Science Philobiblon

One Thousand Years of Bibliophily from the 11th to the 21st Century

The first original work on obstetrics published in England by an Englishman — Hagelin

203. Harvey, William (1578-1657)

Exercitationes de generatione animalium. Quibus accedunt quaedam de partu: de membranis ac humoribus uteri: & de conceptione. William Dugard for Octavian Pulleyn the Elder [Elzevier], 1651.

4° (225x159 mm). Collation: [π]4, a4, B-Z4, Aa-Ss4. [32], 301, [3] pages. Complete with the blank leaves [π]1, C4, and Ss4. Roman and italic type. Engraved frontispiece on fol. [π]2v, showing Jove seated on a pedestal, opening an egg to release all of creation, with the inscription 'Gulielmus Harveus de Generatione Animalium'. Woodcut ornament on the title-page, decorated initials, and headpieces. Contemporary calf, unidentified gilt coat of arms at the centre of the covers, with the motto, only partly legible, 'TOTA SS MF ED PAS'. Spine with five raised bands, inked title on paper label and the letters 'pb' in gilt at the foot. Joints cracked. A good copy. Browned throughout owing to the paper quality, upper margins of the last quires slightly spotted.

Provenance: old library stamp on the recto of the frontispiece leaf (faded); Giorgio Borio (ex-libris on the front pastedown).

The very rare first edition of Harvey's most important work on conception, embryology, and birth, the text of the chapter De partu being the first original English work on obstetrics. A book which has an important place in the history of science.

“After the publication of De motu cordis, Harvey turned his attention to the study of generation. Even if Harvey had not discovered the circulation of the blood, his remarkable work on embryology would have placed him in the front ranks of biological scientists. Without benefit of the compound microscope, his work was necessarily limited; nevertheless, nothing comparable had been done since Aristotle. He disbelieved the previously held doctrine of 'preformation' of the fetus, maintaining instead that it proceeds from the ovum by gradual building up of its parts. Always slow to publicize his findings, Harvey was only after some years persuaded by his friend, Sir Georg Ent, to put them into print” (Heirs of Hippocrates, 271).

The work is divided into seventy-two exercitationes or chapters (in this first edition misnumbered seventy-one, the fifth chapter being numbered as the fourth), and collects notes and observations on generation which Harvey had assembled between 1628 and 1642. Three subsequent editions, in smaller format, followed in the same year in Holland, issued by Daniel Elzevier. The first translation into English appeared in London in 1653.

Although the original intention was to include Harvey's portrait, the engraved allegorical frontispiece shows Jove seated on a pedestal, opening an egg and releasing a variety of animal forms; in the background is a landscape with buildings, and on the egg is the famous inscription 'EX OVO OMNIA', i.e., 'all things from an egg'. This engraving is often lacking in the known copies. Keynes suggests the name of Richard Gaywood as the possible author of this frontispiece.

Wing H-1091; G. Keynes, Bibliography of the Writings of W. Harvey, 34; Garrison-Morton 467; Norman 1011; Waller 4118; Wellcome II, p. 219; G. Keynes, The Life of William Harvey, Oxford 1978, pp. 329-360; W. Harvey, Disputations Touching the Generation of Animals. ed. by G. Whitteridge, Oxford-London 1981; B.P.M. Dongelmans - P.G. Hoftijzer, Boekverkopers van Europe. Het 17de-eeuwse Nederlandse uitgevershuis Elzevier, Zutphen 2000, pp. 197, 200; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 203.

Eustachio Divini’s copy

208. Manzini, Carlo Antonio (1599-1677)

L’Occhiale all’Occhio. Dioptrica practica... Doue si tratta della Luce; della Reffratione dei Raggi; dell’Occhio; della Vista; e degli aiuti, che dare si possono à gli Occhi per vedere quasi l’impossibile.... Vittorio Benacci's Heirs, 1660.

4° (207x148 mm). Collation: ☩6 (fol. ☩3 signed ☩2), A-Z4, A-Ll4. [12], 268, [4] pages, lacking the engraved portrait of Eustachio Divini. Roman and italic type. Woodcut vignette on the title-page showing a telescope, with the inscription 'REFERT INGENTI FOENORE' in a cartouche. Numerous woodcut illustrations and diagrams in the text, one full-page woodcut on fol. P4v depicting a 'Moletta Forfice'. Woodcut decorated initials and tailpieces. Eighteenth-century cardboard 'alla rustica', recased. Nineteenth-century paper label on the spine, bearing an early shelfmark. A few small stains on the covers. A very fine copy, slightly spotted, more heavily to the blank outer margin of the first quires.

Provenance: from the library of the celebrated telescope maker Eustachio Divini (1610-1685; his ownership inscription on the title-page 'Eustachio Diuini'); monogram combining the letters O and K at the bottom of the title-page; Giorgio Tabarroni (1921-2001; ex-libris on the front pastedown).

An exceptional copy – owned by the well-known optical instrument manufacturer Eustachio Divini – of the first edition of the first comprehensive work on telescope and lens making.

Manzini's magnum opus, the Occhiale all'Occhio, deals with all aspects of optics, from ocular anatomy to the characteristics of light and its refraction, focusing especially on techniques for manufacturing all kinds of telescopes and microscopes. The author, a Bolognese nobleman, was the pupil of the renowned astronomer Giovanni Antonio Magini, and was acquainted with numerous scientists of the day, such as Bonaventura Cavalieri, Ovidio Montalbani, and Giovanni Battista Riccioli. Among his technological accomplishments counts “a further improvement on a lathe for polishing and grinding lenses”, and the treatise of 1660 has been deemed “one of the most important early works on the subject of practical optics and lens making” (S. A. Bedini, “The Aerial Telescope”, p. 397).

In the Proemio al Lettore, Manzini celebrates Eustachio Divini as the first experimenter to have perfected the art of telescope making. Born in San Severino delle Marche (Ancona), Divini was active in Rome as of 1646 as a maker of clocks, lenses, microscopes and long-focus telescopes. Indeed, Manzini even defines the science of dioptrica as a 'divine art', a play on Divini's own name (fols. ☩5r-v).

