This copy was given as a gift by the author to the architect and friend Carlo Paccagnini, who was one of the participants to the Movimento per l'Arte Concreta (Concrete Art Movement) or MAC, the artistic movement formed in Milan in 1948 by, among others, Munari and the critic Gillo Dorfles.

G. Maffei, Munari: i libri, Mantova 2007, p. 56; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 284.

No, not your poem. Weird... weird... how I felt while you were saying it — The Postman

73. Neruda, Pablo (1904-1973)

Los versos del capitan. Arte Tipografica, 8 July 1952.

4° (246x165 mm). 181, [3] pages, including the Elenco de los subscriptores and Index. Original publisher's wrappers. Excellent copy, minor wear to the foot of the spine. Front wrapper slightly foxed. Copy no. 35, printed for the 'subscriptor' Bruno Molajoli.

Provenance: the Italian art historian Bruno Molajoli (1905-1985), one of the subscribers of this publication.

The first edition of one of the rarest twentieth-century books, issued anonymously – or, as the colophon states, “de autor desconocido” – in only forty four copies printed for friends and subscribers.

Los versos del capitan is considered one of the masterpieces of the celebrated Chilean poet and 1971 Nobel Prize winner Pablo Neruda, whose real name was Neftalí Ricardo Reyes Basoalto.

Owing to his protests against President González Videla's authoritarian policy, Neruda was forced to flee Chile for Europe. The poetic collection Los versos del capitan was written in 1952 during his exile on the island of Capri and published in Naples on 8 July 1952 by Arte Tipografica, the press led by his friend Angelo Rossi.

The collection contains Neruda's passionate love songs addressed to his muse, Matilde Urrutia (1912-1985), who became his third wife in 1963, and ultimately his widow. The first edition was published without mention of Neruda's name as their love affair was still a secret at the time.

Neruda's stay in Italy was fictionalized in Antonio Skarmeta's 1985 novel Ardiente Paciencia, which inspired the popular film Il Postino (The Postman, 1994), directed by Massimo Troisi.

The work only appeared in Chile in 1963, in a publication bearing the name of Neruda as the author.

J. Wilson, A Companion to Pablo Neruda: Evaluating Neruda's Poetry, Woodbridge 2008, pp. 194-196; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 286.

The Little Red Book, in the rare paper wrappers

74. Mao Zedong (1893-1976)

Mao Zhu Xi Yu Lu [Quotations of Chairman Mao. In Chinese]. Shenyang, Political Department, Air Force Division of Shenyang Military Region, December 1963.

12° (126x91 mm). [6], 351, [1] pages. Text organized into five divisions, sixteen chapters, and sixty-four sections. Publisher's cream-colour wrappers, red-lettered upper wrapper and spine. A good copy, cover stained, some text underlined in red ink.

Provenance: on the upper wrapper, an inscription referring to a degree of military hierarchy corresponding to that of 'official'.

Extremely important Maoist edition representing the prototype of the official Little Red Book of May 1964, in its printed paper wrappers: prior to the formal publication of Mao's Quotations – widely distributed within the People's Liberation Army – the Air Force, under the leadership of Lin Biao, assembled a somewhat larger collection of abstracts from the Chairman's speeches and writings; these were printed in such a small quantity that military officers were requested to return the book so others could borrow it. This edition has the same title as the later version (consisting of 250 pages divided in thirty chapters) and includes Lin's endorsement that “Everyone should study the Chairman's writings, follow his teachings, act according to his instructions and be Chairman Mao's good soldier”, taken from Lin's Resolution of the Expanded Meeting of the Military Committee on Strengthening Political And Ideological Education in the Army, here type-set in red and printed in its entirety (as opposed to the abridged version in calligraphy). The edition does not include Mao's portrait. Lin's endorsement is followed by seven pages of indexed content proceeded by 150 quotations (127 extracts from Mao and twenty-three by Lin Biao and the Central Military Commission, selected from newspaper transcripts).

This larger anthology is barely known and not mentioned in any of the standard Mao bibliographies, nor is its relationship to the eventual publication five months later explained in the one citation located, Guo Dongpeng's Outline for Cataloguing Mao Zedong's Works (p. 71). Guo refers to two copies in different bindings, each with 351 pages of text: an undated edition without imprint that he ascribes to 1963, and this version (which is dated and detailed); the most recent selection from Mao's texts is dated 29 August 1963. As General Lin was Minister of National Defense for the PRC (1959-1971), it is assumed this may have been a trial specimen created by the Air Force and possibly used as the model and source for editing down Mao's better-known version of the following year.

Guo Dongpeng, Outline for Cataloguing Mao Zedong's Works, Harbin 2006, p. 71; O. Lein Han, “Sources and Early Printing History of Chairman Mao's Quotations”, The Bibliographic Society of America (accessed January 2018); Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 287.

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