His close relationship with Divini is demonstrated by two of the latter's works, which take the form of letters addressed to Manzini: the Lettera all'Ill.mo Conte Carl'Antonio Manzini. Si ragguaglia di un nuovo lavoro, e componimento di lenti, che servono à Occhialoni (Rome 1633), and the Lettera intorno alle macchie novamente scoperte nel mese di Luglio 1665 nel pianeta di Giove con suoi cannocchiali all'Illustriss. Sig. Conte Carlo Antonio Manzini (Rome 1666). There Divini describes the construction of his new 'occhialone' of fifty-two spans and the astronomical discoveries made possible by his telescopes, also recalling Manzini's Dioptrica of 1660.

The copy presented here may have been sent to Divini by Manzini shortly before its effective publication; this would explain why Divini's portrait is missing, as it was printed on different paper and bound after the printing in the standard copies. This copy contains textual corrections, emending misprints or inserting words omitted by the compositor (see fols. B1v, E4v, M1r, S1v, Y2v, Ff1v, Hh2v and Hh4v). These emendations are certainly authorial and added in the printing house.

STC 17th Century, 530; NLM/Krivatsy 7389; Riccardi II, p. 96; Wellcome II, p. 48; S. A. Bedini, “The Aerial Telescope”, Technology and Culture, 8 (1967), p. 367; M. L. Righini Bonelli - A. Van Helden, Divini and Campani: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of the Accademia del Cimento, Firenze 1981; V. Ilardi, Reinassance Vision from Spectacles to Telescope, Philadelphia 2007, p. 229; R. Bellé, “L'occhiale all'occhio. Un testo del XVII secolo sulla costruzione dei telescopi”, Atti della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi, 64 (2009), pp. 453-480; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 208.

A tribute to the new experimental sciences

209. Bérigard, Claude Guillermet de (ca. 1590-1663)

Circulus Pisanus... De veteri et peripatetica philosophia in Aristotelis libros octo Physicorum. Quatuor de coelo. Duos de ortu & interitu. Quatuor de meteoris, & tres de anima... Opus in hac secunda editione auctius & retractatius. Paolo Frambotto, 1660 - 1661.

Six parts in one volume, 4° (220x160 mm). Collation: ✢6, ✢✢4, A-H4; a4; I-Z4, Aa4, Bb6; ²a4, Cc-Xx4; ³a4, Yy-Zz4, Aaa-Xxx4; 4a2, Yyy-Zzz4, Aaaa-Bbbb4, Cccc6; 5a4, Dddd-Zzzz4, Aaaaa4, Bbbbb1 (singleton). [20], 64; 6 of [8], 65-203, [1]; [8], 205-353, [3]; 6 of [8], 357-538, [2]; [4], 541-583, [1]; 6 of [8], 585-729, [25] pages. Complete with the blanks a1, 2a1, Xx4, and Xxx4; lacking blanks 3a4 and 5a4. At the beginning of the volume are twelve unsigned leaves of index which do not belong to this edition. Roman and italic type. Each part opens with a separate title-page bearing the printer's device. The second, third, and fourth parts are dated 1660, while the first, fifth, and sixth ones are dated 1661. Author's portrait on fol. ✢4v, engraved by Giovanni Giorgi; numerous diagrams in the text. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Early nineteenth-century half calf, richly gilt-tooled spine, title in gilt on red morocco lettering-piece. A very good copy. A few quires browned, some marginal foxing, slightly spotted in places.

Provenance: 'Hic liber est Ippoliti de [?]' (partly erased contemporary ownership inscription on the verso of the second front flyleaf).

Second revised, and significantly expanded edition of this remarkably interesting treatise containing an encomium for the new Copernican and Galileian science as well as its discoveries.

The Circulus Pisanus first appeared in Udine in 1642-1643. Its author, Bérigard (or Berigardo), was born in Moulin (France) and moved to Tuscany in 1625, possibly summoned there by Christine de Lorraine. He taught in Pisa from 1627 to 1638 and then at the University of Padua from 1639 until the end of his life in 1663.

The Circulus Pisanus is based on the 'disputationes circulares' held at the University of Pisa, which played such an important role in his teaching there. The work is cast in the form of a dialogue between Charilaus, a follower of Aristotelian philosophy, and Aristaeus, who upholds pre-Socratic philosophy, especially the atomism of such Ionian philosophers as Anaximander, Empedocles and Anaxagoras. Because atomism, like the new astronomical discoveries, had been condemned, Bérigard was very cautious about how he recovered ancient doctrines and dealt with the new philosophy. Even though he officially remained safely within the limits of traditional thought, he was also clearly familiar with the particulate (probably Cartesian) and experimental (Galileian) forms of the new philosophy. He describes many experiments in his book, including those pertaining to vacuums and the fall of bodies.

Many contemporary scientists – including, among others, Kenelm Digby, William Harvey, Evangelista Torricelli, Vincenzo Viviani, and Giovanni Alfonso Borelli – are mentioned with admiration in the work. The Circulus Pisanus also includes an encomium of Galileo (fol. Aaaa4, with the shoulder note Galilaei encomium). Bérigard, who must have known Galileo personally, always praised Galileo, although he remained firmly convinced of the earth's immobility.

Though Bérigard seems reluctant to fully cross the borders of the old philosophy, the Circulus Pisanus is undeniably a tribute to the new experimental sciences: beside the aforementioned encomium on Galileo, the Copernican hypothesis is mentioned and somewhat 'accepted'; the experiments of Torricelli are used to deny the vacuum only on the basis that God is everywhere and therefore a void cannot exist; and his praise for the telescope and the commentary on De Luna became an exposition of Copernicus' and Galileo's doctrines.

STC 17th Century, 97-98; Bruni-Evans 644; Carli-Favaro, 277; Hirsch I, p. 348; A. Favaro, “Oppositori di Galileo, iv. Claudio Berigardo”, Atti Istituto Veneto Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 79 (1919-1920), II, pp. 39-92; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 209.

A stunning presentation copy of Kircher’s Ars Magna Sciendi

212. Kircher, Athanasius (1602-1680)

Ars Magna Sciendi, In XII Libros Digesta, qua Nova & Universali Methodo Per Artificiosum Combinationum contextum de omni re proposita plurimis & prope infinitis rationibus disputari, omniumque summaria quaedam cognitio comparari potest.... Johann Jansson van Waesberghe and the Widow of Elizeus Weyerstraet, 1669.

Two parts in one volume, large folio (447x282 mm). The two parts with running collation and foliation. Collation: *4, **4, A-Z4, Aa-Hh4, Kk-Zz4, Aaa-Ooo4, Ppp6. [16], 482, [10] pages. Roman and italic type. Text in two columns. Separate engraved title-pages to both parts, the second one bearing a woodcut printer's device. Between fols. *2 and *3, an engraved portrait of Emperor Leopold, one engraved plate between fols. Ii1 and Ii2 depicting the 'Arbor Philosophica Universae cognitionis Typus'. Four double-page letter-press tables, one folding; engraved diagrams in the text, those on fols. B3r and Y3r with volvelles. Numerous woodcut illustrations, decorated initials, and large tailpieces. Contemporary Amsterdam binding, red morocco over pasteboards. Covers profusely gilt with massed floral and arabesque tools, partly au pointillé. Spine with seven raised bands, similarly gilt; title lettered in gilt 'A. KIRCHE. ARS COMBINAT.'. Comb-marbled pastedowns; board edges decorated with gilt frieze; inside dentelles. Edges speckled red and blue. Binding in very fine condition, especially for a volume of this size; extremities of the spine slightly repaired. A good copy, some browning and foxing, sometimes heavy, as expected. On the title-page, two early inked shelfmarks.

Provenance: Giovanni Paolo Oliva (1600-1681; contemporary ownership inscription on the title-page 'Bibl. P[raepositi] Olivae'); Martin Breslauer, Fine Books and Manuscripts in Fine Bindings. Catalogue 110, New York 1992, no. 107 (his bibliographical notes, dated 22 July 1990, on the front flyleaf); Joost R. Ritman, Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica (bookplate on the front pastedown).

A splendid, large-paper copy of the first edition of the Ars magna sciendi, in a stunning morocco binding executed on behalf of Athanasius Kircher for presentation to Giovanni Paolo Oliva (1600-1681), eleventh general of the Jesuits, whose name appears printed on the approbation leaf in this edition. Oliva was a very close friend of Kircher, demonstrated great interest in his polyhedric research and studies, and gave several formal permissions to print his works.

The Ars magna sciendi is one of the most influential works by the well-known German Jesuit, who was an eclectic scholar, inventor, collector, and founder of the Museum Kircherianum in the Roman College (see no. 226). In this monumental work, which is dedicated to Emperor Leopold I, Kircher builds an exhaustive scientific system based on logical combinations and symbolic logic formulae capable of expressing each truth; it thus represents one of the most celebrated seventeenth-century attempts at creating a universal language for scientists and philosophers to describe and circumscribe all knowledge into a unified system.

In 1661, Kircher – who never left Rome after settling there in 1633 – came into epistolary contact with the Dutch publisher Joannes Jansson van Waesberghe (Janssonius). Jansson was active in Amsterdam from 1651 to 1681; in his later years he entered into partnership with his son-in-law, Elizaeus Weyerstraet. Of Kircher's thirty-four books printed during his lifetime, fourteen were published by Janssonius. As Kircher wrote in his Vita, “It was my wish then that all the books I had previously published should be dedicated by posterity to the magnanimous emperor Ferdinand III and those that appeared after his death to his son the emperor Leopold. All those who read these in later times will admire their splendid production by the Amsterdam bookseller Johannes Janssonius, who has assumed responsibility for the publication and printing of all my books” (The Life of the Reverend Father Athanasius Kircher of the Society of Jesus, p. 495). The Archives of the Jesuit Gregorian University in Rome preserves Jansson's draft contract, written in Amsterdam and dated 29 July 1661, establishing the sum of 2,200 scudi for 'tutti li suoi libri', that is, for publishing all Kircher's books (PUG 563, fol. 244). Kircher also commissioned Jansson to produce luxury bindings for presentation copies, which were to be executed on his behalf by the most renowned binders active in Amsterdam. Among the various craftsmen active in the city at that time, Mirjam Foot has been able to identify a group of 'Kircher-binders' based on the fact that four of the eight luxury bindings she has seen from this group contained works by Athanasius Kircher. This includes the Latium printed by Jansson in 1671, which was perhaps bound for Pope Clemens X and is now preserved in Copenhagen's Koninklijke Bibliotheek.

Father Oliva's presentation copy of the Ars magna sciendi is housed in a sumptuous binding which bears comparison with those executed by Albert Magnus (1642-1689), the most important Dutch bookbinder of the age. Anthony Hobson has attributed to Magnus a very similar binding found on the famous Landau Hely-Hutchinson copy of the same work, held at the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York (PLM 49213; see the Sotheby's sales of 13 July 1948 and 13 March 1956). According to Foot, however, the Morgan binding was in fact not executed by Albert Magnus, but represents rather the only work of an Amsterdam bookbinder of the same professional stature who also belonged to the group of the 'Kircher binders'.

It is very likely this individual used tools based directly on those employed by Magnus, and was probably active in Jansson's printing house.

“One of the binders commissioned was Magnus, another Dr. Foot's 'Kircher Binder' of which she knew eight bindings, four on Kircher's works. Are the two presentation bindings on the 'Ars Magna' the only survivers of a shortlived attempt by Janssonius to establish a bindery of his own, for which he had special tools cut and for which he temporarily employed one of Magnus' craftsmen?” (Breslauer, Catalogue 107, p. 188).

Merrill 22; Caillet II, 360.5771; Clendening 10.17; J. E. Fletcher - E. Fletcher, Study of the Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher, ‘Germanus Incredibilis'. With a Selection of his Unpublished Correspondence and an Annotated Translation of his Autobiography, Leiden-Boston 2011; H. de la Fontaine Verwey, “The Binder Albert Magnus and the Collectors of his Age”, Quaerendo, 1 (1971), pp. 158-178; M. M. Foot, Studies in the History of Bookbinding, London 1979; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 212.

One of the 'One Hundred Famous Books in Science’ — Horblit

214. Steno, Nicolaus (1638-1687)

De solido intra solidum naturaliter contento dissertationis prodromus. Insegna della Stella, 1669.

4° (225x169 mm). Collation: [π]2, A-K4. [4], 78, [2] pages. Complete with fol. [π]1 blank. Roman and italic type. Title-page printed in red and black, with engraved vignette. Seven-line decorated initial on fol. A1r, head- and tailpieces. Large folding plate, with engraved diagram and explanatory letter-press. Contemporary limp vellum, spine with inked title; blue edges. A very good copy, some minor foxing, a few spots.

First edition of this “great work [...] which outlines the principles of modern geology” (DSB), by the Danish anatomist Niels Stensen, better known as Nicolaus Steno, then physician at the Florentine court. The De solido is dedicated to Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

In this work, a cornerstone of geology based on data collected in the Arno Valley, Steno sought to describe the anatomy of the earth and to explain the entire system of nature stratum super stratum. His contributions to plate tectonic theory and to stratigraphy is based on his theory that layers or strata of the earth, which are not horizontal, must have been tilted or folded by a force, such as an earthquake, after they formed. His principle of superposition also applied to other geologic events on the surface, such as lava flows and ash layers from volcanic eruptions.

Although brief in form – the work was only intended as an introduction to a larger work that Steno would never write – the impact of De solido was far greater than its modest size would suggest, establishing important principles of geology and elaborating upon new tools for writing its history. In his treatise, the Danish geologist “described the composition of the earth's crust in Tuscany and a famous diagram in his book shows six successive types of stratification: the first attempt ever made to represent geological sections. This was a sequence which he believed would be found all over the world. He explained the true origin of fossils found in the earth as being remains of once living things and he discriminated between the volcanic, chemical and mechanical modes of the origin of the rocks. He was the first clearly to recognize that the strata of the earth's crust contain the records of a chronological sequence of events from which the history of the earth can be reconstructed. He attempted to find the principles of stratigraphy [...] He deduced that these changes in the original position of the strata are the real causes of the unevenness of the earth's surface. This was in direct contradiction to the accepted belief that mountains had existed ever since the beginning of things or had simply grown” (PMM).

STC 17th Century, 877; Bruni-Evans 5151; Dibner 90; Horblit-Grolier 96; Norman 2013; PMM 151; D.R. Oldroyd, Thinking about Earth, London 1996, pp. 60-76; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 214.

Ex dono Auctoris

219. Meyer, Cornelius (1629-1701)

Nuovi ritrovamenti divisi in due parti con trè Tavole in lingua Latina, Francese, & Ollandese. Parte prima. Delli ordegni per cavar pali. Armature della calamita. Del modo di levare i sassi sott’acqua, e trovar la lega dell’oro, e dell’argento... Rome, Giovanni Giacomo Komarek, 1696. (bound with:) Idem. Alla Santità di N.S. Papa Innocentio XI. Beatissimo Padre. [Rome, Giacomo Antonio de Lazzeri Varese, 1679]. (bound with:) Idem. Nuovi ritrovamenti dati in luce dall’Ingegneiro [sic] Cornelio Meyer per eccitare l’ingegno de’ virtuosi ad aumentarli, ò aggiungervi maggior perfettione... Rome, Giovanni Giacomo Komarek, 1689. (together with:) Idem. L’Arte di restituire à Roma la tralasciata Navigatione del suo Tevere. Divisa in tre parti.... Giacomo Antonio de Lazzari Varese, 1685.

Two volumes containing four works, in near uniform bindings.

First volume. Three works bound together, folio (411x261 mm). I. [28] unsigned leaves, including title-page with a large engraved vignette showing a dragon with the caption 'Drago come viveva il primo di Decembre 1691 nelle paludi fuori di Roma'; dedication to the Grand Duke of Tuscany Cosimo III dated Rome, 22 June 1696; 22 leaves consisting of plates with letter-press explanatory text, all of them half-page (except two full-page and three double-page); 4 leaves of indices in Latin, French, and Dutch. Roman and italic type. II. Collation: A14. [14] leaves. Issued without title-page, opening with dedicatory epistle to Innocent XI. Twelve numbered half-page engravings accompanied by explanatory text below, printed on recto only. Roman and italic type. The plates are partly dated between 1677 and 1679, engraved by Giovanni Battista Falda and Jacques Blondeau, after Meyer. III. Collation: [π]2-1, A-D2, 2D2, E2-1. [12] leaves. Roman and italic type. Typographical ornament on the title-page. Fifteen engravings in the text, two of which are double page. Most of the plates signed by Meyer as designer, and sometimes as both designer and engraver. The double-page astronomical engraving is signed by Ioannes Baptista Honoratus Polustinus.

Contemporary limp vellum. Extremities of the spine damaged. Fine, unsophisticated copy. Worm-tracks on the upper margin of several leaves not affecting the text, some leaves somewhat loose.

Second volume. Three parts, folio (401x265 mm). [92] leaves, 15, [1] pages. All leaves are unsigned, except for fols. [9-10] signed A-A2 and the final 8 leaves signed A-D2. The edition includes: two additional titles with dedication to Innocent XI and a large allegorical engraving present here in two states (one variant has the caption title 'Fluminis Fluctus Letificant Civitatem' written on a cartouche on top of the engraving, while the second version has 'D.O.M.' instead); a letter-press title with a woodcut ornament; sixty-eight engraved illustrations and maps (six double-page, one full-page and the rest half-page). The final 15 pages contain the relations of the Sacra Congregatio riparum Tyberis, and end with the colophon 'Romae, ex Typographia Rev. Cam. Apost., 1685'. The first illustration of part two, a double-page map showing the Delineatione del stagno di Maccarese, is captioned: 'In Roma, nella stamperia di Nicol'Angelo Tinassi, 1681'. The comet plate referred to in the list of plates is absent, in keeping with all other copies. At the bottom of the figura quarta in Part one are two contemporary ink drawings of technical structures. Roman and italic type. Woodcut head- and tailpieces.

Contemporary vellum, over thin boards. Spine with inked title, partly damaged and with a few losses. A genuine copy, with good margins. Some browning and foxing, double-page map of Delinatione del stagno di Maccarese heavily browned.

Provenance: I. Meyer's own inscription 'Ex dono Auctoris' on the verso of the front flyleaf; on the front pastedown nineteenth-century armorial ex-libris of the Odescalchi family, bearing the motto 'per servire s'acquista servi quando poi', and engraved by Michelassi. II. Meyer's own inscription 'Ex dono Auctoris' on the verso of the front flyleaf.

Two-volume set containing four rare first editions by Cornelius Meyer (Cornelis Meijer), both volumes bearing the author's inscription 'Ex dono Auctoris'. Dedication copies of these already rare works are extremely hard to come by separately, and even more so bound together, and in copies complete with all their parts. This is the case of this set, in which the first volume also bears the ex-libris of the Odescalchi family, and it is especially noteworthy that Pope Innocent XI Odescalchi was the patron of Meyer as well as the dedicatee of the second edition bound in this volume.

I. The first work bound – Nuovi ritrovamenti divisi in due parti... Parte prima – though printed seven years later, in 1696, forms the first section of a two-part work, which gathers some of the author's technical inventions and scientific experiments. The second part, Nuovi ritrovamenti dati in luce, was issued first, in 1689, but both texts are clearly related insofar as the index to both parts is printed at the end of the Part one.

The plates show inventions and experiments undertaken by Meyer in Rome and other places like Livorno and Civitavecchia: among others, the large magnet of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, instruments and technical tools to raise cannons and poles from below the sea and to break stones underwater, methods for melting metals, canalization and other hydraulic works, a plan of the harbor of Livorno, fortification works, spectacles, games and curiosities including how to break a glass with a musical instrument, the eclipse of Jupiter's first satellite, a map of the mouth of Po river, chariots, the design of a room, the orbit of a comet, and fountains. One of the plates included here shows the Civitavecchia harbor, where the author recovered the hull of a sunken vessel.

The third work included in the first volume – the one bound in the middle – is the rarest of all three. It was issued without a title-page and opens with a dedication to Innocent XI Odescalchi. Meyer's name appears at the end of the dedication, while the imprint is at the bottom of the last two leaves. As stated in the notice to the reader, with this publication Meyer intended to show to the general public how he so brilliantly completed the first task assigned to him by Clement X upon his arrival in Rome.

Born in Amsterdam, Cornelius Meyer left his country in 1674 for Venice, then a popular destination for Dutch engineers seeking employment. He moved to Rome one year later. Pope Clement X put Meyer in charge of a major project aimed at protecting the Via Flaminia against the flooding of the Tiber. Meyer, whose plans were less expensive than those proposed by the project's former head engineer, Carlo Fontana, constructed a passonata, i.e., a row of piles, in the Tiber, which deflected the river's current away from the Via Flaminia.

II. First edition of Meyer's important work on the restoration of the Tiber River for navigation, L'arte di restituire a Roma la tralasciata navigatione del suo Tevere, which is considered his masterpiece, and is presented here in its second issue (the first issue is dated 1683 on the title-page).

After this first successful work on the Tiber, Clement X and his successor Innocent XI hired Meyer to improve navigation on the river with the purpose of increasing commerce. Meyer came up with revolutionary solutions to expedite travel along the river and in 1683, with the help of artist Gaspar van Wittel, he published his projects in L'arte di restituire a Roma la tralasciata navigatione del suo Tevere. The book, which is divided into three parts, was both a record of Meyer's engineering skills as well as a form of self-promotion for seeking further commissions. It includes a beautiful series of etchings by Meyer himself as well as by Giovanni Battista Falda, Gaspar van Wittel, Jacques Blondeau, Barend de Bailliu, Balthasar Denner, Gomar Wouters, Johannes Collin, and Ioannes Baptista Honoratus Polustinus. It was with his designs in L'arte di restituire that Meyer consolidated his reputation among the artistic and scientific elite of Rome.

Michel & Michel V, p. 161; Cicognara 3791-3792; Olschki 17589; Poggendorff II, 134; Rossetti 7022-7023c; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 219.

A fine association copy, gifted by the author to the Italian historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio

224. Vallisneri, Antonio (1661-1730)

Opere diverse... cioe: I. Istoria del Camaleonte Affricano, e di varj Animali d’Italia. II. Lezione Accademica intorno all’Origine delle Fontane. III. Raccolta di varj Trattati accresciuti con Annotazioni, e con Giunte. Giovanni Gabriele Hertz, 1715.

Three parts in one volume, 4° (231x156mm). [12, including frontispiece], 200; [8], 87, [1]; [4], 261, [3] pages; complete with the last blank leaf. Engraved author's portrait as a frontispiece. Thirty engraved folding plates. Contemporary vellum, ink title on the spine. Marbled edges. A very good copy, pale waterstains to the lower outer margin, small wormholes to the gutter of a few leaves, without any loss.

Provenance: Antonio Vallisneri, given as a gift by him to the Italian scholar and historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio (1695-1756; see Vallisneri's dedication on the recto of the first leaf, 'All'Illmo P.R.D. Francesco Xauerio Quadrio della Comp.a di Gesù L'Authore in segno de riuerentiss.ma Stima, e di eterne obbligazioni').

First edition of this collection of Vallisneri's writings on natural history, offered here in a fine copy gifted by him to the renowned Italian historian Francesco Saverio Quadrio, who is especially well-known for his Della storia e della ragione di ogni poesia, a voluminous history of poetry, theatre, and music.

Antonio Vallisneri was born at Trassilico, in Garfagnana, on 3 May 1661. His education initially followed the traditional path of the Jesuit schools – a path reserved for the sons of the 'best' families of the day. In 1682, he started attending Bologna University, where he became one of Malpighi's students. In 1685, he was awarded a degree from the College of Reggio (Emilia), after which he extended his practical knowledge and experience in Venice, Padua and Parma. He subsequently returned to his homeland, where he practised his profession and simultaneously initiated an extremely intense period of natural history studies. Vallisneri's works and observations evince an original interpretation of the themes and perspectives of the Galileian medical tradition followed by Malpighi and Redi and were positioned along the most advanced front of the debates between natural history and life science that were then under way in Europe. Vallisneri was inclined to set his scientific hypotheses within a general theoretical framework although maintained a Baconian respect for empirical data, and he committed himself to overcoming the limits of Cartesian dualism and mechanism, first with reference to Malebranchian thought and then to that of Leibniz. His teachings were based on his meticulous observations of natural science, particularly in the fields of entomology and comparative anatomy; he was convinced that scientific knowledge is best acquired through experience and reasoning, and this principle was followed in his anatomical dissections and carefully drawn descriptions of insects.

Vallisneri's research into reproduction demonstrated the non-existence of spontaneous generation and anticipated evolutionist theory.

In the collection presented here the Lezione Accademica intorno all'Origine delle Fontane is especially noteworthy. The lucidity of Vallisneri's experimental approach makes it a perfect example of the Galileian method.

Garrison-Morton, 302; Pritzel 9675; M. Sabia, Le opere di Antonio Vallisneri medico e naturalista reggiano (1661-1730). Bibliografia ragionata, Rimini 1996, pp. 106-120; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 224.

The vehicle by which the concept of historical development at last entered the thought of Western Europe — PMM

229. Giambattista Vico (1668-1744)

Principj di una scienza nuova intorno alla natura delle nazioni per la quale si ritrovano i principj di altro sistema del diritto naturale delle genti. All’Eminentiss. Principe Lorenzo Corsini amplissimo Cardinale dedicati. Felice Mosca, 1725.

12° (147x78 mm). 270, [12] pages. Small woodcut ornament on the title-page. Woodcut decorated initials, head- and tailpieces. Contemporary vellum, with yapp edges. Traces of ties, title inked on the spine, renewed flyleaves. A good, clean copy. Small, almost invisible tears in the text, skilfully repaired.

The first edition of the most influential work by the great Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico, whose name appears in the dedication to Cardinal Lorenzo Corsini (the future Pope Clement XII) dated 8 May 1725. Here Vico develops the theory that human history is cyclical. As such, he may be considered the intellectual predecessor of modern philosophers of history such as Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee; his theories on history and religion were also used by James Joyce. “Vico inherited the conception of a cyclical pattern in history, an idea revived in our own day by Spengler and Toynbee [...] it was only in the 19th century that he was rediscovered and his influence has greatly increased since [...] Benedetto Croce has done much to spread the knowledge of Vico's contribution to historical scholarship [...]. The 'Principles of a New Science regarding the Character of Nations' [is] the vehicle by which the concept of historical development at last entered the thought of Western Europe” (PMM).

The 1725 edition was issued in about 1,000 copies on normal paper, and a dozen others were printed on special paper with wide margins. After the dedicatee, Lorenzo Corsini, declined to cover the publication expenses, the philosopher was forced to pay the costs himself; he attempted to condense the text as much as possible but still ended up having to sell a five-carat diamond ring to raise enough money. Vico was also directly involved in the distribution of the book. He personally gave copies of the first edition of the Scienza nuova to friends, and – as we know from his correspondence – he sent copies to pre-eminent European contemporaries, such as Jean Leclerc in Amsterdam, Johann Burckhard Mencke in Leipzig, Charles-Louis Montesquieu in Paris, and Isaac Newton in London.

The edition was sold out immediately, and in 1729 copies were sold for two gold scudi. As Vico states in his Vita “dentro tre anni dalla sua stampa si era fatta rarissima per l'Italia, e se alcuna se ne ne ritruovava, comperavasi a carissimo prezzo” (G. B. Vico, Opere filosofiche, Firenze 1971, p. 47).

Several copies of this edition bear manuscript corrections in the hands of the printer, close collaborators, or Vico himself, as the latter went through as many copies as he could to offer the most correct version of the text.

The present copy contains textual emendations in Italian, which are certainly authorial, added on Vico's behalf in the printing house, emending misprints or inserting words omitted by the compositor: this is the case of the corrections indicated in the margins of fols. C6r, C6v, C7r, H3r, L5r, and M2r. Similar corrections are visible in other recorded copies of the 1725 edition, but in variable numbers, and the list of authorial emendations given in 1931 by Fausto Nicolini as an appendix to the edition of the Scienza nuova is merely partial; it does not include, for example, the corrections indicated, in this copy, in the margins of fols. C6v, C7r and M2r.

This copy contains another extremely uncommon feature, found in only a handful of copies that were generally sent as gifts to distinguished figures or patrons: on the verso of the last leaf of text (fol. M8v) the printer Mosca has skilfully pasted – always on Vico's behalf – a paper slip covering lines 11-13 which contained numerous misprints; the three lines, recomposed, were reprinted on the slip.

B. Croce - F. Nicolini, Bibliografia vichiana, Napoli 1947, pp. 34-41; PMM 184; G. B. Vico, La scienza nuova prima, ed. F. Nicolini, Bari 1931, pp. 325-336; Idem, Principj di una scienza nuova intorno alla natura delle nazioni. Ristampa anastatica dell'edizione 1725, ed. T. Gregory, Roma 1979, pp. 10-15; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 229.

A eulogy for Newton, printed on blue paper

235. Arrighi Landini, Orazio (1718-1755)

Il Tempio della Filosofia. Poema... di Orazio Arrighi Landini fra gli Agiati, Dorinio (i) In cui con accrescimenti, e osservazioni del medesimo Autore s’illustra. (2) il Sepolcro d’Isacco Newton. Con gli Argomenti di Leontippo Accad. Agiato. Marco Carnioni, 1755.

Small 4° (213x142 mm). Printed on blue paper. XVI, 142, [2] pages. Engraved frontispiece signed by Francesco Bartolozzi (1727-1815), bearing two medallions, the first portraying the author, the second showing an allegory of 'LABORE'. Title-page printed in red and black, with engraved vignette depicting an armillary sphere. A folding plate, with an outline of the different philosophical schools and the names of their proponents. Fine engraved decorated initials, head- and tailpieces, the headpiece on fol. *2r including coat of arms of the dedicatee, the Bergamo nobleman Giovanni Battista Gallizioli (1733-1806). Contemporary vellum, over pasteboards. Spine with five small raised bands, marbled pastedowns and flyleaves. A very good copy, printed on strong paper. Pale waterstain to the lower gutter of the first leaves, frontispiece slightly browned. On the verso of the front flyleaf the note '4214 B 3.2' in an early hand. A nineteenth-century hand has annotated '955. I.m.7' on the recto of the rear flyleaf.

Provenance: Gottlieb Schweyer, a Venetian merchant of German origin also known as Amadeus Svajer (1727-1791; his ex-libris on the front pastedown); modern ex-libris, with the initials 'S.B.' on the front pastedown.

A fine copy, printed on blue paper, of this verse and prose work by Arrighi Landini, a member of the Accademia degli Agiati in Rovereto, where he came to adopt the nickname 'Dorinio'.

Divided into three books, the Tempio della filosofia is essentially a panegyric, supplemented with lengthy philosophical observations, of the 'new' physics of Isaac Newton (1643-1727). As an introduction the work contains a short biography of Newton, and the text is replete with references to such scientists and philosophers as Nicolas Malebranche, John Locke, Voltaire (see no. 238), Francesco Algarotti, and Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, among others, whose works had been included in the Index of Forbidden Books. The Tempio della filosofia is dedicated to the philosopher and orientalist Giovanni Battista Gallizioli, and also clearly reveals the influence of Giambattista Vico (see no. 229).

This handsome copy was once owned by the German merchant Gottlieb Schweyer – also known as Amadeus Svajer – who was active in Venice, where he assembled a notable library. After his death in 1791 the library was partially confiscated by the Inquisition, including his collection of manuscripts relating to Venetian politics.

Morazzoni, Il libro illustrato veneziano del Settecento, p. 214; S. Ferrari, “Amadeo Svaier (1727-1791): un mercante erudito nella Venezia del Settecento,” M. Bonazza (ed.), 'I buoni ingegni della Patria'. L'Accademia, la cultura e la città nelle biografie di alcuni Agiati tra Settecento e Novecento, Rovereto 2002, pp. 51-85; A. Battistini, “Tra Newton e Vico: Il tempio della Filosofia di Orazio Arrighi Landini”, G. Cantarutti – S. Ferrari (eds.), L'Accademia degli Agiati nel Settecento europeo. Irradiazioni culturali, Milano 2007, pp. 11-34; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 235.

A Tuscan pioneer of Ballooning

248. Henrion, Francesco (fl. 18th century)

Arte Di scorrere a piacere negli Spazi aerei con le Macchine Aereostatiche, di Francesco Henrion Architetto Pittore Consistente nella Copia del Progetto da esso spedito all’Accademia di Scienze, Arti, e Belle Lettere di Lione in Francia In soluzione del Quesito da essa proposto richiedendo con il medesimo La Maniera la più sicura, La meno dispendiosa, e La più Efficace p[er] dirigere a Piacere le Macchine Aereostatiche. Autograph manuscript on paper, in Italian. Florence, 1785.

233x177 mm. I + 38 + I leaves. Complete. Five quires. Collation: 18, 210, 36, 410, 54. Blank: fol. 5/4. Contemporary foliation in the upper outer corner (with errors). Text written in brown ink. Twelve numbered drawings in ink (ten in the text, two as folding plates, 421x291 mm). Contemporary sprinkled calf, over pasteboards. Covers within blind-ruled fillet. Smooth spine, with title vertically lettered in gilt on morocco label. Marbled pastedowns and flyleaves, green silk bookmark, red edges. A well-preserved manuscript.

An important autograph manuscript by the engineer, architect and mineralogist from Pistoia Francesco Henrion, the most important Italian balloonist of his time.

At the beginning of 1784, only seven months after Joseph and Étienne Montgolfier's first public launch of their ‘globe volant' on 5 June 1783, Henrion launched an 'aerostatic globe' from the Ponte alla Carraia in Florence by releasing a skin-covered frame held over iron filings in a solution of sulphuric acid. Henrion's launch “initiated a frenzy of ascensions in Tuscany including one on 1 February 1784 that 'rose to a great height' but 'caught fire and came down immediately'. This, along with other accidents, led the Grand Duke of Tuscan to issue an edict on 13 April 1784 forbidding such activities in his territory” (M. L. Lynn, The Sublime Invention: Ballooning in Europe, 1783-1820, p. 16).

The present manuscript contains a detailed description, in twelve articoli (or chapters), of this 'macchina areostatica', which Henrion wrote in 1785 in an attempt to win the 1,200-livres prize offered by the Académie des Sciences, Arts et Belles Lettres in Lyon for an essay illustrating the most efficacious and least expensive manner of steering balloons.

The Bibliotèque municipale de Lyon owns the manuscript that Henrion sent to the Lyon Academy (Ms PA 231; cf. Delandine, Manuscripts de la Bibliothèque de Lyon, no. 1233, “Ce manuscrit d'une belle écriture [...] fut adressé à l'Académie de Lyon qui avoit proposé, en 1785, un prix sur ce sujet, et il forma le n. 99 du concours”). The Lyon manuscript is also divided into twelve chapters but contains only ten drawings, while the one offered here includes two additional ones.

Furthermore, on fol. 9r of the present manuscript Henrion left a blank space for inserting a portrait of 'Signor de Mongolfier', which was never realised by the author. Instead, he added a pencilled note 'In questo spazio deve esservi il ritratto di Mongolfier da me tralasciato p[er] non averlo'.

The manuscript described here – and presented by Henrion as a copy of the 'project' sent to the Lyon Academy – is therefore of the greatest importance and value for its inclusion of two additional drawings. It is quite possible that Henrion made a copy of the text sent to the 'Signori Componenti della rispettabile Accademia' (fol. 37v) for his patron, Pietro Leopoldo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Gazzetta Toscana, vol. 19, Firenze 1784, p. 35; A.-F. Delandine, Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque de Lyon, Lyon 1812, III, no. 1233; E. Crochane, Tradition and Enlightenment in the Tuscan Academies 1690-1800, Chicago 1961, p. 149; L.T.C. Rolt, The Aeronauts: A History of Ballooning, 1783-1903, New York 1966; R. Abate, Storia della areonautica italiana, Milano 1974; C. G. Gillespie, The Montgolfier Brothers and the Invention of Aviation: 1783-1184, Princeton, NJ 1983; J. Christopher, Riding the Jetstream: The Story of Ballooning from Montgolfier to Breitling, London 2001; D. Arecco, Mongolfiere, scienze e lumi nel tardo Settecento, Bari 2003 (esp. pp. 179-183); M. R. Lynn, The Sublime Invention: Ballooning in Europe, 1783-1820, London 2010; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 248.

The foundation of Criminology. A dedication copy to the Italian Psychiatric Society

275. Lombroso, Cesare (1835-1909)

L’uomo delinquente studiato in rapporto alla antropologia, alla medicina legale ed alle discipline carcerarie. Ulrico Hoepli, 1876.

8° (225x160 mm). [4], 255, [1] pages. With four illustrations in the text, one of which is pasted on page 65 and reproduces the photograph that three murders made of themselves, as a memory, while miming the crime that they had just committed. Contemporary half-cloth with gilt title on spine. Spine repaired at the extremities. A very good copy, gutter of the first quire reinforced.

Provenance: gifted by Cesare Lombroso to the Società Freniatrica Italiana, i.e., the Italian Psychiatric Society (large paper strip on the half-title, bearing Lombroso's autograph dedication 'per i soci della Freniatrica Italiana / tutti voi / C. Lombroso / Pavia 6 Dic 1883'); the medical-legal physician Angiolo Filippi (1836-1905; pencilled ownership inscription on the half-title leaf).

Rare first edition – in a precious association copy – of the work that marks the birth of criminal anthropology. The book went through five editions in Italian and was published in various European languages, including English in 1900.

Born in Verona to a wealthy Jewish family, Lombroso studied literature, linguistics, and archaeology at the universities of Padua, Vienna and Paris, before becoming an army surgeon in 1859. In 1866 he was appointed visiting lecturer at Pavia and in 1871 he took charge of the mental asylum at Pesaro. He became Professor of Forensic Medicine and Hygiene at Turin in 1878. Later he was appointed as Professor of Psychiatry (1896) and Criminal Anthropology (1906) at the same university.

The Criminal Man, immediately welcomed as extremely innovative in the psychiatric and medical world of the time, is also addressed to judges and lawyers. It illustrates Lombroso's theories on the correlation between somatic and mental deformities with reference to specific factors as atavism, degeneration, and epilepsy. Lombroso also deals with the legal implications of his theories, particularly in relation to the issue of 'moral insanity', understood as a serious disturbance of social behavior. Lombroso was convinced of the pathological nature of the 'born criminal', and is considered the founder of criminology.

“Lombroso [...] maintained that criminals are more often found to suffer from physical, nervous and mental abnormalities than non-criminals, and that these abnormalities are either inherited or the result of physical degeneration [...] 'Criminal Man' was a revolutionary work which not only caused a considerable stir when it first came out but had a practical effect which was wholly beneficial. The division which it indicated between the congenital criminal and those who were tempted to crime by circumstances has had a lasting effect on penal theory. Again, by connecting the treatment of crime with the treatment of insanity, Lombroso initiated a branch of psychiatric research which has cast new light on problems, such as criminal responsibility, which lie at the root of human society” (PMM).

This copy bears Lombroso's autograph address to the Società Freniatrica Italiana, dated 'Pavia, 6 Dic 1883'. The Società Freniatrica Italiana – the Italian Psychiatric Society – was established in 1873, and Lombroso was among its founders. Its fourth congress took place in Voghera, near Pavia, on 16-22 September 1883. Later the volume came into possession of Angiolo Filippi, who was the leading medical-legal authority in Italy at that time. Filippi published the first Italian treatises on forensic medicine – the Principii di medicina legale per gli studenti di legge ed i giurisperiti (Firenze 1889) and the Manuale di medicina legale conforme al nuovo codice penale per medici e giuristi (Milano 1889) - in which some sections are devoted to criminal anthropology. Filippi was in correspondence with Lombroso, with respect to whom he often had differing opinions. Some notes in the present volume, written in his own hand, confirm the critical approach he had towards Lombroso's work, offerring striking testimony to the Italian debate on criminology.

CLIO, Catalogo dei libri italiani dell'Ottocento (1801-1900), IV, p. 2667 (MI185); Garrison-Morton 174; Norman 1384; PMM 394; H. Mannheim, Pioneers in Criminology, Chicago 1960, pp. 168-227; M. Gibson, Born to Crime: Cesare Lombroso and the Italian origins of Biological Criminology, Westport 2002; G. Seppilli - L. Bianchi (eds.), Atti del IV Congresso della Società Freniatrica Italiana tenuto in Voghera dal 16 al 22 settembre 1883, Milano 1883; Philobiblon, One Thousand Years of Bibliophily, no. 275.

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